3.1 Qual Intro


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  • Map territory (hypothesis-generating). Qual can tell what kinds of people come (indicative). 80/20 rule; you get most information from the first small group of people. To get the last 20% takes a LOT more data. Generally social research in an applied setting is content with imperfect data. Do qual study to find out what kind of people come; do quant study to measure how many/what proportion come.Explanatory – add perspective to simple counts. Why do few people stop at a display? Out of the way, uninteresting, too cold.If your audience are accountants, economists or come from experimental sciences, they will want numbers, don’t rely on qualitative methods, use some quant as well.a) many qualitative researchers believe that the best way to understand any phenomenon is to view it in its context. b) Many qual believe that as each of us experiences from our own point of view and has a different reality, therefore amalgamated data invalid.
  • The ethnographer becomes immersed in the culture as an active participant and records extensive field notes. Phenomenology is a school of thought that emphasizes a focus on people's subjective experiences and interpretations of the world. That is, the phenomenologist wants to understand how the world appears to others. Field Research – the essential idea is that the researcher goes \"into the field\" to observe the phenomenon in its natural state or in situ. A case study is an intensive study of a specific individual or specific context.
  • Credible or believable from the perspective of the participant in the research. Transferability refers to the degree to which the results of qualitative research can be generalized or transferred to other contexts or settings. Reliability (can be repeated). Dependability – researcher notes changes in context. Confirmability refers to the degree to which the results could be confirmed or corroborated by others. (second researcher reviews and interprets)
  • 3.1 Qual Intro

    1. 1. Museum Research Methods MUSM7034 Semester 1 2009 Session 3.1 Qualitative methods www.arts.usyd.edu.au/departs/museum http://musm7034.ning.com/
    2. 2. <ul><li>Qualitative methods </li></ul><ul><li>When to use qualitative methods </li></ul><ul><li>Project outline </li></ul><ul><li>Interview skills </li></ul><ul><li>Summarise and report data </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Audience segmentation </li></ul>Week 3
    3. 3. <ul><li>What is qualitative research? </li></ul><ul><li>Methods and issues </li></ul><ul><li>Resources and references </li></ul>1. Introduction
    4. 4. <ul><li>Exploratory – map the territory, deeper understanding / creative </li></ul><ul><li>Explanatory – motives, explanations </li></ul><ul><li>The subject’s point of view / get inside their head </li></ul><ul><li>Generally small scale – indepth with a few people, details </li></ul><ul><li>Can be quite quick to do </li></ul><ul><li>Who needs your research? </li></ul>2. Purpose and character
    5. 5. 3. Methods <ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Indepth interviews – individual, pairs, pairs/dyads </li></ul><ul><li>Executive interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnography </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive test or pilot </li></ul><ul><li>Online discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative data is very varied. It includes virtually any information that can be captured that is not numerical in nature. </li></ul>
    6. 6. 4. Validity <ul><li>Internal validity, if the findings make sense to particpants </li></ul><ul><li>External validity, if the sample is representative of some section of the audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Objective, if the findings can be confirmed by other researchers (not an idiosyncratic interpretation) </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Incentive payments has distorted respondent pool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One way mirror – artificial and formal </li></ul><ul><li>Museums/galleries can do it onsite where museum staff can be participant observers </li></ul>5. Current practices
    8. 8. 5. Interview approaches <ul><li>Semi-structured </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hugh Mackay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflective listening </li></ul><ul><li>Sorting </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul><ul><li>Word association </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Set out the rules </li></ul><ul><li>Group dominance </li></ul>6. Group dynamics
    10. 10. <ul><li>‘ Qualitative Research Methods’ at Shippensburg University http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/qualmeth.html </li></ul>Resources