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TIP Intellicopter Tour


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You are taking off from the municipal airport in Herzliya, just 10 km (6.2 mi.) north of downtown Tel Aviv. Since Herzliya’s establishment by European refugees in 1924, this seaside town has grown to …

You are taking off from the municipal airport in Herzliya, just 10 km (6.2 mi.) north of downtown Tel Aviv. Since Herzliya’s establishment by European refugees in 1924, this seaside town has grown to 85,000 residents and is home to one of Israel’s largest high-tech industrial parks. On June 11, 2002 a Palestinian suicide bomber blew himself up in a small restaurant in this city, killing 14-year old Hadar Hershkowitz and wounding 15 others.
From Herzliya you will head east toward the outskirts of Tel Aviv over the city of Kfar Saba. Kfar Saba is only 700 meters (less than ½ mile) from the West Bank town of Qalqiliya. The Al-Aqsa intifada broke out in Qalqiliya in October 2000. Hamas also won major support here in the 2006 Palestinian legislative elections.

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  • 1. 1 Contents Table of Contents 1 About TIP 2 TIP Intellicopter Tour – The Route 3 Map of the Region 5 Israel’s Strategic Security Situation 6 Statements by Terrorist Leaders on the Effectiveness of the Security Barrier 8 Options for Flexibility 9 Economic Progress in the West Bank 10 Israel’s Withdrawal from Gaza and Operations Cast Lead and Pillar of Defense 12 How Israel Deals with Rocket Attacks From Gaza 14 Hamas Backed Terrorism and Israeli Casualties 17 Fatah, Hamas Reconciliation 18 Hamas’ Use of Human Shields 18 Israeli Maritime Security Measures 19 Trade and Import into Gaza 20 Healthcare 23 Statements by Gaza-based Palestinian Terror Groups 25 Excerpts from the Hamas Charter 26 Spokespeople, Officials, Experts and Residents Available for Comment 27 Appendix A - List of Controlled Dual-Use Items 28 Updated April 22, 2013
  • 2. 2 The Israel Project Washington DC Office Tel: 1 202 857 6644 Jerusalem Office Tel: 972 2 623-6427 Fax: 972 2 623-6439 Twitter: @israelproject Facebook: YouTube: About TIP The Israel Project (TIP) is a non-profit educational organization that gets facts about Israel and the Middle East to press, public officials and the public. The Israel Project is not affiliated with any government. Our team of trusted Middle East multi-lingual experts and former reporters provides journalists and leaders with fact sheets, backgrounders and sources. TIP regularly hosts press briefings featuring leading Israeli spokespeople and analysts that give journalists an opportunity to get information and answers to their questions face-to-face. By providing journalists with the facts, context and visuals they need, TIP causes hundreds of millions of people around the world to see a more positive public face of Israel. This helps protect Israel, reduce anti-Semitism and increase pride in Israel. The Jerusalem Office The Israel Project's (TIP) Jerusalem Office is a non-governmental resource working with foreign journalists and leaders based in Israel. It provides reporters and members of the diplomatic community with needed facts and information before they file their stories and reports. TIP's Jerusalem team features several Middle East experts and former journalists. TIP's Israel team, led by Marcus Sheff, includes experts who are fluent in English, Hebrew, Arabic, French and Russian. Contacts Josh Block CEO & President Cell: 202-997-4614 Cell in Israel: 972 54-670-1245 Email: Marcus Sheff Executive Director Cell: 972 54-807-9177 E-mail: Eli Ovits Director of Communications Cell: 972 54-807-9093 E-mail: David Harris Director of Research and Content Cell: 972 54-807-9498 E-mail: Shimrit Meir-Gilboa Director of Arabic Media Program Cell: 972 54-801-5982 E-mail: Sharon Segel Communications Associate - Media Cell: 972 54-807-9078 E-mail: Ronit Shebson Senior Communications Associate - Leaders Cell: 972 54-807-9065 E-mail: Dor Kaidar Communications Associate, Media Cell: 972 54-700-4812 E-mail: Stephane Cohen Communications Associate - Leaders Cell: 972 54-807-0423 E-mail:
  • 3. 3 TIP Intellicopter Tour - The Route You are taking off from the municipal airport in Herzliya, just 10 km (6.2 mi.) north of downtown Tel Aviv. Since Herzliya’s establishment by European refugees in 1924, this seaside town has grown to 85,000 residents and is home to one of Israel’s largest high-tech industrial parks. On June 11, 2002 a Palestinian suicide bomber blew himself up in a small restaurant in this city, killing 14-year old Hadar Hershkowitz and wounding 15 others. From Herzliya you will head east toward the outskirts of Tel Aviv over the city of Kfar Saba. Kfar Saba is only 700 meters (less than ½ mile) from the West Bank town of Qalqiliya. The Al-Aqsa intifada broke out in Qalqiliya in October 2000. Hamas also won major support here in the 2006 Palestinian legislative elections. Highway 6, a major north-south route for Israeli motorists, runs between the two towns. Qalqiliya is home to several terrorists who carried out attacks in Israeli coastal towns. A number of Israeli motorists have been targeted and shot from Qalqiliya rooftops while commuting on Highway 6. In order to protect Israeli drivers from sniper attacks, the anti-terrorist security fence separating these two major cities is built out of concrete and is 8.5m high (28ft). Since the fence was built, suicide bombings dropped from 60 in 2002 to only one in the last four years. Once you have passed Kfar Saba and Qalqiliya you are flying over the “Green Line.” The Green Line is synonymous with the 1949 armistice line marking the provisional land Israel acquired after the 1967 war. The area remains under Israeli control and is intended to be negotiated in final border status talks with the Palestinians. According to the 1949 agreement, the armistice line is not an international boundary, which is why Israel has chosen to build a temporary anti-terrorist security fence along the line until a just and durable peace with the Palestinians is obtained. Challenges in the courts of the fence’s route and humanitarian concerns regarding the placement of the fence have resulted in the Israeli government changing the original path of construction that was first published in October 2003. The Supreme Court ordered the government and the Ministry of Defense to improve the path of the fence nearly half a dozen times since 2003 following petitions to the court by Palestinians and NGOs. The fence was originally planned to be 622 km (386 mi.) in length, but due to several changes the final length is 730 km (454 mi.). Most of the security fence is has been completed, while several sections remain unfinished. Located in Israel and close to the Green Line sits the Arab town of Kfar Kasem with 18,000 residents and the neighboring Jewish city of Rosh Ha’ayin with nearly 40,000 residents. Both are 20 km (12 mi.) northeast of Tel Aviv. The two have been feuding over land for decades, however in recent years the mayors of each city have together initiated co-existence programs. This includes a joint women’s business network, and cultural and educational programming. Ben Gurion Airport is to your right as you fly south of Kfar Kasem en route to Jerusalem. This is Israel’s largest international airport. The West Bank town of Budrus, which has harbored terrorists in the past, is only 6 km (4 mi.) from the airport. Just to the south is the modern city of Modi’in with a population of over 80,000. Modi’in’s geographic location and proximity to the Green Line raises security concerns. Modi’in has five different interchange roads connecting the city. Route 443, that connects the twin cities of Modi’in and Modi’in Illit to Jerusalem, is the most vulnerable. Civilians traveling on 443 are at risk because part of the route is not protected by the security fence and sections of the road are within sniper range. There have been several fatal shootings on the road. Once you’ve passed Modi’in, on your right-hand side you can see Highway 1, which is the main east-west highway connecting Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. Following Highway 1 toward Jerusalem brings you into the Jerusalem corridor, which is the most controversial and yet, necessary boundary for the fence’s construction. The latest route of the security fence runs through this area. The narrowest width of this finger-shaped corridor is 12 km (7.5 mi.). Residents living within the Jerusalem corridor as well as motorists traveling on Highway 1 are also at risk from mortars and rockets that could be launched from within the West Bank.
