Chapter 4   Thirteen English Colonies
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Chapter 4 Thirteen English Colonies

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Formation of the orginal 13 colonies

Formation of the orginal 13 colonies

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  • 1. The Thirteen English Colonies Chapter 4 pp. 100 - 133
  • 2. Section 1: The New England Colonies
    • The New England Colonies were founded by political and social reformers and developed tightly knit towns and villages.
  • 3. The Massachusetts Bay Colony
    • Founded by a group of English called Puritans , who didn’t want to separate from the Church of England, but reform it.
    • John Winthrop was the colony’s first governor.
    • The Colony was run by the General Court , an assembly of elected representatives (had to be male members of the Puritan Church).
  • 4. Connecticut and Rhode Island
    • A minister named Thomas Hooker founded Connecticut because he believed the Mass. Bay Colony’s government was too powerful .
    • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut :
      • Male church members AND property owners could vote.
      • The governor’s power was limited .
    • Another minister, Roger Williams , founded Rhode Island because he thought the Puritan Church was too powerful.
      • Unlike Puritan Massachusetts, religious tolerance was practiced in Rhode Island.
  • 5. Anne Hutchinson Speaks Out
    • Anne Hutchinson questioned the Puritan church’s teachings , claiming God spoke to her.
    • She was sent out of Mass. and settled in Rhode Island .
  • 6. Life in New England Towns and Villages
    • Puritan Church on Sunday (Sabbath) was mandatory and lasted all day.
    • Government centered on town meetings , where settlers discussed issues together.
    • Farming was difficult, so the economy was based on shipbuilding, fishing and whaling .
  • 7. Section 2: The Middle Colonies
    • The Middle Colonies attracted a wide variety of immigrants who settled on farms and in the cities of Philadelphia and New York.
  • 8. New York and New Jersey
    • New Netherland becomes New York
      • Settled by the Dutch Protestants .
      • New Amsterdam became a trading center.
      • Peter Stuyvesant (the governor) surrendered the colony to England in 1664.
    • New Jersey Separates from New York
      • Proprietary Colony – Governed by a friend of the king for yearly payment.
      • Royal Colony – Directly controlled by the English crown.
      • Religiously tolerant and practiced representative government.
  • 9. The Founding of Pennsylvania
    • Quakers led by William Penn
      • Quakers were a religious group of Protestant reformers who were persecuted for very different beliefs than the English church.
      • All people ( men and women, nobles and commoners ) were equal “in God’s sight.” including Native Americans.
      • Philadelphia became the capital of the colony (Greek for “Brotherly Love”)
  • 10. Life in the Middle Colonies
    • The majority of people farmed.
      • Cash Crops (sold for money) included wheat, barley, rye.
    • There were also artisans and craftsmen who made many items by hand including clocks, watches, guns and glassware.
  • 11. Section 3: The Southern Colonies
    • The large tobacco and rice plantations of the Tidewater region contrasted with the settlements of hunters and farmers of the back country.
  • 12. Lord Baltimore’s Colony of Maryland
    • The Mason-Dixon Line divided Maryland and Pennsylvania.
    • Sir George Calvert, wanted to start a Catholic colony in America. He died, but his son, Lord Baltimore did start the colony.
    • The Colony Assembly of Maryland passed the Act of Toleration , granting religious freedom to Catholics.
  • 13. Bacon’s Rebellion (Virginia)
    • The governor of Virginia refused to take actions against Native Americans after bloody clashes over land.
    • Bacon’s Rebellion:
      • Nathaniel Bacon led raids against Native villages, then attacked Jamestown .
      • The rebellion ended after Bacon died and 23 of his followers were hanged.
  • 14. The Carolinas
    • Both North and South Carolina were started by 8 English nobles .
    • North Carolina was settled by poor farmers from Virginia , while South Carolina was larger and settled by both English and other immigrants .
    • Carolina farms eventually grew into plantations worked by slaves .
    • Rice was their cash crop as well as indigo (a plant used for purple dye).
  • 15.
    • James Oglethorpe started a colony to allow English debtors to make a “fresh start.”
    • Oglethorpe paid off a person’s debt in return for their work on the colony near the Savannah River .
  • 16. Two Ways of Life
    • Tidewater Plantations
      • Large farms where tobacco, rice (and later cotton ) was grown.
      • Anywhere from 20-100 slaves worked the fields or in the large, central house as cooks or servants.
    • The Backcountry South
      • Small fields of tobacco, beans, corn, or peas.
      • Farms were self-sustainable , and slavery was almost non-existent.
  • 17. Growth of Slavery and the Slave Trade
    • Slaves were brought to America as early as 1619 .
    • The Middle Passage : slaves were brought across the Atlantic Ocean in horrible conditions.
      • 10% of slaves died during the journey.
    • Slave codes meant to control slaves were created out of racism .
    • Slaves were treated as property not people.
  • 18. Section 4: Roots of Self-Government
    • During the late 1600’s and 1700’s, England regulated colonial trade , while in each colony a governor carried out laws passed by the colony’s legislature.
  • 19. England Regulates Trade
    • Mercantilism – economic theory that a nation becomes strong by controlling trade.
      • Exports should outnumber imports .
    • Navigation Acts were passed by English Parliament and benefitted both England and the Colonies.
      • Regulated ships and their cargo to and from England and the colonies.
      • Colonial merchants and shipbuilders had a guaranteed market for their goods.
  • 20. The Triangle Trade (p. 122)
    • Draw the Triangle Trade on your map in your notes based on the drawing on the board.
  • 21. Colonial Government
    • Each colony had a legislature , whose job was to make the laws for the colony)
      • Upper House – Governor’s appointed advisors
      • Lower House – Elected officials with the “power of the purse.”
    • A Bill of Rights
      • Written freedoms the government promises to protect.
      • The English Bill of Rights protected jury trials and checks on the power of a ruler.
  • 22. Section 5: Life in the Colonies
    • During the 1700’s, England’s 13 colonies became societies with their own ideas and traditions .
  • 23. Colonial Society
    • Social Classes
      • Gentry – Wealthy planters, merchants, ministers, lawyers, royal officials
      • Middle Class – Farmers and Craftspeople
      • Indentured Servants – signed contracts to work for someone who paid for their passage to the colonies. When finished indentured servants received “freedom dues” (tools and land).
    Gentry Middle Class Indentured Servants Slaves* (Most Africans in America were slaves)
  • 24. The Great Awakening
    • A religious movement during the 1730’s and 40’s that made people feel they could worship independently .
    • People then began to question how they were being governed by the British government .
  • 25. Education in the Colonies
    • New England
      • First public schools supported by taxes
    • Middle and Southern Colonies
      • Private schools educated children of the wealthy .
      • Tutors traveled and taught at private homes.
    • Some boys learned trades in apprenticeships
    • Some girls went to dame schools or learned house skills from their mothers
  • 26. The Enlightenment
    • Thinkers in Europe during the late 1600’s and 1700’s (such as John Locke ) started to stress human reasoning as a way of studying society .
    • Educated Americans (such as Benjamin Franklin ) began to talk about these ideas.