1.3 Social Research Fundamentals

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  • 1.3 Social Research Fundamentals

    1. 1. Museum Research Methods MUSM7034 Semester 1 2009 Session 1.3 Social research fundamentals www.arts.usyd.edu.au/departs/museum http://musm7034.ning.com/
    2. 2. <ul><li>Scientific method </li></ul><ul><li>What is data </li></ul><ul><li>Research techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Validity and reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss Bielefeld </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment 1 </li></ul>1. Introduction
    3. 3. 2. Scientific Method <ul><li>Francis Bacon (1561-1626) </li></ul><ul><li>Start with systematic data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Use inductive reasoning to compose a theory </li></ul><ul><li>Credited with establishing scientific method </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Science proceeds by paradigm shifts </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific revolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Popper (1902-1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Science cannot verify the truth of our theories, it can only show when they are wrong (Empirical Falsification). </li></ul><ul><li>Theories that survive falsification better are a better ‘fit’ with reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Like biological evolution, theories that survive more and more falsification are able to explain increasingly complex problems. Over time, stronger theories emerge. . </li></ul>
    4. 4. 2. Scientific Method <ul><li>OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valid data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical & sensible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PREDICT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So what? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TEST </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm or deny </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define the question </li></ul><ul><li>Gather information and resources (observe) </li></ul><ul><li>Form hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Perform experiment and collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze data </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret data and draw conclusions that serve as a starting point for new hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Publish results </li></ul><ul><li>Retest (frequently done by other scientists) </li></ul>
    5. 5. 3. What is data <ul><li>Data is information in any form – numbers, words, paragraphs, images, diagrams, drawings, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic data is more useful </li></ul><ul><li>Data Processing – organising data into more useful forms </li></ul><ul><li>Data Analysis – more organising! Often using complex maths to test real effects (more on that later) </li></ul>
    6. 6. 4. Research techniques <ul><li>Quantitative (numbers) </li></ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Face to face, telephone, online, self-completion, mail </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative (not numeric) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-structured interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Timing & counting </li></ul><ul><li>Noting behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Desk Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Data mining </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnography </li></ul>
    7. 7. 5. Ethics <ul><li>Do no harm </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Code of Professional Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Australian Market and Social Research Society </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.mrsa.com.au/index.cfm?a=detail&id=2649&eid=138 </li></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive topics </li></ul><ul><li>Opt-in, permission-based contact </li></ul><ul><li>Do Not Call register </li></ul>
    8. 8. 6. Validity and reliability <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>consistency of measurement </li></ul><ul><li>degree to which an instrument measures the same way each time it is used under the same condition with the same subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>1. Conclusion validity – is there a relationship between the intervention and the observed outcome? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Internal Validity – if there is a relationship between the intervention and the outcome we saw, is it a causal relationship? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Construct validity – is there a relationship between how I operationalised my concepts in this study to the actual causal relationship I'm trying to study? </li></ul><ul><li>4. External validity – can we generalize the results of our study to other settings? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Group work – Bielefeld <ul><li>Group 1 </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of non-profits does Bielefeld have in mind? How relevant is this to museums? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s wrong with the paragraph on p398, “This also seems…” </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the positivist approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Group 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Who is this paper written for? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between basic and applied research? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways is academia relevant to visitor research in museums? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Assessment 1 <ul><li>Social research in the museum sector follows the basic principles of the scientific method to generate information that is objective in order to provide a reliable basis for effective decision-making. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the practical application of the scientific method in the field of visitor studies using examples from the Reader. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Your experiences
    12. 12. <ul><li>Gillian Savage </li></ul><ul><li>Ph. 9954 0455 (business hours) </li></ul><ul><li>E. [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Ning. http://musm7034.ning.com/ </li></ul>Contact

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