  • 4. 4 Jerusalem lies ahead of you, flanked to the north (left) by the cities of Ramallah and El-Bireh and by Bethlehem to the south (right). The capital of Israel is surrounded on three sides by the Palestinian areas and a barrier has been constructed to prevent terrorists from entering the city, which suffered dozens of suicide bombings that killed 259 people and wounded over 2000 others. The city of Jerusalem is over 3000 years old and experienced its largest population and physical growth following 1967. Tens of thousands of Arabs moved into the municipal area creating a multicultural city with its eastern and western sides merging into one large conurbation. Under Israeli control, freedom of worship has flourished. More Arabs now live in Jerusalem than ever before, and the population continues to grow. From Jerusalem you will fly southwest. Much of this part of the journey is above agricultural land and Israel’s myriad of kibbutz and moshav collective farms. You will be flying over Beit Shemesh - a city of some 60,000 people, before passing over the picturesque and biblically significant Elah Valley where biblical David slew Goliath, the development town Kiryat Gat lies ahead. It is the home to Intel’s largest installation in Israel and is a major local employer. The helicopter soon begins its descent to land at the ranch of former Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon, who led Israel’s withdrawal from Gaza in 2005. The waiting taxi will take you to Sderot, the Israeli town that has been one of the main targets of rockets fired from Hamas-controlled Gaza. After driving through the city you will alight to see just how close the Gaza Strip is to Sderot and the nearby Israeli towns and villages. From the viewpoint you will return to the cab and a brief drive to Sderot police station where the authorities have amassed a collection of rockets, many home made but also manufactured weapons smuggled into Gaza by Iran. Once back in the helicopter have your camera at the ready to snap great shots of Israel’s Mediterranean coastline as you pass over Ashkelon, Ashdod, Jaffa and Tel Aviv.
  • 5. 5 Map of the Region
  • 6. 6 Israel’s Strategic Security Situation The Second Intifada, which began in September 2000, saw a wave of Palestinian terrorism that ultimately led to the loss of 1,024 Israeli lives and the death of 63 foreign citizens. 1 In an attempt to curb terrorist activities in Israel, the government decided to implement an anti-terrorist security fence, to prevent infiltration from the Palestinian territories. The fence has not been fully completed yet. According to the latest figures from the Ministry of Defense, 515 km (320 mi.) of the proposed 790 km (490 mi.) have been completed. There are two main aspects of the security fence; a multi-layered system mostly comprising wire, and a solid barrier system.  93% of the fence is wire, only 7% is solid wall Multi-layered Wire Fence System 2 Solid Barrier System The purpose of the solid barrier system is to prevent sniper fire into Israel, especially beside major highways, roads and urban areas. To this end, a solid concrete wall resembling a highway sound barrier often used in the US and Europe is erected. This design is used mainly along the new Trans-Israel Highway, specifically in the vicinity of Kfar Saba, which is opposite Qalqiliya and the area of Nizzanei Oz, opposite Tulkarem. The solid barrier is also employed in densely populated urban areas such as Jerusalem and Bethlehem, where fatal sniper attacks by Palestinian militants have occurred. 1 United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), “Israeli-Palestinian Fatalities Since 2000 – Key Trends”, August 2007, Retrieved 06 January 2011 2 Seam zone Web site, Israel Ministry of Defense Retrieved 03 January 2011
  • 7. 7 The above drawing demonstrates how the solid barrier is implemented to prevent sniper fire. This system was put in place following attacks on the Trans-Israel Highway (also known as Highway 6). Seven-year-old Noam Leibowitz was killed in such an attack in 2003 and her three-year-old sister Shira was seriously wounded. 3 Most of the security fence runs roughly along the Green Line, although it is not completely finished. In some locations the fence is inside the Green Line but in certain situations the fence ‘bulges’ in order to protect the lives of Israeli civilians. The effectiveness of the security fence can be measured by the dramatic fall in the number of suicide attacks committed. Sixty-three percent of Palestinian suicide attacks (92 attacks) took place until 2002. 4 After 2002, there began a decline in this type of terror as a result of such actions as Operation Defense Shield - Israel’s defensive operation in the West Bank in response to continuous Palestinian terrorist attacks during the second intifada - and the decision to construct the anti-terrorist security fence. The security fence led to a dramatic drop in attacks. The number of successful suicide bombings has been zero since 2009. In 2011 one person was killed and 30 others wounded in Jerusalem by a remotely detonated bomb, 5 and security forces foiled a suicide bombing at the last moment. 6 In 2012 security forces reported that four suicide attacks were attempted, but were intercepted before they could be carried out. 7 3 Ratner, David, “Seven-year-old victim of highway shooting laid to rest” Ha’aretz 19th June 2003 edition/news/seven-year-old-victim-of-highway-shooting-laid-to-rest-1.91701 Retrieved 6th January 2011 4 Israeli Security Agency, “Analysis of Attacks in the Last Decade 2000-2010” Retrieved 6th January 2011 5 Lidman, Melanie and Katz, Yaakov, “Woman killed, dozens hurt in Jerusalem bombing,” The Jerusalem Post, Mar. 23, 2011, 6 Pferrer, Anshel, “Israel security forces foil multiple terrorist attacks in Jerusalem,” Ha’aretz Sept. 7, 2011. 7 Israeli Security Agency, 2012 Annual Summary - Terrorism and Counter Terrorism Activity, First section of security fence completed August 2003
  • 8. 8 Statements by Terrorist Leaders on the Effectiveness of the Security Barrier Ramadan Shalah, Palestinian Islamic Jihad Leader, Nov. 11, 2006 “In the West Bank, for example, there is the separation fence which is an obstacle to the resistance, and if it were not there, the situation would be entirely different.” 8 Moussa Abu Marzouq, Deputy Chairman of Hamas’ Political Bureau, June 1, 2007 “… [carrying out] attacks are made difficult by the security fence and the gates surrounding West Bank residents”. 9 Terrorism at a Glance: The separation barrier resulted in a drastic decline in the number of overall attacks from the West Bank. However, in the past several years attacks inside the West Bank have continued unabated: - In 2012 there were 10 fatalities from terror attacks, nine of which were from attacks from Gaza, but none in the West Bank.10 - In 2012, the West Bank and Jerusalem saw a rise in terrorism as opposed to 2011. The Judea and Samaria had a tally of 578 attacks as opposed to 320 in 2011, and Jerusalem had a tally of 282 attacks as opposed to 191 in 2011. o This rise emanates, among others, from a growth in the number of local attacks, especially firebomb throwing. The West Bank has shown a rise of 68% (535 attacks as opposed to 318 in 2011), and Jerusalem with a rise of 31.5% (275 attacks as opposed to 209 in 2011). o There is a rise of 42% in West Bank-based attacks consisting of firearms, IEDs, and hand grenades: 37attacks as opposed to 26 in 2011, whereas Jerusalem saw a cut down: 0 attacks as opposed to two in 2011. - There were 9 terror fatalities in 2010 as opposed to 15 in 2009, according to Israel’s Security Agency. However there were 21 terror fatalities and approximately 100 casualties in 2011. Twelve of those fatalities were causes by terror attacks from Gaza or the Sinai border area. o The Jerusalem area witnessed an increase in attacks: two shooting attacks, riots and throwing of rocks and firebombs as well as the fatal bus stop bombing. o Weapons, particularly rockets and mortar shells, are continuously being smuggled into Gaza via Sudan and Sinai from Iran. Gaza presents the new frontier of Israel’s effort to combat terror. 8 “Ramadan Shalah, Palestinian Islamic Jihad leader, publicly admits that Israel’s security fence is an important obstacle to the terrorist organizations,” Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center, Nov. 15, 2006, http://www.terrorism- 9 “Moussa Abu Marzouq, Deputy Chairman of the Hamas Political Bureau, admits that the Hamas government supports terrorism,” Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center, June 7, 2007, http://www.terrorism- 10 2012 Annual Summary - Terrorism and CT Activity Data and Trends, Israel Security Agency.
