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Social and Economic Impacts of Hurricanes
 

Social and Economic Impacts of Hurricanes

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To briefly describe the various impacts of a hurricane and to give the social and economic consequences of each. The degree by which any of these can affect the human and physical environment can ...

To briefly describe the various impacts of a hurricane and to give the social and economic consequences of each. The degree by which any of these can affect the human and physical environment can vary. From little to no damage, to the extremes.

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    Social and Economic Impacts of Hurricanes Social and Economic Impacts of Hurricanes Presentation Transcript

    •  A hurricane is a tropical storm with winds which have reached a constant speed of 119km/hr. Hurricane winds blow in a large spiral around a relatively calm centre known as the eye.As a hurricane nears land, it can bring torrential rains, high winds and storm surges. The storm surges along with heavy rains can lead to flooding.Landslides are also associated with the heavy rains from a hurricane.
    •  A TROPICAL DISTURBANCE is the first stage of development of a hurricane. It consists of a mass of thunderstorms that have only a slight wind circulation. A TROPICAL DEPRESSION forms when a group of thunderstorms comes together under the right atmospheric conditions for a certain length of time. Winds near the center of the tropical depression are constantly between 20 and 34 knots (23 - 39 mph). Lowered pressure is indicated with at least one closed isobar on a surface pressure chart. Also, the organized circulation of wind in the center of the thunderstorms is detected. A TROPICAL STORM forms when the maximum sustained winds have intensified to between 35-64 knots (39-73 mph). It becomes better organized and begins to look like a hurricane with a circular shape. At this point, the storm is given a name. Most of the problems from tropical storms come from heavy rainfall. A HURRICANE finally forms when surface pressures continue to drop and when sustained wind speeds reach 64 knots (74 mph). There is also a definite rotation about the eye.
    •  Given the potential havoc and destruction caused by hurricanes, there are certain damages that will definitely accompany a hurricane such as: Rainfall Induced Flooding Storm Surge Winds Tornadoes Landslides Each of these effects will have an impact on the physical environment resulting in social and economic consequences of varying degrees.
    •  This is where the flooding originates from the torrential rainfall. Torrential rainfall is synonymous to heavy rains.Floods have tremendous socio-economic impact.
    •  It’s main effect is to retard development. A flood stricken area must first be restored to normal before any development can take place. Restoration takes time.o The damage done is incalculableo In addition to the directly determinable losses may be added to the indirect potential losses. This results from lack of productivity in many areas i.e business, commerce, trade etc. All these losses can wipe out whatever gains that may have been achieved in economic development.
    •  The social trauma inflicted on the people usually has a short term inhibiting effect on the community’s drive. Hence a little time can elapse before there is any concerted move before normalisation can take place Flooding usually has an adverse effect on health because it brings about infectious diseases example military fever, pneumonic plague, break bone fever and common cold. Also for areas which have no electric supply due to flooding, food poisoning may occur as food may not be properly preserved.
    • Two factors that cause a storm surge are: Strong winds that push the water toward the coast Suction created by the storm’s low pressureStorm surges pose the greatest danger to life and property as these surges can reach height of 20 feet and travel several miles inland. Salt water intrusion endangers public health and the environment.SOCIAL: Loss of life due to drowningECONOMIC: Buildings destroyed. Road and bridge damage along the coast.This can cost millions of dollars to repair, thereby increasing the deficit in the country’s budget, resulting in economic downfall, especially if sufficient budget preparations were not made for the unforeseen natural disaster.
