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  • 1. Crisis in the Colonies Chapter 5 pp. 138 - 163
  • 2. Section 1: The French and Indian Way
    • Britain’s victory in the French and Indian War marked the end of the French empire in North America
  • 3. Conflict in the Ohio Valley
    • The French feared the loss of fur trading in the Ohio Valley to English settlers.
    • The area was geographically important to the French as a link from Canada to settlements along the Mississippi River.
  • 4. The French and Indian War (1754-1763) (England against France and its Native American allies)
    • France allied with the Algonquin and Huron tribes.
    • French traders built alliances through trade and marriages with Native women.
    • England allied with the Iroquois tribe.
    • The Iroquois were enemies of the Algonquin and Huron tribes.
    • England also charged lower prices for goods to build allegiances.
  • 5. Washington and the F. and I. War
    • Washington was a land surveyor who attacked the French in the Ohio Valley. (1754)
    • He was eventually captured, then released.
  • 6. Albany Plan of Union
    • During a meeting in Albany, NY, Benjamin Franklin proposed a “ general government ” for the 13 colonies.
      • Make laws
      • Collect taxes
      • Plan for defense
    • The delegates at the meeting approved it, but each of the colonial assemblies rejected it (the didn’t want to give their individual power).
  • 7. Summary of the F. and I. War
    • Britain lost many battles for the first two years of the war.
    • William Pitt then sent his best generals to lead the war in 1757.
    • In 1759, the British led and attack on the New French capital of Quebec (located on a high cliff called the Plains of Abraham ).
  • 8. The Treaty of Paris (1763)
    • Britain gained Canada and all French lands East of the Mississippi (plus Florida from Spain).
    • France kept two islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and its sugar-growing islands in the West Indies .
    • Spain gained all French lands west of the Mississippi including the Port of New Orleans .
  • 9. Section 2: Turmoil over Taxes
    • Many colonists opposed Parliament’s attempts to tighten control over Britain’s North American Empire.
  • 10. New Troubles on the Frontier
    • Pontiac’s War – an Ottawa chief led attacks against the British, but without French support , it ended.
    • Proclamation of 1763 – prohibited any English settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains and forced the colonists to pay for British troops in the border area.
  • 11. Britain Imposes New Taxes … at the colonists’ expense of course.
  • 12. Two New Tax Policies from British Parliament
    • Sugar Act (1764)
      • Actually lowered a very high tax on molasses.
      • BUT … it made molasses smugglers more easily brought to trial.
    • Stamp Act (1765)
      • Placed a new tax on all legal documents (wills, diplomas, marriage papers)
      • Also taxed most goods made of paper (newspapers, playing cards… and dice!)
      • All goods had to have a legal stamp on it, proving you paid the tax .
  • 13. “ No taxation without representation!”
    • Colonists were upset they were not included in these decisions.
    • They participated in peaceful protests to have the Stamp Act repealed (canceled).
    • Petition – a formal request to the authorities signed by people .
    • Boycott – Refuse to buy certain goods or services.
    • Committee of Correspondence – Regular, organized letter writing to other colonies, reporting the situation in Massachusetts.
  • 14. The Sons (and Daughters!) of Liberty
    • To protest a tax on household goods and writs of assistance , (Townshend Acts) colonists organized their protests.
    • Samuel Adams was a famous “Son of Liberty” and was active in organizing protests and boycotts.
  • 15. The Boston Massacre
  • 16. March, 5, 1770
    • A crowd of colonists were heckling British Regulars (soldiers) at the Boston Custom house.
    • The soldiers were attacked with ice balls and oyster shells .
    • The soldiers fired into the crowd, killing 5 people.
    • John Adams was the lawyer for the soldiers, who successfully defended them.
  • 17. Section 3: From Protest to Revolution
    • Crises such as the Boston Tea Party and the Intolerable Acts led to the outbreak of fighting between Britain and her colonies.
  • 18. The Boston Tea Party
  • 19. December 16, 1773
    • Colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians dump tea into Boston Harbor.
    • This was to protest British tea companies ability to sell directly to colonists at a lower rate .
    • Colonists’ believed the issue was not the tea, but Parliament’s ability to tax the colonies .
  • 20. The Intolerable Acts (British response to the Tea Party)
    • Boston Harbor closed … no ships in or out until the colonists paid for the tea.
    • Colonists could not hold meetings more than once a year without permission .
    • Trial juries were now chosen by British officials .
    • British customs officials accused of crimes could be tried out of the colonies.
    • British soldiers could move into the homes of the colonists if no other housing was “available.”
  • 21. Type 1 … Why were these “intolerable” conditions so bad?
    • For each of the “Intolerable Acts,” write a sentence or two describing how you think they would negatively effect the colonists.
  • 22. First Continental Congress
    • Held September 1774 in Philadelphia .
    • Representatives from all colonies (except Georgia) agreed to boycott British goods and stop exporting good to England until the Intolerable Acts were repealed .
    • Each colony was urged to establish and train a militia .
  • 23. “ The Shot Heard Round the World”
  • 24. Militia and “Minutemen”
    • Militia – Citizens who serve as soldiers during an emergency.
    • Minutemen – Massachusetts militia who were ready to fight “at a minute’s notice.”
  • 25. “ The redcoats are coming!” April 17-18, 1775
    • A group of British soldiers left Boston to seize a weapons cache held by the Sons of Liberty.
    • The [S. of L.] sent out midnight riders including Paul Revere to warn and muster the militia to protect the weapons.
  • 26. Battle of Lexington
    • British forces outnumbered the 70 militia who started to leave before someone fired a shot , starting a short firefight.
    • The British killed 8 colonists and moved on to…
  • 27. Battle of Concord
    • After finding no weapons, the British headed back to Boston only to be faced by 300 minutemen on a bridge.
    • The British were forced to retreat after being shot at by militia and sharpshooters in the woods.
    • 73 Redcoats killed, 200 wounded or missing.
  • 28. So what happens now?