  • 9. 9 Options for Flexibility Agricultural Gates Special arrangements have been made for farmers who are separated from their fields due to the security fence. An effort was made to reduce their number and much of the fence lies on un-used land. In instances where this was not possible, agricultural gates were constructed, allowing the famers to cross into their farmland. There are 40 agricultural gates which are opened daily and another 40 that are seasonal and opened during the olive harvest. Legal Petitions and Court Rulings The Israeli Supreme Court has ordered the Israeli government to change the route of the fence at least four occasions in order to minimize its impact on the lives of Palestinians living nearby. Whenever possible, the fence is built on state-owned rather than private lands.  In December, 2012, Israel's High Court ordered the state to find an alternative to the separation fence at the West Bank village of Battir. 11  In February, 2010, work began on moving the sections of the security fence in Bil’in, in accordance with a ruling from September, 2007. Following the movement, around 700,000 square meters will be on the Palestinian side of the fence 12  In July 2008, the Israeli Ministry of Defense agreed to change the route of the security fence north of Qalqiliya. The re-routing of this section put 642 acres of land back on the Palestinian side of the fence. Moving the fence in this way cost 50 million shekels ($14.5million). 13  On Sept. 4, 2007, the Israeli Supreme Court ordered the government to redraw the path of the fence because the route was "highly prejudicial" to the villagers of Bil'in, northwest of Jerusalem. Chief Justice Dorit Beinish wrote in the ruling, "We were not convinced that it is necessary for security- military reasons to retain the current route that passes through Bilin’s land." 14  On June 15, 2007, the Israeli Supreme Court ordered the government to reroute a three-mile section of the security fence near the settlement of Zufin, a mile inside the West Bank, close to Qalqiliya. 15  On June 15, 2005, the Israeli Supreme Court ordered the government to reroute a 15 km (9 mi.) stretch of the barrier near the settlement of Alfei Menashe and the Palestinian town of Qalqiliya. The court said “It has been ruled that the state must, within a reasonable period, reconsider various fence route alternatives at Alfei Menashe while examining security options which cause less injury to the lives of the residents of the villages.” 16  On June 30, 2004, the Israeli Supreme Court ordered the government to reroute a 30 km (18 mi.) section of the fence northwest of Jerusalem. The court stated “there is no security without law ... Only a separation fence built on a basis of law will grant security to the state and its citizens. 17 11 Ha’aretz, Dec. 14, 2102. 12 “Israel acts on West Bank wall order,” AlJazeera English, 12 February 2010, Retrieved 10 January 2011 13 Harel, Amos, “Israel agrees to raze part of West Bank separation fence,” Ha’aretz, July 28, 2008, 14 Yoaz, Yuval, “Court orders state to alter West Bank separation fence route at Bil'in,,” Haaretz, Sept. 4, 2007, 15 “Israeli Supreme Court orders part of West Bank barrier relocated ,” USA Today, June 15, 2006, 16 “Israeli Supreme Court orders barrier rerouted,” CBC News, Sept. 15, 2005, 17 Yoaz, Yuval and Benn, Aluf, “Court nixes route of fence near J'lem,” Haaretz, July 1, 2004,
  • 10. 10 Economic Progress in the West Bank Improved security and coordination between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA) led to economic boom times in the West Bank until 2011. Nowhere was the economic vitality more visible than in Ramallah, the West Bank’s largest city. Construction boomed and in order to accommodate the demand for housing the new planned city of Rawabi was initiated some 9 km north of Ramallah. The planned town will be home to 40,000 Palestinians. 18 The housing projects are in part helped by groups like the Portland Trust, a private fund working closely with the Palestinian private sector and the Palestinian Authority (PA) that initiated a $1 billion construction initiative in the West Bank by 2013. The construction is expected to create thousands of new jobs and increase the Palestinian GDP by 1.5% per annum for five years. 19 Recently, growth in the West Bank has slowed due to many factors including the worldwide economic crisis, a drop in revenue from donor countries to the Palestinian Authority and the lack of progress in the peace process due to the absence of negotiations despite repeated invitations by Israel to resume talks without preconditions. 18 19 For several years the West Bank enjoyed tremendous economic growth with booming construction. On the left, a new neighborhood rising in Ramallah. (The Israel Project)
  • 11. 11
  • 12. 12 Israel’s Withdrawal from Gaza, Operations Cast Lead and Pillar of Defense In 2005, Israel withdrew all its military and evacuated 9,000 Israeli civilians from the Gaza Strip with the hope that peace would follow. 20 Ever since Hamas seized control of the Gaza Strip a bloody 2006 civil war, neighboring Israeli cities and towns have endured a surge in rocket attacks. Iranian-backed terrorist groups in Gaza fired nearly 15,000 projectiles towards Israel in the past decade, the majority of which were launched after Israel left Gaza. 21 Gilad Shalit, an Israeli soldier, was kidnapped by Hamas in 2006. The organization fired 1,130 rockets and mortars into Israel that year, killing 17 civilians and wounding 163. In June 2007, Hamas - backed by Iran - seized control of Gaza from Fatah in a violent military coup that left more than 100 people dead. 22 That year terrorists fired 2,433 rockets and mortars from Gaza, resulting in 7 civilian deaths and 343 wounded along with significant property damage. Egypt brokered a lull in the fighting between Hamas and Israel in 2008 in an effort to curb the stream of rockets and mortars being launched at Israel from Gaza. Due to Hamas’ violation of the “lull” and its ongoing bombardment of civilian areas, Israel launched a three-week military defensive operation in Gaza, Cast Lead (Dec. 28, 2008 - Jan. 18, 2009). 23 In October, 2012, a massive rocket attack from Gaza led to the closing of schools as children and over one million residents were told to stay in shelters. On November 10, 2012 terrorists in Gaza fired an anti-tank missile at an IDF jeep on the Israeli side of the border, wounding four soldiers. The IDF targeted the source of the fire and terrorists responded with at least eight rockets fired at Israeli towns and cities. The attack came one day after terrorists set off a massive bomb they had placed in a tunnel they dug in the border area. Over 120 rockets were fired into Israeli towns and cities over a 48 hour period, prompting Israel to launch Operation Pillar of Defense. In the 10 months leading up to the November violence, hundreds of rockets and mortars were fired at Israeli towns and cities by Hamas and other forces allowed by Hamas to operate in Gaza such as Palestinian Islamic Jihad. There was also an attempt to shoot down an Israeli Air Force helicopter with a surface-to-air missile. Sderot, the Israeli town closest to Gaza and the surrounding villages have borne the brunt of the rocket fire. Families spend too much of their time worrying about running for the safety of bomb-shelters. Gaza-based terrorists boast they target Israeli schoolchildren. 24 Many children are deeply traumatized by the constant barrage of rockets. 25 When radar detects incoming rockets, an air-raid siren sounds, but residents have only 15 seconds to reach cover before the rockets explode.  At the start of 2013, more than 3 million Israelis live within range of rocket and mortar attacks. Palestinians fired 2,338 rockets and mortars at Israeli towns and cities in 2012. Rocket Exposure: 26  92% of Sderot residents have experienced a Qassam rocket fall near them  56% of Sderot residents’ homes or neighbors’ homes have been directly or indirectly (shrapnel) hit by a rocket  65% of Sderot residents know someone wounded by a rocket  49% of Sderot residents know someone killed by a rocket 20 “Palestinian leader presses to resume peace talks,” MSNBC, Sept. 3, 2005, 21 Nov-2010.htm?DisplayMode=print 22 “Hamas takes full control of Gaza,” BBC, June 15, 2007, 23 “Operation Cast Lead,” Global Security, Accessed Jan. 30, 2011. 24 Harel, Amos; Ravid, Barak, “Sderot parents boycott schools over Qassam attacks,” Associated Press via Haaretz, Sept. 4, 2007, 25 Heller, Aron, “Rockets from Gaza Plague an Israeli Town,” Associated Press, Jan. 20, 2008, 26 Berger, Rony; Gelkopf, Marc, “The Impact of the Ongoing Traumatic Stress Conditions on Sderot,” NATAL, Oct. 2007.