    • Winds are responsible for most of the structural damage done during hurricanes.Category 1Types of Damage Due to Hurricane Winds Very dangerous winds will produce some damage: Well-constructed frame homes could have damage to roof, shingles, vinyl siding and gutters. Large branches of trees will snap and shallowly rooted trees may be toppled. Extensive damage to power lines and poles likely will result in power outages that could last a few to several days.Category 2Types of Damage Due to Hurricane Winds Extremely dangerous winds will cause extensive damage: Well-constructed frame homes could sustain major roof and siding damage. Many shallowly rooted trees will be snapped or uprooted and block numerous roads. Near-total power loss is expected with outages that could last from several days to weeks.
    • Category 3Types of Damage Due to Hurricane Winds Devastating damage will occur: Well-built framed homes may incur major damage or removal of roof decking and gable ends. Many trees will be snapped or uprooted, blocking numerous roads. Electricity and water will be unavailable for several days to weeks after the storm passes.Category 4Types of Damage Due to Hurricane Winds Catastrophic damage will occur: Well-built framed homes can sustain severe damage with loss of most of the roof structure and/or some exterior walls. Most trees will be snapped or uprooted and power poles downed. Fallen trees and power poles will isolate residential areas. Power outages will last weeks to possibly months. Most of the area will be uninhabitable for weeks or months.Category 5Types of Damage Due to Hurricane Winds Catastrophic damage will occur: A high percentage of framed homes will be destroyed, with total roof failure and wall collapse. Fallen trees and power poles will isolate residential areas. Power outages will last for weeks to possibly months. Most of the area will be uninhabitable for weeks or months.
    • The sliding down of mass of earth or rock. This usually fabricates by heavy rainfall.SOCIAL: DeathECONOMIC: Property damage Adverse effects on resources. Example: water supplies, fisheries and sewage disposals. Economic effects of landslides also include the cost to repair structures, loss of property value, disruption of transportation routes, medical costs in the event of injury, and indirect costs such as lost timber and lost fish stocks. Water availability, quantity and quality can be affected by landslides.
    •  This is probably the least thought of effect of a hurricane, but they do occur. Tornadoes occur in a hurricane as a result of the tremendous energy and instability created when a hurricane makes landfall. Most tornadoes that occur in hurricanes are only minimal in strength
    • HURRICANE FLORA  Deaths: 1,750 Trinidad and Tobago  Damage(USD): $500 million Deaths:24  Jamaica Damage(USD)$30 million  Deaths: 11 Grenada  Damage(USD): $11.9 million Deaths: 6  Bahamas Damage(USD): $25,000  Deaths: 1 Dominican Republic  Damage(USD): $1.5 million Deaths: 400+  Total Deaths: 7,193 Damage(USD):$60 million  Total Damage(USD): Haiti $773.4 million Deaths: 5,000 Damage(USD): $180 million Cuba
    • HURRICANE TOMAS  Deaths: 0 Barbados  Damage(USD): $0.63 million Deaths: 0  Curaçao Damage(USD): $8.5 million  Deaths: 2 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Damage(USD):$115 million Deaths: 0  Cuba Damage(USD): $28.8 million  Deaths: 34 Saint Lucia  Damage(USD): unknown Deaths: 14  Haiti Damage(USD):$588 million  Deaths: 21 Martinique  Damage(USD): unknown Deaths: 0  Total Deaths: 71 Damage(USD)unknown  Total Damage(USD):~$741 million Trinidad and Tobago
    • In conclusion, hurricanes have a negative impact on both the human and physical environment. They are natural disasters, which cannot be prevented or stopped from occurring. Due to technological advancements made in the last few decades though, hurricane formation can be spotted very early and their progress tracked and predicted. Hurricane warnings are then issued to places possibly and definitely in danger.Nonetheless, you can never guarantee your safety in the engine of destruction, the hurricane.
    •  http://www.stopdisastersgame.org/en/pdf/Hurricane_fact-sheet.pdf http://geo-mexico.com/?tag=hurricanes http://www.hurricaneville.com/effects.html http://teachertech.rice.edu/Participants/louviere/hurricanes/effects.html http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=149634 http://www.empr.gov.bc.ca/MINING/GEOSCIENCE/SURFICIALGEOLOGYANDHAZARDS/LAND SLIDES/Pages/Howdolandslidesaffectus.aspxEt al