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Chapter 5   Crisis in the Colonies
 

Chapter 5 Crisis in the Colonies

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Events leading to the Revolutionary War

Events leading to the Revolutionary War

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    Chapter 5   Crisis in the Colonies Chapter 5 Crisis in the Colonies Presentation Transcript

    • Crisis in the Colonies Chapter 5 pp. 138 - 163
    • Section 1: The French and Indian Way
      • Britain’s victory in the French and Indian War marked the end of the French empire in North America
    • Conflict in the Ohio Valley
      • The French feared the loss of fur trading in the Ohio Valley to English settlers.
      • The area was geographically important to the French as a link from Canada to settlements along the Mississippi River.
    • The French and Indian War (1754-1763) (England against France and its Native American allies)
      • France allied with the Algonquin and Huron tribes.
      • French traders built alliances through trade and marriages with Native women.
      • England allied with the Iroquois tribe.
      • The Iroquois were enemies of the Algonquin and Huron tribes.
      • England also charged lower prices for goods to build allegiances.
    • Washington and the F. and I. War
      • Washington was a land surveyor who attacked the French in the Ohio Valley. (1754)
      • He was eventually captured, then released.
    • Albany Plan of Union
      • During a meeting in Albany, NY, Benjamin Franklin proposed a “ general government ” for the 13 colonies.
        • Make laws
        • Collect taxes
        • Plan for defense
      • The delegates at the meeting approved it, but each of the colonial assemblies rejected it (the didn’t want to give their individual power).
    • Summary of the F. and I. War
      • Britain lost many battles for the first two years of the war.
      • William Pitt then sent his best generals to lead the war in 1757.
      • In 1759, the British led and attack on the New French capital of Quebec (located on a high cliff called the Plains of Abraham ).
    • The Treaty of Paris (1763)
      • Britain gained Canada and all French lands East of the Mississippi (plus Florida from Spain).
      • France kept two islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and its sugar-growing islands in the West Indies .
      • Spain gained all French lands west of the Mississippi including the Port of New Orleans .
    • Section 2: Turmoil over Taxes
      • Many colonists opposed Parliament’s attempts to tighten control over Britain’s North American Empire.
    • New Troubles on the Frontier
      • Pontiac’s War – an Ottawa chief led attacks against the British, but without French support , it ended.
      • Proclamation of 1763 – prohibited any English settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains and forced the colonists to pay for British troops in the border area.
    • Britain Imposes New Taxes … at the colonists’ expense of course.
    • Two New Tax Policies from British Parliament
      • Sugar Act (1764)
        • Actually lowered a very high tax on molasses.
        • BUT … it made molasses smugglers more easily brought to trial.
      • Stamp Act (1765)
        • Placed a new tax on all legal documents (wills, diplomas, marriage papers)
        • Also taxed most goods made of paper (newspapers, playing cards… and dice!)
        • All goods had to have a legal stamp on it, proving you paid the tax .
    • “ No taxation without representation!”
      • Colonists were upset they were not included in these decisions.
      • They participated in peaceful protests to have the Stamp Act repealed (canceled).
      • Petition – a formal request to the authorities signed by people .
      • Boycott – Refuse to buy certain goods or services.
      • Committee of Correspondence – Regular, organized letter writing to other colonies, reporting the situation in Massachusetts.
    • The Sons (and Daughters!) of Liberty
      • To protest a tax on household goods and writs of assistance , (Townshend Acts) colonists organized their protests.
      • Samuel Adams was a famous “Son of Liberty” and was active in organizing protests and boycotts.
    • The Boston Massacre
    • March, 5, 1770
      • A crowd of colonists were heckling British Regulars (soldiers) at the Boston Custom house.
      • The soldiers were attacked with ice balls and oyster shells .
      • The soldiers fired into the crowd, killing 5 people.
      • John Adams was the lawyer for the soldiers, who successfully defended them.
    • Section 3: From Protest to Revolution
      • Crises such as the Boston Tea Party and the Intolerable Acts led to the outbreak of fighting between Britain and her colonies.
    • The Boston Tea Party
    • December 16, 1773
      • Colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians dump tea into Boston Harbor.
      • This was to protest British tea companies ability to sell directly to colonists at a lower rate .
      • Colonists’ believed the issue was not the tea, but Parliament’s ability to tax the colonies .
    • The Intolerable Acts (British response to the Tea Party)
      • Boston Harbor closed … no ships in or out until the colonists paid for the tea.
      • Colonists could not hold meetings more than once a year without permission .
      • Trial juries were now chosen by British officials .
      • British customs officials accused of crimes could be tried out of the colonies.
      • British soldiers could move into the homes of the colonists if no other housing was “available.”
    • Type 1 … Why were these “intolerable” conditions so bad?
      • For each of the “Intolerable Acts,” write a sentence or two describing how you think they would negatively effect the colonists.
    • First Continental Congress
      • Held September 1774 in Philadelphia .
      • Representatives from all colonies (except Georgia) agreed to boycott British goods and stop exporting good to England until the Intolerable Acts were repealed .
      • Each colony was urged to establish and train a militia .
    • “ The Shot Heard Round the World”
    • Militia and “Minutemen”
      • Militia – Citizens who serve as soldiers during an emergency.
      • Minutemen – Massachusetts militia who were ready to fight “at a minute’s notice.”
    • “ The redcoats are coming!” April 17-18, 1775
      • A group of British soldiers left Boston to seize a weapons cache held by the Sons of Liberty.
      • The [S. of L.] sent out midnight riders including Paul Revere to warn and muster the militia to protect the weapons.
    • Battle of Lexington
      • British forces outnumbered the 70 militia who started to leave before someone fired a shot , starting a short firefight.
      • The British killed 8 colonists and moved on to…
    • Battle of Concord
      • After finding no weapons, the British headed back to Boston only to be faced by 300 minutemen on a bridge.
      • The British were forced to retreat after being shot at by militia and sharpshooters in the woods.
      • 73 Redcoats killed, 200 wounded or missing.
    • So what happens now?