  • 13. 13 Psychological Trauma:  75% - 94% of Sderot children exhibit symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 27  28% of Sderot adults suffer from PTSD, three times the average national rate 28  80% of Sderot residents exhibit symptoms of anxiety 29 Economic Impact: 30  Prices of homes and sales at Sderot businesses have both dropped nearly 50 percent in the past decade due to the impact of the rocket fire  20-30% of businesses and 11 factories in Sderot and the surrounding areas have shut down Home and Property Damage: 31  Palestinian rockets directly hit more than 1,500 Israeli homes and buildings in the south, and caused heavy damage to 327 vehicles  During Operation Cast Lead, close to 1,900 cases were filed to the Israeli government for damage caused to homes and property by Hamas rocket attacks Hamas and Gaza Between Operations Cast Lead and Pillar of Defense Hamas’ military and security infrastructure was severely damaged during Operation Cast Lead. Since the end of the operation however, the organization made strenuous efforts to re-arm (aided heavily by Iran), restore its control over the territory, rebuild its military infrastructure and prevent the Palestinian Authority from re- asserting control. 32 Hamas’ efforts include:  Tons of high explosives and rocket building material smuggled in; scores of Grad rockets with ranges of 25 miles (40km); hundreds of mortar shells and dozens of anti-tank weapons 33  Hundreds of smuggling tunnels used to deliver arms, merchandise, equipment and fuel have been re- dug since the end of Cast Lead. As many as 1,500 tunnels now exist under the Gaza-Egypt border 34 27 Ashkenazi, Eli; Grinberg, Mijal, “Study: Most Sderot kids exhibit post-traumatic stress symptoms,” Haaretz, Jan. 17, 2008, 28 Ashkenazi, Eli; Grinberg, Mijal, “Study: Most Sderot kids exhibit post-traumatic stress symptoms,” Haaretz, Jan. 17, 2008, 29 Dalia Itzhik, Psychologist, Sderot Trauma Center, Jan. 2008 30 Bar Meir, Oved; Levi Yaacov, “Paying a High Price,” Mynet (Hebrew), Jan. 15, 2009,,7340,L- 3656145,00.html 31 Wolf, Pinchas, “Dame of the War: 1,900 claims of a direct hit,” Walla (Hebrew), Jan. 21, 2009, 32 “The Gaza Strip after Operation Cast Lead,” Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center, June 2009, http://www.terrorism- 33 Ibid.
  • 14. 14  Smugglers transport weapons from Iran to Yemen, on to Sudan and then to Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula where they are brought into the Gaza Strip through the tunnels 35  Hamas has received more advanced rockets than it previously possessed. On Nov. 3, 2009, Hamas test fired a rocket 37 miles (60 km) into the Mediterranean Sea. Such rockets put Tel Aviv within range of Hamas’ rocket fire 36 How Israel Deals with Rocket Attacks From Gaza During Operation Pillar of Defense between November 14 and 21, rockets fired by terrorists in Gaza shut down schools and places of work for hundreds of thousands of Israeli citizens. Four Israeli civilians were killed and more than 200 wounded. Despite the more than 2,300 rockets and mortars fired at Israeli towns and cities in 2012, Israeli investment in civil defense kept casualty figures relatively low. The Threat to the Civilian Population More than three million Israelis live within range of rocket and mortar attacks from Hamas controlled Gaza. Since the first Hamas rocket attack in 2001, Israel has been hit by over 13,000 rockets and mortar bombs fired from Gaza at Israeli towns and cities. The terror attacks have killed more than 50 people, wounded hundreds and destroyed hundreds of homes and businesses. The continuous rocket fire from Hamas-controlled Gaza specifically targets Israeli population centers, forcing Israel to develop strategies on how to deal with the attacks. The results have shown an impressive reduction in civilian casualties despite thousands of explosive projectiles launched from Gaza at Israeli towns and cities. The defensive measures include three major developments: Civil Defense Procedures Government and defense officials realized that the prime factor in saving lives and avoiding casualties is the behavior of the civilian population, which has been educated and trained in how to react to rocket attacks. The main civil defense measures are:  Civilians have been instructed to react immediately to air raid sirens and seek shelter. Citizens know to run to bomb shelters, reinforced rooms, stairwells, or in the worst case when caught outdoors to lie down and protect themselves. Citizens in all towns and cities under attack have been instructed as to the maximum time they have to seek shelter when they alarms sound: from 15 to 90 seconds only.  In heavily attacked areas like the town of Sderot where residents have only 15 seconds warning before rockets explode, playgrounds and bus stops have been converted to reinforced concrete bomb shelters.  Schools and hospitals close to the Gaza border have been covered with reinforced concrete so that students and staff are protected from rocket attacks during school hours.  When rocket fire from Gaza is intensive and threatening, Civil Defense officials order residents living within seven km of Gaza to stay in bomb shelters. All kindergartens, schools and universities in a 40-km range remain closed and those civilians are told to remain near shelters.  In October, 2012, a week-long national civil defense drill involving schools, civil services and hospitals took place to train citizens how to act during attacks. A national drill for all schools is scheduled for Thursday, February 14, 2103 to simulate a rocket attack during recess time.  In dozens of cases, apartments or homes where the rockets exploded were evacuated only seconds before with the residents taking shelter in a specially reinforced safe room, on lower floors either in the stairwell (because it's reinforced), or at the back side of the building from the rocket's direction. Color Red (Red Alert) Warning System  The Israel Defense Forces deployed the “Color Red” early warning radar system to detect incoming rockets. Before the system was installed, residents of Israeli towns close to the Gaza border had no warning and rockets would detonate at any time – often killing and wounding innocent civilians. 34 El-Khodary, Taghreed, “Goods Flood Gaza’s Tunnels, Turning Border Area Into a Shopping Mecca,” The New York Times, Oct. 21, 2009, 35 Melman, Yossi; Harel, Amos; Ravid, Barak, “IAF airstrike in Sudan hit convoy of weapons destined for Gaza,” JPost, Mach 27, 2009, 36 Katz, Yaakov; Stoil, Rebecca Anna, “Yadlin: ‘Hamas has many 60-km range missiles’,”
  • 15. 15  Following years of rocket barrages, the alert system was first deployed in Sderot in 2004, giving residents 15 seconds to find shelter. Locals have become so attuned to the system and warning time is so short that residents start running when they hear the ‘click’ as the system’s loudspeakers are turned on a split second before a recorded voice announces “Red Alert – Red Alert.”  A national early warning system was expanded and finalized in 2012–11–19. The “Color Red” system is used in close proximity to Gaza, while traditional air raid sirens are used elsewhere.  The system is connected to national radio broadcasts to automatically interrupt transmission to announce an alert and the location(s) under attack. Iron Dome defensive anti-rocket system Following the increase in rocket and mortar attacks in the south of Israel, the decision made by the Israel Defense Forces was to deploy the new rocket-defense system known as the “Iron Dome”. 37 The system uses advanced radar to track incoming rockets and determine their impact point. It triggers the Red Alert system for the communities being targeted. Within seconds, Iron Dome launches guided missiles to intercept the incoming rockets. If Iron Dome calculates that the attacking rockets will land in open areas it does not fire an intercepting missile. On April 7, 2011, the Iron Dome intercepted a Katyusha rocket fired from the Gaza Strip, aimed for Ashkelon. 