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Chapter 7  Creating a Republic
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Chapter 7 Creating a Republic

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The creation of a new U.S. government

The creation of a new U.S. government

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  • 1. Creating a Republic Chapter 7 pp. 198 - 221
  • 2. Section 1: A Loose Confederation
    • The Articles of Confederation created a weak central government and a loose alliance of independent states.
  • 3. Each state writes a constitution…
    • Cause:
    • The states’ needed to define their governments.
    • CONSTITUTION:
    • - A document that sets out the laws, principles, organization, and processes of government.
    • Effect:
    • The rights of citizens were defined.
    • Limits were placed on governments’ power.
  • 4. Articles of Confederation provided a weak central government…
    • Cause:
    • The Continental Congress believed the states needed to be united, but found it difficult to create a constitution for ALL the states.
    • Effect:
    • The A.O.C. was weak because:
    • 9 (of 13) states had to agree to any law.
    • Trade was not regulated.
    • States did not have to contribute money to the Federal Government.
    • No President (to enforce laws).
    • No Courts (to settle disputes ).
  • 5. State size created problems…
    • Cause:
    • Maryland wouldn’t sign the A.O.C. unless larger states gave up lands in the Appalachian region
    • (Small states feared the bigger states having more power)
    • Effect:
    • States eventually ceded (gave up) those lands.
    • Virginia didn’t want to, but Thomas Jefferson made it happen in order to form a central government.
  • 6. U.S. owed money to people and countries borrowed during the Revolution
    • Cause:
    • The U.S. owed money (war debts) but couldn’t tax the states to raise the funds.
    • Effect:
    • The Federal Government printed currency (paper money and coins).
    • Federal money was worthless (not backed by gold or silver ).
    • States printed their own money and people got confused.
  • 7. The Northwest Ordinance :
    • Cause :
    • Laws needed to be created to settle open lands
    • Effect :
    • Land Ordinance of 1785:
    • Divided open lands into townships and be sold for people to settle.
    • Northwest Ordinance :
    • Set up government
    • Outlined basic rights
    • Outlawed slavery in NW Territory.
  • 8. Problems …
    • The NW Ordinance was a good thing but…
    • The economy was still bad, causing a depression :
    • *Business slows  prices/wages fall  unemployment rises
    • (Daniel) Shays’ Rebellion :
    • 1. Farmers in Massachusetts suffering under heavy taxes.
    • 2. Courts seized farms of people who didn’t repay debt.
    • 3. Shays led 1000 farmers in attacks against courts.
    • 4. Mass. Militia drove them away.
    • Basically, the A.O.C. didn’t work.
    • Something else needed to be created…
  • 9. Section 2: The Constitutional Convention
    • Delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 had to compromise on key issues in order to create a new constitution.
  • 10. Virginia Plan – Randolph and Madison
    • Strong National Government
    • 3 Branches
      • Legislative – Create and Pass Laws
      • Executive – Carry-out ( execute ) laws
      • Judicial – Judge the fairness of laws
    • TWO HOUSES in Congress, ALL seats based on POPULATION
    • QUESTION: Why may a state like New Jersey or Maryland oppose this plan?
  • 11. New Jersey Plan - Paterson
    • Same three branches with the same responsibilities
    • Congress would be ONE HOUSE…
    • with each state having ONE VOTE.
    • QUESTION: Is this fair? To whom?
  • 12. The Great Compromise – Roger Sherman
    • Two House Legislature:
    • Two senators from each state
    • Chosen by the States’ Legislature
    • (ex. Mass. Legislature would chose the two senators)
    • Elected by Popular Vote
    • Seats / Votes based on POPULATION
    Senate House of Representatives
  • 13. Other Issues at the Convention…
    • Slave Trade:
    • Northern States wanted to ban slavery.
    • Southern states didn’t (there economy was dependent on it).
    • COMPROMISE* :
    • After 20 years, Congress could regulate slavery (if it wanted)
    • Slaves had to be returned to their owner if claimed.
    • Slave Population:
      • Northern States believe that slaves should NOT be counted in population, because they could not vote.
      • Southern States thought the opposite.
    • COMPROMISE
    • Three-Fifths Compromise
    • 3/5 of slaves would count in population.
  • 14. Section 3: Ideas Behind the Constitution
    • In writing the Constitution, Americans drew on ancient traditions, Enlightenment ideas, and their own experience.
  • 15. Influences of Rome
