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Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
Chapter 14   north and south
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Chapter 14 north and south

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Differentiating the economies of the North and South

Differentiating the economies of the North and South

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  • 1. North and South Chapter 14 pp. 406 - 429
  • 2. Section 1: Industry in the North
    • Main Idea:
    • As the Northern economy grew, new inventions and faster transportation changed the way goods were manufactured and shipped.
  • 3. New Inventions
    • New inventions for farming were created in the North including new plows , reapers and drills.
      • Jethro Wood’s iron plow had replaceable parts
      • John Deere invented the more lightweight steel plow.
  • 4. The Telegraph
    • Invented by Samuel Morse in 1844.
    • The device sent electrical signals down a wire in a code of dots, dashes, and spaces.
    • Communication across the country got faster and improved business efficiency.
  • 5. The First Railroads
    • Locomotive – the engine that pulls railroad cars.
    • People didn’t like the idea of railroads at first:
      • Some feared losing jobs as wagon drivers
      • There were many accidents including breakdowns and fires.
    • Eventually problems were fixed and by the 1850’s the railroad system was all over the country.
  • 6. Yankee Clippers
    • Demand for imports and exports led to the need for fast trade ships.
      • Large masts and huge sails helped the ships use more wind to move the ship faster.
    • By the 1850’s, English iron steamships were being used.
      • They were faster and sturdier than wooden clipper ships.
  • 7. The Northern Economy Expands
    • Many factors led to an expansion of the Northern economy:
      • Steam power
      • Machine-Produced goods
      • Railroad distribution of goods
    • Northern farmers left their homes to work in factories or as clerks or sailors due to the importation of cheap food from the West .
  • 8. Section 2: Life in the North
    • Main Idea:
    • Industry in the North changed with the arrival of new immigrants and the efforts of factory workers to improve their working conditions .
  • 9. Factory Conditions Become Worse
    • Artisans made small amounts of quality goods by hand.
    • Factory owners were more interested in volume ; more goods = more money.
    • Workers labored for over 12 hours a day in unsafe conditions.
      • Sometimes entire families worked in one factory.
  • 10. Workers Join Together
    • Artisans formed trade unions to argue for better wages and conditions .
      • If their demands were not listened to, worker would stop working ( strike )
    • Women workers in New England textile mills organized as well.
      • Sarah Bagley formed the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association.
  • 11. A New Wave of Immigrants
    • Many people immigrated to America in the early 1840’s due to famines in Ireland and Germany .
    • Some native-born Americans feared losing jobs to immigrants ( Nativists ).
      • Know-Nothing Party – An anti-immigrant, anti- Catholic political party who met in secret.
      • When asked, members said, “I know nothing.”
  • 12. African Americans in the North
    • There was discrimination against free African Americans in the North.
    • Some African Americans were successful.
      • William Whipper – Lumberyard owner
      • Henry Boyd – Owned a furniture business
      • Henry Blair – invented a corn planting machine
      • Macon Allen – first African American lawyer
      • John Russwurn – editor of the first African American newspaper.
  • 13. Section 3: Cotton Kingdom in the South
    • Main Idea
    • Cotton was the leading crop in the agricultural economy of the South
  • 14. Cotton Gin, Cotton Boom
    • Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin made processing raw cotton faster.
      • Cotton profits grew.
    • Cotton farming expanded to the West , as did slavery .
      • More slaves were needed to pick more cotton on bigger farms.
  • 15. An Agricultural Economy / Economically Dependent
    • Cotton was not the only cash crop of the South.
      • Rice
      • Tobacco
      • Sugar Cane
      • Livestock
    • Industry was limited to meeting the needs of the community , not for export .
    • Due to the lack of local industry, the South became dependent on the North for:
      • Furniture
      • Farm Equipment
      • Machines
  • 16. Section 4: Life in the South
    • Main Idea:
    • Most white southerners were not plantation owners; however, the plantation system and slavery were the center of southern life.
  • 17. The “Cottonocracy”
    • Wealthy planters with 20 or more slaves
      • Only 3% of Southerners
      • Only 1% had more than 50 slaves.
    • Most southern whites were not part of the “Cottonocracy.”
      • Small Farmers – 75 % of the population
      • Worked in the fields along side the slaves .
  • 18. African Americans in the South
    • Free African Americans :
      • Most lived in the northern part of the South (Maryland, Delaware) where slavery was declining.
      • Slave owners made life very hard for free African Americans.
    • Enslaved African Americans :
      • 1/3 of the Southern population by 1860
      • Most lived difficult lives and were mistreated and abused.
      • Slave Codes were laws that restricted the lives of slaves including learning to read or meet in groups.
  • 19. Family Life and Religion
    • Families of slaves were often separated and sold, but extended families that were able to stay together were a source of strength , pride, and love.
    • Religion helped slaves cope with the conditions.
      • Most slaves were devout Christians and would sing hymns and spirituals while working the fields.
  • 20. Resistance Against Slavery
    • Some slaves escaped to the North, others would resist by breaking tools, destroying crops, and stealing food.
    • Denmark Vesey was executed before he could stage a revolt.
    • Nat Turner and his followers killed 57 whites over two months before being caught and hung.

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