38 The ground-breaking defense system counters short range rockets and 155 mm artillery shell threats, with ranges of up to 70km. The target warhead is detonated over a neutral area, therefore reducing collateral damage to the protected area. 39 In the most recent wave of rocket attacks during Operation Pillar of Defense, the Iron Dome system successfully intercepted hundreds of rockets that targeted Israeli cities. The Use of Surgical Targeted Strikes Israel judiciously uses its security and defense services to attack terrorists in Gaza. It utilizes a qualitative intelligence gathering network that is a joint effort of the armed forces and the civilian Israel Security Authority (Shin Bet). With 24/7 aerial surveillance, rocket-launching squads are identified and attacked directly using precision munitions rather than field artillery. The use of precision, targeted strikes is designed to hit only armed combatants and targets and minimize the risk to nearby civilians. One of the primary challenges facing the IDF is the fact that Hamas, Islamic Jihad and other terrorist groups operate from civilian areas. Recently, the groups boldly posted videos clearly showing rocket fire originating from within built-up areas in Gaza. For example, the attack on Hamas military commander Ahmed Jabari was carried out with a pinpoint strike on the car he was driving, waiting an additional few seconds for Jabari’s car to pass another vehicle. Other techniques include:  Depending on the operation, the IDF makes thousands of automated phone calls to residents of the Gaza Strip, warning them of IDF strikes in the area.  The Israel Air Force will drop leaflets printed in Arabic over Gaza that warn civilians to “avoid being present in the vicinity of Hamas operatives.”  During active operations, missiles that are in mid-flight will be diverted due to civilians being present at the site of the target. This happened several times during Operation Cast Lead.  The IAF does ‘roof knocking’ - targeting a building in Gaza with a loud but non-lethal bomb that warns civilians that they are in the vicinity of a weapons cache or other target, allowing all residents to leave the area before the site is targeted with live ammunition. 37 “Iron Dome” System to be Deployed Across Southern Israel,” IDF Spokesperson Blog, Mar. 24, 2011, 38 Katz, Yaakov, “Iron Dome works in combat, intercepts Katyusha rocket,” Jerusalem Post, Apr. 07, 2011, 39 “Iron Dome,” Rafael, (accessed Apr. 10, 2011)
  • 16. 16 Israeli Cities in Rocket Range – Israel’s Strategic Vulnerability Courtesy: Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs (JCPA), Defensible Borders
  • 17. 17 Hamas-backed Terrorism and Israeli Casualties Iran-backed Hamas continues to strengthen its military power in Gaza, especially by smuggling high quality weaponry from the Sinai Peninsula through the tunnels in Rafah in southern Gaza. The Sinai zone in Egypt is becoming Gaza’s “backyard” when it comes to the amount of weaponry destined for smuggling to the Gaza Strip. Examples of Terror Attacks on the Gaza-Egypt-Israel Border Areas: August 2011-Coordinated terror attacks north of Eilat on August 18 left eight Israelis dead. The terrorists shot at a bus of civilians and also used guns and explosives to attack security officials. The group, the Popular Resistance Committees, is from Gaza, but entered Israel through the Sinai. During the next two weeks, hundreds of rockets and mortars were launched at southern Israel, killing another three Israelis. August 2012 - The Mujahedeen Shura Council in Gaza, claims responsibility for the terror attack that killed 16 Egyptian soldiers at a base on the Egyptian side of the border. Terrorists hijacked to armored trucks, using one to blow a hole through the border fence and the second to infiltrate Israel, where they were stopped and killed by Israeli forces on their way to attack a nearby town. 40 April, 2013 – Terrorists in the Sinai fire two rockets at the Israeli city of Eilat, one of which explodes in a neighborhood. Indications are the terrorists may have crossed into the Sinai from Gaza. 41 40 Donnison, Jon, “Israel seeks to contain Gaza's Salafi-jihadist threat,” BBC News, Oct. 15, 2012, 41 Security Wall Construction
  • 18. 18 Fatah, Hamas Reconciliation On May 4, 2011 Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas signed a unity agreement with Iran-backed Hamas, which is still committed to destroying Israel. The deal was brokered in Cairo and saw the two leaders meet for the first time since the violent takeover of Gaza by Hamas in 2007. Khaled Mashaal, the political leader of Hamas, called Israel a “common enemy” to be fought “with force and through diplomacy” at the ceremony. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu called the move a “tremendous blow to peace” and “a great victory for terrorism.” 42 Following the killing of notorious al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden by American Forces, Hamas condemned the killing of an “Arab holy warrior.” 43 As of April, 2013 there is still no unity government, but both Fatah and Hamas say they are committed to reconciliation and including Hamas in the Palestinian Authority. Hamas’ Use of Human Shields Since Hamas’ military take-over of Gaza in June 2007, the terror group has used human shields as a means of protecting its military arsenal and capacities from the IDF.  IDF forces found a zoo and school in Gaza rigged with large amounts of explosives 44  Hamas operatives fired rockets from schoolyards 45 and civilian residences 46  During Cast Lead, Hamas commanders used Shifa Hospital in Gaza City as a base of operations. Hamas fighters and operatives also used other medical installations during the armed conflict 47  Hamas used children as runners during Cast Lead. The children transmitted messages about the movements of enemy forces and brought Hamas terrorists ammunition and food 48 Using the Civilian Population in the Gaza Strip as Human Shields 42 Ferziger, Jonathan and Saud Abu Ramadan, “Abbas Patches Four-Year Rift with Hamas in Bid for Palestinian Statehood,” Bloomberg, May 5,2011, 43 Urquhart, Conal, “Hamas praises Osama bin Laden as a holy warrior,” The Guardian, May 2, 2011, 44 IDF Spokesperson’s Unit blog (official), Jan. 11, 2009, jan-2009-2314-ist/ 45 IDF Spokesperson’s Unit blog (official), Jan. 8, 2009, from-schoolyard-8-jan-09-2326-ist/ 46 Nordland, Rod, “Hamas and Its Discontents,” Newsweek, Jan. 20, 2009, 47 “Hamas Exploitation of Medical Institutions” Israel General Security Services, March 2009, ; Mizroch, Amir, “Dichter: Hamas salaries paid at Shifa Hospital,” The Jerusalem Post, Jan. 12, 2009, 48 Palestinian Media Watch Communiqué, Jan. 13, 2009 This map shows civilian facilities (yellow lines), Hamas facilities (red), and specific types of military emplacements such as rocket sites, ammunition dumps, and fighting positions (stars and triangles) – (Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