    • John Adams proposed that the delegates looked to Ancient Civilizations (Greece and Rome) for inspiration…
    • Idea of a republic.
      • (a government where citizens rule themselves through elected representatives)
  • 16. Lessons of Rome
    • Good:
    • Politicians served for the PEOPLE, not MONEY.
    • Americans used Rome as a model for their political debates ; often signed political essays as “Cincinnatus” or “Cicero.”
      • For example: The Society of the Cincinnati were Revolutionary War veterans (3+ years of service)
    • Bad:
    • Rome made many mistakes.
    • Founding Fathers were cautious of dictatorships (governments where one person or group has total power)
    • Republics were vulnerable from both the outside (invasion) and inside (decay).
  • 17. Great Britain’s Influence
    • Despite the war, the Founding Father’s looked to England for influence as well.
    • The Constitution was influenced by the MAGNA CARTA (1215)
    •  King had to obey the laws and could not raise taxes without consulting the nobility
  • 18. Another English Influence…
    • The English Bill of Rights (1689)
    • Elections for Parliament held regularly
    • The right to a TRIAL BY JURY
    • Keep and bear arms (own guns)
    • HABEAS CORPUS –
    • No person can be held against their will without being charged with a crime.
  • 19. Early American Influence
    • Americans had experience with self-government . (House of Burgesses and the Mayflower Compact)
    • Constitution’s goal was to avoid the grievances listed in the Declaration.
      • Ex. The President was Commander in Chief of the army to prevent the military from overruling civilian authority.
  • 20. The Enlightenment Influence
    • John Locke (1690)
      • Two Treatises on Government.
    • Life, Liberty, and Property (Natural Rights)
    • Government is an “ agreement ” between the ruler and the ruled.
    • People have the right to rebel against a ruler who violates natural rights.
    • Baron de Montesquieu (1748)
      • Spirit of Laws
    • Stressed the importance of government powers divided.
    • Suggested the 3 branches SEPARATION OF POWERS ):
    • Legislative
    • Executive
    • Judicial
  • 21. Section 4: Ratification and the Bill of Rights
    • After heated debates, the 13 states voted one by one to approve the new Constitution.
  • 22. Federalist vs. Antifederalists
    • Federalists : favored strong federal (national) government
    • Antifederalists : opposed the Constitution (believed more power should go to the states)
  • 23.
    • Federalists’ believed…
      • that Articles of Confederation gave too much power to the states, causing a weak and unstable federal government.
      • the Constitution would make the federal government run efficiently while preserving the rights of individual states.
    • Antifederalists’ believed…
      • the Constitution made the national government too strong .
      • weakened the states.
      • gave the President too much power.*
        • (Washington was good, but they worried about future presidents.)
  • 24. The Federalist Papers
    • Series of essays by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay
    • Written to explain and defend the idea of a Constitution
    • Written under pen names , but most people knew who they were anyway
  • 25. Ratification
    • Ratify – To approve [the Constitution]
    • Federalists – wanted to ratify the Constitution without a bill of rights. They said it would be impossible to list everyone’s natural rights.
    • Antifederalists – would not ratify unless a bill of rights was included. They said it was needed to protect basic rights (religion speech, etc…)
  • 26. Ratification First Group to Ratify: Delaware (1), Pennsylvania (2), and New Jersey (3) Massachusetts was a battleground state, but did ratify after much debate (6). More states ratified… then New Hampshire (9) The last states to ratify were Virginia, New York, and North Carolina. (10, 11, 12) Finally, Rhode Island ratified as the 13th and final state. The country celebrated; with Philadelphia holding a festival July 4th, 1778 Winter 1787-1788 Into Spring 1788 Summer 1788
  • 27. The Bill of Rights
    • Some states ratified the Constitution on the condition that a bill of rights was added later.
    • Amend – to change [the Constitution]… The framers made it a difficult process.
    • The new federal government came up with 12 amendments, however only 10 were ratified. These became the Bill of Rights .
    How many of the Ten Amendments can you name? 1._________________________ 2._________________________ 3._________________________ 4._________________________ 5._________________________ 6._________________________ 7._________________________ 8._________________________ 9._________________________ 10.________________________
  • 28.  
  • 29. Check out… the handout !