Concrete works

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Concrete works

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Concrete works

  1. 1. Lecture 1Lecture 1-- Concrete WorksConcrete Works Section FSection F ByTantish Kamaruddin Department of Quantity Surveying UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia
  2. 2. INSITU CONCRETEINSITU CONCRETE MEASUREMENT FOR CONCRETE FOUNDATION Types of foundation: 1. Strip foundation 2. Pad foundation 3. Raft foundation 4. Pad foundation/pile caps
  3. 3. F.1 GENERALLYF.1 GENERALLY 1. Particulars of the following shall be given (in description): a. Kind and quality of materials for concrete b.Test required of the materialsb.Test required of the materials c.Test required for the finished materials d. Mix or strength requirement of the concrete
  4. 4. 2. Reinforced work shall be so described. 3. Concrete designed to be waterproof shall be so describe stating the measures to be adopted. 4. Concrete required to be placed by a particular method, poured at stated speed, compacted or cured in apoured at stated speed, compacted or cured in a particular way shall each be so described.
  5. 5. 8. Concrete shall be measured as carried out but NO DEDUCTION shall be made from the quantities measured for the following: a. Volume of any steel embedded in the concrete. b. b.Voids due to boxed or tubular steelwork nob. b.Voids due to boxed or tubular steelwork no exceeding 0.05 m2 sectional area. c. Voids not exceeding 0.05 m3 other than voids in soffits of troughed or coffered slab.
  6. 6. F.2 CLASSIFICATION OF SIZEF.2 CLASSIFICATION OF SIZE 1. Where the thickness is required to be stated (in description) , the classification shall be one of the following categories: Not exceeding 100 mmNot exceeding 100 mm 100 – 150 mm 150 – 300 mm exceeding 300 mm 2.The stated thickness of walls, beds and slabs shall exclude projections and recesses.
  7. 7. F.3 CONCRETE CATEGORIESF.3 CONCRETE CATEGORIES 1.All members unless otherwise stated shall be measured in cubic metre (volume of concrete) and measured separately according to F.3.2 – 21. 2. Foundation in trenches i.e strip foundation. 3. Isolated foundation bases to column and pier stating the numbers(in the description) i.e pad foundation.the description) i.e pad foundation. 5. Ground beams. 7. Pile caps stating the number. 8. Beds which shall include thickening but to exclude upstands, stating the thickness as Clause F.2.1.
  8. 8. F.3 CONCRETE CATEGORIESF.3 CONCRETE CATEGORIES (Cont’d)(Cont’d) 14. Beams, casing to steel beams shall each be measured separately i.e floor beam, roof beam etc. 15. Isolated columns.
  9. 9. REINFORCEMENTREINFORCEMENT F.8 BAR REINFORCEMENT 1. Particulars of the following shall be given: a. Kind and quality of steel i) Mild steel. Symbol – Ri) Mild steel. Symbol – R ii) High tensile/yield steel. Symbol –Y b. Section of bar other than plain circular. c.Tests of bar (in specification) d. Restriction to bending (in specification)
  10. 10. 2. Bar shall be measured in KILOGRAMME or TONNE stating the diameter. Each diameter shall be measured separately. 3. Cutting to length, bends, hooks, tying wire, distance blocks, ordinary spacer shall be deemed to be included in the item.ordinary spacer shall be deemed to be included in the item. 4.The following shall be measured separately: a. Straight and bend bar b. Curved bar irrespective of radius c. Links, stirrups, binders and the like. d. Spacers.
  11. 11. 5. Horizontal bars and bars sloping not more than 300 from horizontal over 12.00m in length shall be so described stating the length in further stages of 3.00m.3.00m. 6.Vertical bars and bars sloping more than 300 from horizontal over 6.00m long shall be so described stating the length in further stages of 3.00m.
  12. 12. F.9 FABRIC REINFORCEMENTF.9 FABRIC REINFORCEMENT Particulars of the following shall be stated in the description: a. Kind and quality of steel b. Section of bars making up the fabric if other than plain circular. c.Test of fabric d. Restriction of bending
  13. 13. 2. Fabric reinforcement shall be measured as the area covered (measured nett – no allowance for laps). No deduction shall be made for voids not exceeding 1.00 m2. 3. Fabric reinforcement shall be measured3. Fabric reinforcement shall be measured in square metre stating the mesh, weight per square metre and the minimum sides and end laps.
  14. 14. FORMWORKFORMWORK F.10 GENERALLY 2.The following shall be deemed to be included in the formwork: a – f :All works related to erection of formwork. 3. Formwork shall be measured to the surfaces of finished3. Formwork shall be measured to the surfaces of finished structure which requires to be supported during deposition of concrete. 4. No deduction s shall be made for voids not exceeding 1.00 m2. 6. Formwork that is permanent character and to be left in shall be so described.