  • 19. 19 Israeli Maritime Security Measures Iran-backed Palestinian terrorist groups have, on a number of occasions, attempted to smuggle significant quantities of weapons into Gaza by sea. Israel’s naval blockade on Gaza is designed to prevent such arms deliveries to Iran-backed Hamas and other such groups. The Iranian-backed Lebanese terrorist militia, Hezbollah, also has smuggled weapons by sea and greatly rearmed as a result of international failure to halt these and overland arms deliveries. 49  November 2009: The Israeli Navy intercepted the Francop 100 miles off the coast of Israel. An inspection revealed that the vessel was carrying 36 containers with 500 tons of weapons including rockets, and missiles. The weapons came from Iran and were intended for Hezbollah, via the Syrian port of Latakia. 50  May 2003: An Israel Navy force intercepted the Abu Hasan, a fishing boat sailing from Lebanon to Egypt. On board was a Hezbollah explosives expert, instructional CDs on how to assemble suicide bombs, a radio-activation system for remote-control bombs and 25 detonators for Kassam rockets aboard the ship. 51  January 2002: The Karine-A was intercepted in the Red Sea along the Iranian coast. It was headed for the Palestinian Authority and had 80 submergible containers containing 50 tons of weapons. 52  May 2001: The Santorini was captured in the Mediterranean, headed for Gaza. Aboard, Israeli forces found SA-7 anti-aircraft missiles, RPG -7 anti-tank launchers, mortar shells and artillery rockets. 53 49 Harel, Amos, “Israel treading carefully to avoid war with Syria,” Haaretz, March 5, 2010, report/israel-treading-carefully-to-avoid-war-with-syria-1.264219 50 “Israeli naval force intercepts Iranian weapon ship,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, November 4, 2009, weapon-ship-4-Nov-2009.htm 51 “Seizing of the Abu Hasan,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, May 22, 2003, %202003 52 “The Involvement of Arafat, PA Senior Officials, and Apparatuses in Terrorims against Israel, Corruption and Crime,” Israel Ministry of Foregin Affairs, May 6, 2002, %20PA%20Senior%20Officials%20and 53 “The Involvement of Arafat, PA Senior Officials, and Apparatuses in Terrorims against Israel, Corruption and Crime,” Israel Ministry of Foregin Affairs, May 6, 2002, %20PA%20Senior%20Officials%20and
  • 20. 20 There is no necessity to break the Israeli security cordon because there is no humanitarian crisis in Gaza. Mathild Redmatn, deputy director of the Red Cross in Gaza, said in April that Gaza is very “normal” despite its extensive media attention. “There is no humanitarian crisis in Gaza,” said Redmatn. “Israel has the legitimate right to protect the civilian population,” she added. Israel imposed a blockade on the Gaza Strip after it was seized by the Iranian-backed terror group Hamas in 2007. The blockade is designed to prevent weapons, rockets and explosives from reaching Hamas, which uses Gaza as a base for regular rocket and other terror attacks against Israel. While blocking the movement of weapons and other military materiel, Israel has allowed the entry of the equivalent of one ton of aid for every person living in Gaza. Israel consistently urges all parties to deliver any goods to Gaza through established channels, such as the Ashdod port or Gaza-Israel border crossings. “The appropriate way to meet needs in Gaza was through legitimate crossings,” said U.N. Special Coordinator for the Middle East Robert Serry in a briefing to the Security Council in September 2010. Less than 15 percent of Gaza’s economy is humanitarian aid. Gaza imports goods much like any other country. Its economy is growing and the need for humanitarian need has declined as a direct result. “Two luxury hotels are opening in Gaza this month. A second shopping mall – with escalators imported from Israel – will open next month. Hundreds of homes and two dozen schools are about to go up. A Hamas-run farm where Jewish settlements once stood is producing enough fruit that Israeli imports are tapering off.” -- Ethan Bronner, The New York Times, June 25, 2011 Trade and Import in Gaza Israel has expanded and adjusted its civilian policy towards Gaza in recent years to meet the humanitarian needs of Gaza’s people, according to Israeli Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT), Major General Eitan Dangot. Israel helps approve hundreds of civilian projects for the strip including education projects, healthcare missions, healthcare centers, water and sewage initiatives (including 5 wastewater treatment plants), housing projects, agriculture projects, new roads and more. The World Bank and Germany, for example, are sponsoring large initiatives in northern Gaza including a new sewage system and environmental projects. Most recently Israel approved the passage of Turkish aid trucks into Gaza for the construction of a new hospital. 54 Approximately 200 container trucks entered Gaza daily in December, 2012. This included 1,392 truckloads of Food, 132 truckloads of Clothes and Footwear, 58 truckloads of Inputs for Agriculture, 2,511 truckloads of Construction Materials, 186 truckloads of Electric Products and 406 truckloads of Ceramics and Plumbing.. In addition to Israel’s Ashdod port just north of Gaza, the Kerem Shalom crossing has become the major economic hub from which goods enter Gaza. Israel has had to respond to security threats and terrorist attacks that target the border crossings. Yet, there has been greater movement of Gaza’s businessmen abroad and to Israel and the West Bank. About 800 businessmen traveled abroad for business in February 2011. The PA sets the priority of what goods Gaza needs and the list is sent to Israel daily. There are dozens of weekly meetings between PA and Israeli officials at Erez in order to improve the transfer of goods to Gaza. Israel has also upped Gazan exports to the West Bank and overseas. The goods include strawberries, tomatoes, flowers, peppers and a new focus on furniture and textiles. Farmers in Gaza, for example, have established relationships with Israeli agricultural associations. Israel also provides electricity and water to Gaza’s civilians. Thirty-seven educational facilities and new housing units, 14 health centers and 13 agricultural units are currently being developed in Gaza. Israel approves these projects despite terrorist groups repeatedly attacking the Israeli-Gaza crossings. For years Hamas actively prevented Israel from delivering diesel fuel to Gaza despite energy and electricity 54
  • 21. 21 shortages. In the worst attack on April 9, 2008, four Hamas attacked the Nahal Oz terminal where fuel is transferred to Gaza, killing two Israeli civilians workers. Millions of tons of humanitarian aid have been transferred to Gaza since Operation Cast Lead, equaling over a ton of aid for every individual there. Supplies include food, first aid goods, heavy-duty diesel fuel and construction products. 55 Revised List of Controlled Goods In October, 2012, the Israeli government adjusted the civilian aspects of its policy set in 2010 towards Gaza in order to provide additional relief to the Gazan civilian population and at the same time continue to try and prevent the entry of arms, rockets and other equipment Iranian-backed Hamas could utilize to harm innocent Israeli citizens. 56 The list of controlled goods designated by the Israeli government into Gaza is limited to weapons, war material and dual-use items. All other items not on the list are allowed into Gaza.  All war materials forbidden from crossing Israeli frontiers are also not allowed into Gaza, which include arms, munitions, and rocket making equipment. The items not permitted are defined in the Control of Exports Security Order (Arms and Munitions) 5768-2008, and in the Control of Exports Security Order (Missile Equipment) 5768-2008. 57 Dual use items are goods that can be used for both civilian purposes and for the development, manufacture, set up or improvement of military capabilities.  The dual use items included in this list are based on the Wassenaar Arrangement and Israeli legislation defined by the Control of Exports Security Order 5768-2008 and in the Orders of the OC Central Command. 58  Dual use goods not permitted into the Gaza Strip include those chemicals that can be used in the production of explosives, including certain fertilizers, composite materials, hunting knives, optical equipment, certain navigation aids, parachutes, gliders, non-motorized airborne vehicles, fireworks, avionics, flight control equipment and missile-related computer technologies. 59 Increased Inflow of Construction Materials 60 The Israeli government designed the new policy to expand the import of construction materials for Palestinian Authority (PA) authorized projects observed by the international community.  