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Chapter 14   north and south
 

Chapter 14 north and south

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Differentiating the economies of the North and South

Differentiating the economies of the North and South

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    Chapter 14   north and south Chapter 14 north and south Presentation Transcript

    • North and South Chapter 14 pp. 406 - 429
    • Section 1: Industry in the North
      • Main Idea:
      • As the Northern economy grew, new inventions and faster transportation changed the way goods were manufactured and shipped.
    • New Inventions
      • New inventions for farming were created in the North including new plows , reapers and drills.
        • Jethro Wood’s iron plow had replaceable parts
        • John Deere invented the more lightweight steel plow.
    • The Telegraph
      • Invented by Samuel Morse in 1844.
      • The device sent electrical signals down a wire in a code of dots, dashes, and spaces.
      • Communication across the country got faster and improved business efficiency.
    • The First Railroads
      • Locomotive – the engine that pulls railroad cars.
      • People didn’t like the idea of railroads at first:
        • Some feared losing jobs as wagon drivers
        • There were many accidents including breakdowns and fires.
      • Eventually problems were fixed and by the 1850’s the railroad system was all over the country.
    • Yankee Clippers
      • Demand for imports and exports led to the need for fast trade ships.
        • Large masts and huge sails helped the ships use more wind to move the ship faster.
      • By the 1850’s, English iron steamships were being used.
        • They were faster and sturdier than wooden clipper ships.
    • The Northern Economy Expands
      • Many factors led to an expansion of the Northern economy:
        • Steam power
        • Machine-Produced goods
        • Railroad distribution of goods
      • Northern farmers left their homes to work in factories or as clerks or sailors due to the importation of cheap food from the West .
    • Section 2: Life in the North
      • Main Idea:
      • Industry in the North changed with the arrival of new immigrants and the efforts of factory workers to improve their working conditions .
    • Factory Conditions Become Worse
      • Artisans made small amounts of quality goods by hand.
      • Factory owners were more interested in volume ; more goods = more money.
      • Workers labored for over 12 hours a day in unsafe conditions.
        • Sometimes entire families worked in one factory.
    • Workers Join Together
      • Artisans formed trade unions to argue for better wages and conditions .
        • If their demands were not listened to, worker would stop working ( strike )
      • Women workers in New England textile mills organized as well.
        • Sarah Bagley formed the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association.
    • A New Wave of Immigrants
      • Many people immigrated to America in the early 1840’s due to famines in Ireland and Germany .
      • Some native-born Americans feared losing jobs to immigrants ( Nativists ).
        • Know-Nothing Party – An anti-immigrant, anti- Catholic political party who met in secret.
        • When asked, members said, “I know nothing.”
    • African Americans in the North
      • There was discrimination against free African Americans in the North.
      • Some African Americans were successful.
        • William Whipper – Lumberyard owner
        • Henry Boyd – Owned a furniture business
        • Henry Blair – invented a corn planting machine
        • Macon Allen – first African American lawyer
        • John Russwurn – editor of the first African American newspaper.
    • Section 3: Cotton Kingdom in the South
      • Main Idea
      • Cotton was the leading crop in the agricultural economy of the South
    • Cotton Gin, Cotton Boom
      • Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin made processing raw cotton faster.
        • Cotton profits grew.
      • Cotton farming expanded to the West , as did slavery .
        • More slaves were needed to pick more cotton on bigger farms.
    • An Agricultural Economy / Economically Dependent
      • Cotton was not the only cash crop of the South.
        • Rice
        • Tobacco
        • Sugar Cane
        • Livestock
      • Industry was limited to meeting the needs of the community , not for export .
      • Due to the lack of local industry, the South became dependent on the North for:
        • Furniture
        • Farm Equipment
        • Machines
    • Section 4: Life in the South
      • Main Idea:
      • Most white southerners were not plantation owners; however, the plantation system and slavery were the center of southern life.
    • The “Cottonocracy”
      • Wealthy planters with 20 or more slaves
        • Only 3% of Southerners
        • Only 1% had more than 50 slaves.
      • Most southern whites were not part of the “Cottonocracy.”
        • Small Farmers – 75 % of the population
        • Worked in the fields along side the slaves .
    • African Americans in the South
      • Free African Americans :
        • Most lived in the northern part of the South (Maryland, Delaware) where slavery was declining.
        • Slave owners made life very hard for free African Americans.
      • Enslaved African Americans :
        • 1/3 of the Southern population by 1860
        • Most lived difficult lives and were mistreated and abused.
        • Slave Codes were laws that restricted the lives of slaves including learning to read or meet in groups.
    • Family Life and Religion
      • Families of slaves were often separated and sold, but extended families that were able to stay together were a source of strength , pride, and love.
      • Religion helped slaves cope with the conditions.
        • Most slaves were devout Christians and would sing hymns and spirituals while working the fields.
    • Resistance Against Slavery
      • Some slaves escaped to the North, others would resist by breaking tools, destroying crops, and stealing food.
      • Denmark Vesey was executed before he could stage a revolt.
      • Nat Turner and his followers killed 57 whites over two months before being caught and hung.