  15. 15. FORMWORK (Cont’d)FORMWORK (Cont’d) 7. Formwork to curved surfaces shall be described stating the geometrical nature and the radius.
  16. 16. F.11 FORMWORK TO FOUNDATION AND BEDSF.11 FORMWORK TO FOUNDATION AND BEDS 1. Formwork to edges and faces of foundations (which includes bases, pile caps and beds) and formwork to ground beams where exceeding 1.00 m high shall each be measured separately in square metres. Where not exceeding 1.00 m high, they shall be measured in linear metre stating the height in the following categories: Not exceeding 250 mm high. 250 – 500 mm high. 500 – 1.00 m high.
  17. 17. F.15 FORMWORK TO PILASTERS ANDF.15 FORMWORK TO PILASTERS AND COLUMNCOLUMN 1. Formwork to pilasters and formwork to isolated column and column casing , defined as column and column casing not contiguous with a wall and where their length on plan does not exceedtheir length on plan does not exceed four times their thickness shall each be measured separately in square metres. 4. No deduction shall be made for beam intersections.
  18. 18. MEASUREMENT FOR STRIP FOUNDATIONMEASUREMENT FOR STRIP FOUNDATION Items to be measured: a. Concrete i) Blindingi) Blinding ii) Footing b. Formwork to sides of footing c. Reinforcement (if any)
  19. 19. MEASUREMENT FOR PAD FOOTINGSMEASUREMENT FOR PAD FOOTINGS Items to be measured: a. Concrete i) Blinding under pad footings ii) Footings b. Formwork to sides of pad footingsb. Formwork to sides of pad footings c. Reinforcement Depending on: i)Type of steel ii) Diameter of steel iii) Shape of reinforcement
  20. 20. MEASUREMENTTO COLUMN STUMPMEASUREMENTTO COLUMN STUMP Items to be measured: a. Concrete to column stump (measured as PROVISIONAL) b. Formwork to sides of column stumps (measured as PROVISIONAL). b. Formwork to sides of column stumps (measured as PROVISIONAL). c. Reinforcement to column stump (measured as PROVISIONAL) i) Main bar ii) Links
  21. 21. NOTE Items for column stump is measured as PROVISIONAL because the height of column stump is dependent on the depth of excavation for pad footing (normally being determine on site during actual excavation). Height of column stump is taken from the top of the pad footing to the top of ground beam.
  22. 22. Project Element/Trade Slip No Heading Description: Unit Quantity Vibrated reinforced concrete Grade 25 as described: Column stump (Provisional) m3 Taker Off Squaring Chk. Squaring Rate 0.30 0.30 3.15
  23. 23. Project Element/Trade Slip No Heading Description: Unit Quantity Taker Off Sawn formwork as described: To sides of column stump (Provisional) m2 4 10 Squaring Chk. Squaring Rate 0.30 2.05 4 10
  24. 24. c. Reinforcementc. Reinforcement Reinforcement to column stump is categorised as PROVISIONAL (similar to concrete and formwork). Consisting of two(2) types: i) Main bars ( High tensile ) ii) Links (Mild steel) 24
  25. 25. Measurement of linksMeasurement of links Length of ONE link: 300 less 2/25 50 (cover) 250250 For 4 sides: 4/250 1000 add 4/5d 120 1120 25
  26. 26. Number of links in column stump:Number of links in column stump: Assuming the height of stump = 2.00 m Centre to centre of links = 150 mm c/c No. of link = 2000 + 1 150 = 14 nos 26
  27. 27. Measurement of main barMeasurement of main bar The length of main bar are measured based on the height of column together with all laps and bends. Normally, there are four(4) main bars in a column stump and high tensile steel are used. 27
  28. 28. GROUND BEAMSGROUND BEAMS Items to be measured: a. Concrete to ground beams Uses vibrated reinforced concrete Grade 20 – 25. Measured in CUBIC METRE (volume ) in accordance with F.3.1 and F.3.5. Length of beams is taken between columns. 28
  29. 29. Project Element/Trade Slip No Heading Description: Unit Quantity Taker Off Vibrated reinforced concrete Grade 25 as described: Ground beam m3 Taker Off Squaring Chk. Squaring Rate 0.40 0.35 3.50 29
  30. 30. b. Formworkb. Formwork Formwork are required to both sides of ground beams. Measured in SQUARE METRE if the height of ground beam exceeds 1.00 m. If the height doesground beam exceeds 1.00 m. If the height does not exceeds 1.00 m then it is measured in LINEAR METRE according to the following categories: ( F.11.1) Not exc. 250 mm high 250 – 500 mm high 500 – 1.00 m high 30