The goods allowed into Gaza for PA projects under this revised policy include cement, lime, concrete, steel elements, iron, and steel cables, and vehicles. For specific international community projects in the Gaza Strip, exceptions will be made to allow certain other goods into Gaza. Increased Transfer of Goods and Cooperation 61 The new policy also allowed for the expansion in volume of goods and items transferred into Gaza at the border crossings. 55 “Increased humanitarian aid to Gaza after IDF operation,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, June 26, 2010, 56 “ Update Concerning the List of Controlled Items to the Gaza Strip,” Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT), October 2012. 57 “Gaza: Lists of Controlled Entry Items,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, July 4, 2010, 58 “Gaza: Lists of Controlled Entry Items,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, July 4, 2010, 59 “The Civilian Policy Towards the Gaza Strip Information Booklet,” Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT), June 2010. 60 “Gaza: Lists of Controlled Entry Items,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, July 4, 2010, 61 “Gaza: Lists of Controlled Entry Items,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, July 4, 2010,
  • 22. 22  Before the Israeli security cabinet policy change, 90 trucks passed through the Kerem Hashalom crossing daily. Since July 2010, 250 trucks pass through the goods crossing each day.  The Israeli government is increasing the effectiveness of the crossing to allow 400 trucks to pass through to Gaza daily in 2011  December 2010 saw a 30% increase in the number of truckload deliveries into the Gaza Strip. By mid-December, 22,167 tons of supplies were entering the Gaza Strip weekly Israel has increased cooperation with the PA and international organizations to improve the standard of life of the civilian population in Gaza.  These projects are in the areas of health, infrastructure in sewage, water and housing, and in education. Humanitarian Aid into Gaza During Cast Lead: 62  37,159 tons of food products, medication and medical supplies  1,837,000 liters of heavy duty diesel for the Gaza power station  188,000 liters of diesel for UNRWA vehicles and needs  68 chronically ill people and their escorts evacuated Gaza and received treatment in Israel, the West Bank and Jordan  37 employees of international NGO’s entered Gaza via the Erez crossing Rafah Crossing Opened by Egypt On May 28, 2011 the Rafah crossing between Egypt and the Gaza Strip was officially opened for foot traffic. About 400 Gazans were reported to have been waiting at the crossing. Currently, those who wish to cross into Egypt must first be vetted. Only women and children under the age of 18 will be allowed to leave as well as men over the age of 40 years. There are calls to open the crossing for commercial goods as well as for residents, which raises fears in both Egypt and Israel of weapons being brought in to arm the Iranian backed terrorists under Hamas. There is also concern amongst Israeli officials that the opening of the crossing could lead to military training personnel crossing to instruct Hamas fighters. “One trainer who tells them how to set up rockets and how to use them is equal to a large quantity of weapons,” said Amos Gilad, a senior Israeli defense ministry official. 63 The majority of rockets fired from Gaza fall in open areas. Despite the victory of recently elected Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi, the Egyptian government has not yet opened the Rafah crossing without restrictions. There have been several terrorist incidents in the area. The worst attack occurred on August 5, 2012, when Jihadist terrorists attacked an Egyptian army base near Rafah, killing 16 Egyptian police officers and stealing two armored vehicles. The terrorists used one of the vehicles as a truck bomb to blow open the border fence, and drove the second vehicle into Israel intending to attack a nearby town. The IDF intercepted them and destroyed the vehicle, stopping the attack. 62 “Increased humanitarian aid to Gaza after IDF operation,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, March 1, 2009, 63 “Egypt opens Rafah border with Gaza,” Al Jazeera, May 28, 2011,
  • 23. 23 “In assessing the condition of the 1.6 million people who live in Gaza, there are issues of where to draw the baseline and — often — what motivates the discussion. It has never been among the world’s poorest places. There is near universal literacy and relatively low infant mortality, and health conditions remain better than across much of the developing world. ‘We have 100 percent vaccination; no polio, measles, diphtheria or AIDS,’ said Mahmoud Daher, a World Health Organization official here. ‘We’ve never had a cholera outbreak.’” - Ethan Bronner, The New York Times, June 2011 Healthcare The United Nations reports that the West Bank and Gaza have a well-developed health care system that provides the full range of primary, secondary and tertiary services that include the option of patient referrals to neighboring countries for specialty care if the “relevant expertise is not available locally.” 64 The main providers are the Palestinian Ministry of Health, United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), Palestinian nongovernmental organizations and the private sector, according to the U.N. Some 2 million Palestinians are registered with UNRWA: approximately 1.2 million Palestinians are registered in the Gaza Strip and 848,000 Palestinians in the West Bank, making up 75.8% and 33.8% of the respective total resident populations. The health conditions of Palestinian mothers and children registered with UNRWA have shown continued improvement. The percentage of deliveries attended by skilled health personnel is 99.6% in the West Bank and 99.9% in the Gaza Strip in 2010. The infant mortality rate is comparable to, if not better than, rates in other Middle Eastern countries. “On average, 75% of pregnant women registered during the first trimester, 99.4% delivered in a health institution and over 90% received postnatal care,” the World Health Organization stated in May 2011. 65 During 2010, the full immunization coverage rate among infants at 12 months of age was 90.2% in Gaza and 99.9% in the West Bank. The coverage rate for children aged 18 months receiving booster doses was above 99.9% in both the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. 66 Also, the UK’s The Guardian recently reported that Gazans have a life expectancy that rivals many developed countries. 67 “Life expectancy in Gaza is 74, seven years above the world average and higher than in Egypt, India or Russia. Infant mortality, a reliable indicator of problem- state status, is less than half the world average. The inflation rate in 2010 was 3.5 percent, compared to an annualized U.S. rate of 3.6 percent in May this year,” The Washington Times reported in June 2011. 68 64 65 66 67 68
