1.3 Museum Research Methods Social Research Fundamentals
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1.3 Museum Research Methods Social Research Fundamentals

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1.3 Museum Research Methods Social Research Fundamentals 1.3 Museum Research Methods Social Research Fundamentals Presentation Transcript

  • Museum Research Methods MUSM7034 Semester 1 2009 Session 1.3 Social research fundamentals www.arts.usyd.edu.au/departs/museum http://musm7034.ning.com/
    • Scientific method
    • What is data
    • Research techniques
    • Ethics
    • Validity and reliability
    • Discuss Bielefeld
    • Assessment 1
    1. Introduction
  • 2. Scientific Method
    • Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
    • Start with systematic data collection
    • Use inductive reasoning to compose a theory
    • Credited with establishing scientific method
    • Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996)
    • Science proceeds by paradigm shifts
    • Scientific revolutions
    • Karl Popper (1902-1994)
    • Science cannot verify the truth of our theories, it can only show when they are wrong (Empirical Falsification).
    • Theories that survive falsification better are a better ‘fit’ with reality.
    • Like biological evolution, theories that survive more and more falsification are able to explain increasingly complex problems. Over time, stronger theories emerge. .
  • 2. Scientific Method
    • OBSERVATION
      • Valid data
    • EXPLANATION
      • Logical & sensible
    • PREDICT
      • So what?
    • TEST
      • Confirm or deny
    • Define the question
    • Gather information and resources (observe)
    • Form hypothesis
    • Perform experiment and collect data
    • Analyze data
    • Interpret data and draw conclusions that serve as a starting point for new hypothesis
    • Publish results
    • Retest (frequently done by other scientists)
  • 3. What is data
    • Data is information in any form – numbers, words, paragraphs, images, diagrams, drawings, etc.
    • Systematic data is more useful
    • Data Processing – organising data into more useful forms
    • Data Analysis – more organising! Often using complex maths to test real effects (more on that later)
  • 4. Research techniques
    • Quantitative (numbers)
    • Survey
    • Face to face, telephone, online, self-completion, mail
    • Qualitative (not numeric)
    • Focus groups
    • Semi-structured interviews
    • Workshops
    • Observation
    • Tracking
    • Timing & counting
    • Noting behaviours
    • Literature Review
    • Desk Analysis
    • Data mining
    • Ethnography
  • 5. Ethics
    • Do no harm
    • Privacy legislation
    • Code of Professional Behaviour
    • Australian Market and Social Research Society
    • http://www.mrsa.com.au/index.cfm?a=detail&id=2649&eid=138
    • Children
    • Sensitive topics
    • Opt-in, permission-based contact
    • Do Not Call register
  • 6. Validity and reliability
    • Reliability
    • consistency of measurement
    • degree to which an instrument measures the same way each time it is used under the same condition with the same subjects
    • Validity
    • 1. Conclusion validity – is there a relationship between the intervention and the observed outcome?
    • 2. Internal Validity – if there is a relationship between the intervention and the outcome we saw, is it a causal relationship?
    • 3. Construct validity – is there a relationship between how I operationalised my concepts in this study to the actual causal relationship I'm trying to study?
    • 4. External validity – can we generalize the results of our study to other settings?
  • Group work – Bielefeld
    • Group 1
    • What kind of non-profits does Bielefeld have in mind? How relevant is this to museums?
    • What’s wrong with the paragraph on p398, “This also seems…”
    • Describe the positivist approach.
    • Group 2
    • Who is this paper written for?
    • What is the difference between basic and applied research?
    • In what ways is academia relevant to visitor research in museums?
  • Assessment 1
    • Social research in the museum sector follows the basic principles of the scientific method to generate information that is objective in order to provide a reliable basis for effective decision-making.
    • Discuss the practical application of the scientific method in the field of visitor studies using examples from the Reader.
  • Your experiences
    • Gillian Savage
    • Ph. 9954 0455 (business hours)
    • E. [email_address]
    • Ning. http://musm7034.ning.com/
    Contact