What is Search Engine?
A search engine is a software system that is
designed to search information’s on the World
The search results are generally presented in a line
of results often referred to as search engine
results pages (SERPs).
The information may be a of web pages, images,
information and other types of files .
Architecture of Search Engines
The architecture of search engine has the following
• Serving Results
Crawling is a process by which Googlebot
discovers publicly available webpages and analyses the
links on those pages by browsing content on the web. The
crawl process begins with a list of web addresses from past
crawls and sitemaps provided by website owners.
The crawler goes from link to link and brings data about
those webpages back to Google’s servers.
(Googlebot -Google Crawler)
The process of saving all the information’s as a
database from those that are collected by the crawler is
The Indexer will have every information that were
crawled such as ,all the words the crawler sees, their location
on each page, key content tags, attributes, internal links,
external links etc..
(Google Page Index is how many pages from your website
that Google has seen and has stored in its database.)
Google essentially gathers the pages during the
crawl process and then creates an index.
The Google index includes information about words
and their locations. When a user search, at the most
basic level, Google’s algorithms look up the search
terms in the index to find the appropriate pages.
The process of fetching out more relevant results
from the Google index, which matches the users query is
called Serving Results.
Based on the users query, Google fetches out
results from the number of pages that google has already
indexed and then displays relevant results to the users
What Is Search Engine
SEO Stands for Search Engine Optimization.
SEO is all about optimizing a web site for Search Engines.
SEO is the process of designing and developing a web site to rank well in
search engine results.
SEO is to improve the volume and quality of traffic to a web site from
SEO is the art of ranking in the search engines.
SEO is marketing by understanding how search algorithms work and what
human visitors might search.
What is a Keyword?
A keyword tells the search engine what
kind of results to bring back to the user (searcher) in
the search results page.
For example , If the user wants to know about
Smartphones, he may search it in different ways such
as, “Smartphone”, “buy Smart phone” ,
“smartphones”, “Latest smartphones”, “Latest
smartphones in market”, etc….
These are said to be the Keywords.
What is Keyword Density?
Keyword density is the number of times
a keyword is found in your page content amidst all
the other content. The keyword density should be 2
to 3 in percentage.
if you have a Web page with exactly 100 words on
it including all headlines, captions, alt text, and
advertising, and you have a keyword phrase that is
on the page 3 times, your keyword density is 3%
Where and How Keywords
Should be used?
Where Are The Keywords Used?
First words of a content
What Helps Google to Index a
• Internal links are links that point from one
page of a website to another page of the same
website. Internal links helps the users and the
search engine robots to navigate and learn the
• Sitemaps helps fast track the information in a
website for the Search Engine Crawlers and make all
of the pages of a site readily available from one
• Inbound link or Backlink are links that come from
another website to your website.
• Outbound link or external links are links that goes
to another website from your website.
How Crawling and Indexing can
• robots.txt: A "robots.txt" file tells search engines whether
they can access (webpages) and therefore crawl parts of your site.
• noindex: It help prevents the page from being indexed.
• nofollow: It prevents the Googlebot from following links from a
• nosnippet: It prevents a snippet from being shown in the search
• noarchive: It prevents Google from showing the Cached link for a
• unavailable_after:[date]: It lets you specify the exact time and
date you want to stop crawling and indexing of this page.
• noimageindex: It lets you specify that you do not want your page
to appear as the referring page for an image that appears in
Google search results.
• none: It is equivalent to noindex, nofollow.
What Is a Page Rank(PR)?
PageRank is what Google uses to
determine the importance of a Web Page. It's one
of many factors used to determine which pages
appear in search results.
PageRank was developed by Google founders Larry
Page and Sergey Brin at Stanford. The name
PageRank likely comes from Larry Page.
How PageRank is Measured?
PageRank is Google's determination of
how popular your website is compared to other sites
on the web.
It ranks the site on a scale by counting the
number of other sites that link to your site
(Backlinks). The more sites that link to you, the higher
your PageRank will be. Depending on how high the
PageRank of the site that links to you is, the more it
will influence your own page's PageRank.
(Backlinks are considered as votes to rank a page)
What are Google Snippets?
Snippets are the few lines of text that appear under every
search result that are designed to give users a sense of what’s on the
page and why it’s relevant to their query.
What is Structured Data?
Structured data helps Google understand the
content on your site, which can be used to display
rich snippets in search results.
Types of Structured Data?
Data Highlighter to now cover eight types of structured data, which
allows webmasters to easily tag key fields on their sites for the
applicable structured data. The tool now includes the following
• Local businesses
• Software applications
• TV episodes
What is a Data HighLighter?
Data Highlighter is a webmaster tool for letting
google know about what pattern of structured data is on
your website. You can tag the data fields on your site with a
mouse. Then Google can present your data more attractively
in search results (Snippets) and in other products such as the
Google Knowledge Graph.
if your site contains event listings you can use Data
Highlighter to tag data (name, location, date, and so on) for
the events on your site. The next time Google crawls your
site, the event data will be available for rich snippets on
search results pages
WHAT IS SCHEMA.ORG?