  31. 31. Project Element/Trade Slip No Heading Description: Unit Quantity Taker Off Sawn formwork as described: To sides of ground beam exceeding 250mm but not exceeding 500mm high m Taker Off Squaring Chk. Squaring Rate 3.50 31
  32. 32. c. Reinforcementc. Reinforcement i) Main bar Top main bar Bottom main barBottom main bar ii) Stirrups (similar to links in column ). 32
  33. 33. Measurement of main barMeasurement of main bar Measurement of top main bar is separated from the bottom main bar if: i) Different type of steel are usedi) Different type of steel are used ii) Different diameter Length = Length A + 2/5d 33
  34. 34. Project Element/Trade Slip No Heading Description: Unit Quantity Taker Off 20 mm Diameter high tensile main bar reinforcement as described in ground beam m (later to be converted into kg) Taker Off Squaring Chk. Squaring Rate 4.00 34
  35. 35. Measurement of stirrupsMeasurement of stirrups Similar to the calculation of links in column. Example of description: High tensile bar reinforcement as described:High tensile bar reinforcement as described: 20 mm diameter main bar in ground beam Mild steel bar reinforcement as described: 10 mm diameter as stirrups in ground beam 35
  36. 36. MEASUREMENTMEASUREMENT OF GROUNDOF GROUND FLOORFLOOR BEDBED GROUND FLOOR BED Items to be measured: a. Concrete to beda. Concrete to bed b. Hardcore c. Fabric Reinforcement d. Damp proof membrane e. Sand blinding f. Formwork 36
  37. 37. Concrete to bedConcrete to bed Uses vibrated reinforced concrete Grade 20 – 25. Measurement is in CUBIC METRE ( F.3.1 and F.3.8) and the thickness statedF.3.1 and F.3.8) and the thickness stated according to F.2.1.The volume measured shall be deemed to include any thickening but not inclusive of upstands. Beds forming roads, footpaths and paving shall each be so described. 37
  38. 38. The volume to be measured is in between the ground beam since measurement of concrete to ground beam is measured to the top level.the top level. 38
  39. 39. Vibrated reinforced concrete Grade 25 as described: Ground floor bed thickness exceeding 100 mm not exceeding 150 mm m3 Project Element/Trade Slip No Heading Description: Unit Quantity Taker Off 5.00 3.50 0.15 Taker Off Squaring Chk. Squaring Rate 2.00 1.50 0.13
  40. 40. ReinforcementReinforcement Normally uses fabric reinforcement. Measured in SQUARE METRE ( nett area covered). No allowance for laps and no deduction for voids not exceedingno deduction for voids not exceeding 1.00 m2 (F.9.2 and F.9.3). Normally the area of fabric reinforcement used is similar to the area of ground floor bed. 40
  41. 41. One layer BRC A6 or other equal and approved mild steel fabric reinforcement to BS 1221 (1.55 kg/m2) well lapped at joints with 150 mm sides and ends laps and embedded in concrete bed (measured nett – no allowance made for laps ). m2 Project Element/Trade Slip No Heading Description: Unit Quantity Taker Off 4.00 3.50 Taker Off Squaring Chk. Squaring Rate
  42. 42. Damp proof membrane(DPM)Damp proof membrane(DPM) Layer of plastic based materials laid on hardcore to prevent seepage of water from the ground to the concrete bed.from the ground to the concrete bed. Measured in SQUARE METRE ( nett area covered ). No allowance made for laps. 42
  43. 43. 5mm thick ‘Sika’ or approved equivalent self adhered application polythylene reinforced polymer modified bituminous membrane; well lapped at joints including preparing and pinning based to concrete bed. m2 Project Element/Trade Slip No Heading Description: Unit Quantity Taker Off 4.00 3.50 Taker Off Squaring Chk. Squaring Rate
  44. 44. HardcoreHardcore Usually made of broken bricks or other hard materials and consolidated and blinded with sand.blinded with sand. Act as a base for ground floor bed. Measured in SQUARE METRE and the thickness stated in the description. 44
  45. 45. HardcoreHardcore Usually made of broken bricks or other hard materials and consolidated and blinded with sand.blinded with sand. Act as a base for ground floor bed. Measured in SQUARE METRE and the thickness stated in the description. 45
  46. 46. 150mmThick hardcore m2 Project Element/Trade Slip No Heading Description: Unit Quantity Taker Off 4.00 3.50 Taker Off Squaring Chk. Squaring Rate

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