Chapter 9 Launching the New Government


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Chapter 9 Launching the New Government

  1. 1. Launching the New Government Chapter 9 pp. 276 – 297
  2. 2. Section 1: Washington Takes Office <ul><li>Main Idea: </li></ul><ul><li>As the nation’s first President, George Washington faced many challenges , including how to organize the new government and build a strong economy. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Washington’s First Steps… <ul><li>After his inauguration, Washington’s decisions set precedents for future presidents. </li></ul><ul><li>Precedent - to set an example for others to follow in the future… for example Washington did not seek a third term … and neither did any other president until 1940 . </li></ul>
  4. 4. The First Administration… <ul><li>The First Cabinet had 5 departments that advised Washington: </li></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><li>Treasury </li></ul><ul><li>War </li></ul><ul><li>Attorney General </li></ul><ul><li>Postmaster General </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the President’s Cabinet are called SECRETARIES . </li></ul><ul><li>They advise the president and direct their departments. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Judiciary Act of 1789 <ul><li>This act did the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and 5 Associate Justices (First Chief Justice was John Jay ) </li></ul><ul><li>Also set up the system of lower federal courts . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reducing the Nation’s Debt … <ul><li>Alexander Hamilton wanted to reduce the national debt by issuing bonds. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The government would pay back the money borrowed once the U.S. Economy improved. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Opposition to Hamilton’s plan… <ul><li>James Madison said that Hamilton’s plan would reward the wrong people. </li></ul><ul><li>Madison also believed that the states should pay back their own debt (and not be “ bailed out ” by the federal government) </li></ul><ul><li>Hamilton said that the debt needed to be paid back fully to strengthen the economy. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hamilton’s Compromise <ul><li>The Southern States would accept Hamilton’s plan if the capital was moved to the South. </li></ul><ul><li>The District of Colombia was created on the banks of the Potomac River in 1800. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Bank of the United States <ul><li>Hamilton created The Bank of the United States: </li></ul><ul><li>Print paper currency </li></ul><ul><li>Loan money to farmers and businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Deposit tariff money (taxes) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Economic Stimulus <ul><li>Hamilton wanted a high tariff (tax) on imported goods to protect American manufacturers (mostly Northern factories). </li></ul><ul><li>The South was opposed to this because they bought the majority of imported goods. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise: A low tariff was placed on imported goods. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Whiskey Rebellion <ul><li>A tax was placed on all liquor made/sold in the U.S. to raise money for the U.S. Treasury. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers of corn (the main ingredient of whiskey) rebelled by marching and tarring and feathering tax collectors . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington called up the militia who ended the rebellion. Washington pardoned the leaders. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Section 2: Creating a Foreign Policy <ul><li>Main Idea: </li></ul><ul><li>As the French Revolution and wars raged in Europe, President Washington steered a neutral course in foreign affairs. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The French Revolution <ul><li>1789, French citizens rebel against King Louis XVI. </li></ul><ul><li>Like Americans, they wanted liberty and equality . </li></ul><ul><li>Americans supported the French at first because they identified with the French struggle for liberty. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support became divided in America (1793) due to increasing French violence. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Violence Stirs Division <ul><li>Thomas Jefferson : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French had the right to use violence to win freedom. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alexander Hamilton and John Adams : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy could not be won through violence. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. U.S. Remains Neutral <ul><li>Foreign Policy – actions one nation takes in relation to other nations. </li></ul><ul><li>The French wanted to use American supplies and ports to stage attacks on the British. </li></ul><ul><li>Washington’s biggest foreign policy issue was remaining neutral in European wars while still honoring its obligations to France. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Division in the Cabinet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson wanted to support the French… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamilton argued that since Louis XVI was dead, the treaty was no longer in effect. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington decides that the U.S. would not aid either side of the conflict. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Struggling to Remain Neutral <ul><li>Britain captured 250 American ships trading in the French West Indies . </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of war, John Jay was sent to negotiate . </li></ul>
  18. 18. Jay’s Treaty (1795) <ul><li>Britain paid for seized ships & gave up forts in the West . </li></ul><ul><li>America agreed to pay back debt to British merchants . </li></ul><ul><li>Some disapproved of this treaty because it didn’t protect American ships. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Washington’s Farewell Address (1796) <ul><li>Washington believed in trade with other nations, but wanted America to stay out of European politics . </li></ul><ul><li>This idea guided the foreign policy of America for many years. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Section 3: Political Parties Emerge <ul><li>Main Idea: </li></ul><ul><li>Two political parties were formed during the 1790’s, the Federalists and the [Democratic] Republicans. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Distrust of Parties <ul><li>Factions – opposing groups within [the same] political parties. </li></ul><ul><li>People believed that factions led to corruption (political favors and bribes). </li></ul><ul><li>People also believed that parties would divide the nation. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Differing Views <ul><li>Basis of the Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing and trade / growth of cities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Fed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Power of the Federal Government v. State Governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Govt. should be stronger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Fed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Govt. should be as small as possible. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpreting the Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loose (“Elastic Clause”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Fed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strict (10 th Amendment) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Foreign Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pro- Britain for trade and economic reasons. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Fed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pro- France for political reasons </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Section 4: The Second President <ul><li>Main Idea: </li></ul><ul><li>As President, John Adams pursued policies that made the Federalists increasingly unpopular . </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>The French objected to Jay’s Treaty (it was pro-Britain) </li></ul><ul><li>France started capturing American ships. </li></ul>Conflict with France
  25. 25. <ul><li>Maurice de Talleyrand sent 3 agents (identified to Congress by Adams as X,Y,Z) to meet with the American diplomats. </li></ul><ul><li>They wouldn't start negotiations without a $10 million loan to France and a $250,000 payment to Talleyrand himself. </li></ul><ul><li>The XYZ Affair angered Americans who saw it as France trying to extort money our country. </li></ul>The XYZ Affair
  26. 26. Adams keeps the U.S. from war… at a cost. <ul><li>Adams would not ask Congress to declare war . </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, he had frigates built to intimidate the French Navy. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Federalists didn’t like Adams’ decision to negotiate with Napoleon; it divided the party. </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Federalist Party Splits <ul><li>Hamilton and many other Federalists favored war with France. </li></ul><ul><li>Adams and other Federalists wanted peace. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Alien and Sedition Acts <ul><li>Alien Acts </li></ul><ul><li>The President could deport any foreigner who may pose a threat to America and extended the citizenship wait from 5 to 14 years. </li></ul><ul><li>This prevented people from voting to support the Republicans. </li></ul><ul><li>Sedition Act </li></ul><ul><li>People could be fined or jailed for criticizing the government. </li></ul><ul><li>This targeted Republican newspaper writers. </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions <ul><li>Kentucky and Virginia issued claims nullifying a federal law they considered unconstitutional . </li></ul><ul><li>These resolutions brought into question states’ rights and the power of the 10 th Amendment. </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Election of 1800 <ul><li>A very confusing election. </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson and Burr ran together as Republicans against John Adams. </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson and Burr both won but tied for President and Vice-President, because the Electoral College did not vote for each position separately. </li></ul><ul><li>The House of Representatives took 4 days and 36 votes to break the tie. </li></ul><ul><li>This caused the 12 th Amendment (a separate electoral vote for President and Vice President) </li></ul><ul><li>Since this amendment, transitions became peaceful. </li></ul><ul><li>After losing the Election of 1800, the Federalist Party declined (Party leader Alexander Hamilton was killed in a duel with V.P. Aaron Burr). </li></ul>