It is a website that provides a collection of
schemas(syntax), i.e., html tags, that webmasters can use ( in
source code) to markup their pages in ways recognized by
major search providers.
Search engines including Bing, Google, Yahoo! and Yandex
rely on this markup to improve the display of search results,
making it easier for people to find the right web pages.
On-page markup helps search engines understand the
information on webpages and provide richer results
Types of Optimization
• On-Site Optimization
• Off-Site Optimization
• On-site SEO includes the specific actions you take
on your webpages/websites to increase your search engine
• It basically tells search engines and users (searchers) what
each page on your website is about.
• These factors are controlled by you or by the coding on your
• Examples of on-page optimization include actual HTML code,
meta tags, keyword placement, keyword density, etc.
• A title tag should be short but descriptive enough
for your visitors to identify your website or business.
• Out of thousands results that a searcher sees, your site’s
title has to be appealing enough to find out more
• On the other hand, your title has to be appealing
enough so that google can rank you above thousands of
other similar websites like yours.
Meta Tags Optimization
• A site’s Meta description should contain a brief
description of your website focusing on the areas and
services that your business is specialized in.
Important HTML Tags
• It is necessary for you to highlight certain parts of
your website that you want your readers to look at.
• There are several tags in html which allows you to do so.
For instance – the header tags [h1] [h2] [h3], Bold
[strong], Italic [em] etc.
• The text inside your header tags (e.g. [h1]) is given very
high importance by the search engine. Usually you can
use them to define the page/post titles or the important
sections of your website.
• Header 1: Header 1 should be used to define the
most important section of your page. Usually Header 1
is used for Site’s title or header text.
• Header 2 & 3: Header 2 and 3 can be used for Page/Post
titles or important sections of your pages. Separating
your content with headers is a good practice as it makes
your site more readable and easy to navigate.
• Bold: You can bold (e.g. [strong]) certain words
which are of high importance. Sometimes it’s good to
bold your keywords where appropriate. However
overdoing this may get you penalized.
• Italic: You can use the [em] tag to emphasize certain
words which will appear in italic.
• Quote: This is very useful when you are quoting from
Keyword Optimization and
Your site’s content needs to be optimized in such a
way that it can suit both search engines & your readers.
Stuffing your site with too many keywords can make your
site unreadable. So you will need to have some sort of
balance between your keywords & your content.
• Research on Keywords
• Acceptable Keyword Density
• Synonyms and Related Keywords
• Long Tail Keywords
It is important to optimize your internal & external
outbound links for search engines as well as to give your
visitors a better navigation.
• Anchor text
• internal link structure
Use some special tags for your images in order to
give them some meaning.
• Alt text
• image title
• Image Linking
Off-page Optimization is optimization done off the
Page, like getting relevant links from other sites, link
exchange with quality relevant sites, choosing relevant
anchor text from the perfect location on the different
pages of different sites etc.,
SEO Press Releases written in such a way that it will bring
traffic for your keywords and provide your website with
important backlinks that will also help boost up the traffic
for a website.
Article submission is a great resource for increasing traffic
to your website and also getting one way links back to your
Social Media Optimization
Social media optimization (SMO) is a set of methods for
generating publicity through social media, online
communities and community websites
Directory submissions help website owners increase
visibility to search engines, keyword targeting, brand
building, relevant link building and getting listed in major
The practice of exchanging links with other websites. You
place another sites link on your site, usually on a links
page, and in return, the other site places a link on their
site back to you. (Reciprocal link, One-way linking, Multi-
way linking, Forum signature linking, Blog comments, one
Blogs can achieve solid ranking faster than regular
websites. A blog is easier to publish than a regular
website, so you can post content to it more often. Search
engines like websites with frequently updated content.
Essentials while optimizing a
• What Search Engines Are Looking For
• What Search Engines Are NOT Looking For
What Search Engines Like
• Content: Is determined by the theme that is
being given, the text on the page, and the titles and
descriptions that are given.
• Performance: How fast is your site and does it work
• Authority: Does your site have good enough content to
link to or do other authoritative sites use your website
as a reference or cite the information that's available?
• User Experience: How does the site look? Is it easy to
navigate around? Does it look safe? Does it have a
high bounce rate?
What Search Engines Do not like
• Keyword Stuffing: Overuse of keywords on your
• Purchased Links: Buying links will get you nowhere
when it comes to SEO, so be warned.
• Poor User Experience: Make it easy for the user to
get around. If you know your bounce rate it will help
determine other information about your site. For
example, if it's 80 percent or higher and you have
content on your website, chances are something is
What is important for your
• Identify your target audience
• Discover your competitors
• Find out keywords, that your target audience use
• Build content, site structure and internal navigation
with respect to SEO and important keywords
• Public outside your web
• Acquire external links to your website
• Monitor your traffic
• Evaluate results and do improvement