  • 24. 24 West Bank and Gaza – According to the World Bank Poverty rate - 31.2% in 2007, 21.9% in 2009 Life expectancy – 74 in 2009 Literacy rate, adult total – 95% in 2009 Unemployment rate – 24.5% in 2009 Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access) – 91% in 2008 Palestinians and Israeli Medical Treatment Israel regularly treats Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza who are in need of medical care. Israeli hospitals, such as Barzilai Medical Center near the Gaza border, regularly treat Palestinians from Gaza and the West Bank. The Civil Administration, an Israeli unit tasked with the coordination and administration of civilian and humanitarian needs in the West Bank, gave 97,405 medical permits to Palestinians from the West Bank in the first seven months of 2011 alone, officials told The Israel Project. The Civil Administration is part of a larger body, the Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT), a unit of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). It is made up of both civilian and military personnel. In 2010, Israel announced the availability of special funds to Palestinians with special needs. The Welfare Review Committee of the Civil Administration, established to oversee the applications, approved each and every request, spending over $25,000 (90,000 NIS) on wheelchairs, hearing devices, prosthetics, and other types of medical equipment. Israel regularly treats Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza who are in need of medical care. Israeli hospitals, such as Barzilai Medical Center near the Gaza border, regularly treat Palestinians from Gaza and the West Bank. The Civil Administration gave 97,405 medical permits to Palestinians from the West Bank in the first seven months of 2011 alone, officials told The Israel Project. In 2010, Israel announced the availability of special funds to Palestinians with special needs. The Welfare Review Committee of the Civil Administration, established to oversee the applications, approved each and every request, spending over $25,000 (90,000 NIS) on wheelchairs, hearing devices, prosthetics, and other types of medical equipment. The Civil Administration also recently announced an increase in allotted funds for 2011 and is currently welcoming applications from private individuals, NGOs, and international organizations on behalf of Palestinians with disabilities. 69 The Civil Administration also opened a new health service center at the end of May 2011 that provides quick response for ambulance transport for West Bank patients to Israel and Jordan. The center coordinates the medical needs of the patients and is open 24-hours a day. 70 The center provides follow-up care medical coordination in Israel. All Israeli hospitals and doctors provide care to Palestinians regardless of political orientation. Jerusalem’s Shaare Zedek Hospital, for example, specializes in kidney dialysis for children from the West Bank. 69 disabilities-in-2010/ 70
  • 25. 25 Statements by Gaza-based Palestinian Terror Groups Khaled Mashaal, Political leader of Hamas - August 30, 2010 "Now, its [Israel's] heartland is a field of battle for the Palestinian resistance.” December 8, 2012: “There is no legitimacy for Israel, however long time lasts.” 71 Abu Ahmed, Palestinian Islamic Jihad Spokesman - Sept. 4, 2007 “The rockets have become accurate, they hardly miss, and most important, they manage to disrupt the Israelis’ lives…We definitely planned to increase the rocket fire when the school year opened.” 72 Hamas spokesman, Sami Abu Zuhri - May 20, 2007 “The Palestinian resistance, especially Hamas and its armed wing Izzedine al- Qassam, will keep up launching homemade shells on the Israeli settlements and communities.” 73 Speaker at a the first Hamas rally in the West Bank after a five-year absence – Dec 13, 2012 "Your objective: resistance. Your leaders: Hamas. Your wish: to die in the name of God… Create a volcano among the Israelis." 74 71 72 Waked, Ali “Al-Quds Brigades: Sderot strike strengthens us”, YnetNews, Sept. 4, 2007,,7340,L- 3445458,00.html 73 Ibid. 74 (Al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigades website, (Mohammed Saber/European Press Photo Agency)
  • 26. 26 Excerpts from the Hamas Charter (Translation from the Middle East Media Research Institute – MEMRI “There is no solution to the Palestinian problem except by jihad. Initiatives, proposals and international conferences are a waste of time and a farce.” “The initiatives, the so-called peace solutions, and the international conferences for resolving the Palestinian problem stand in contradiction to the principles of the Islamic Resistance Movement, for to neglect any part of Palestine is to neglect part of the Islamic faith. The nationalism of the Islamic Resistance Movement is part of its [Islamic] faith. It is in the light of this principle that its members are educated, and they wage jihad in order to raise the banner of Allah over the homeland.” “It now remains for steps to be taken by the Arab and Islamic world. [The Islamic Resistance Movement] is well qualified for the upcoming stage [of the struggle] with the Jews, the warmongers.” “The Islamic Resistance Movement maintains that the land of Palestine is Waqf land given as endowment for all generations of Muslims until the Day of Resurrection. One should not neglect it or [even] a part of it, nor should one relinquish it or [even] a part of it. No Arab state, or [even] all of the Arab states [together], have [the right] to do this; no king or president has this right nor all the kings and presidents together; no organization, or all the organizations together - be they Palestinian or Arab - [have the right to do this] because Palestine is Islamic Waqf land given to all generations of Muslims until the Day of Resurrection.” Citing Hassan al-Banna: “Israel will exist, and will continue to exist, until Islam abolishes it, as it abolished that which was before it.” Citing the Hadith (collections of statements and actions attributed to Muhammad, according to Islamic tradition): “The hour of judgment shall not come until the Muslims fight the Jews and kill them, so that the Jews hide behind trees and stones, and each tree and stone will say: 'Oh Muslim, oh servant of Allah, there is a Jew behind me, come and kill him,' except for the Gharqad tree, for it is the tree of the Jews.” “It is necessary to instill the spirit of jihad in the nation, engage the enemies and join the ranks of the jihad fighters.” “The indoctrination campaign must involve ulama, educators, teachers and information and media experts, as well as all intellectuals, especially the young people and the sheikhs of Islamic movements. It is [also] necessary to introduce essential changes in the curricula, in order to eliminate the influences of the intellectual invasion which were inflicted upon them by the Orientalists and the missionaries.” “Today it is Palestine, and tomorrow some other country or countries, for the Zionist plan has no limits, and after Palestine they want to expand [their territory] from the Nile to the Euphrates, and when they finish devouring one area, they hunger for further expansion and so on, indefinitely. Their plan is expounded in The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and their present [behavior] is the best proof for what we are saying.” “With money they have taken control of the world media - news agencies, the press, publishing houses, broadcasting services, etc. With money they sparked revolutions in various countries around the world in order to serve their interests and to reap profits. They were behind the French Revolution and the Communist Revolution and [they are behind] most of the revolutions about which we hear from time to time here and there. With money they have formed secret organizations, all over the world, in order to destroy [those countries'] societies and to serve the Zionists' interests, such as the Freemasons, the Rotary Clubs, the Lions, the Sons of the Covenant [i.e. B'nei B'rith], etc”
  • 27. 27 Spokespeople, Officials, Experts and Residents Available for Comment For a list of officials, subject experts and residents who can be interviewed, please contact TIP for a copy of our Expert Sourcebook. These include:  Israeli government spokespeople and sources  Subject experts on defence, terrorism, international relations, Arab affairs, etc.  Sderot and Gaza border region public officials and residents
  • 28. 28 Appendix A - List of Controlled Dual-Use Items 1. Fertilizers or any mixture containing chloric potassium with concentrations greater than 5%. 2. Fibers or textiles containing carbon (carbon fibers or graphite fibers), including: a. Chopped carbon fibers. b. Carbon roving. c. Carbon strand. d. Carbon fabric tape. 3. Glass fiber-based raw materials, including: a. Chopped glass fibers. b. Glass roving c. Glass strand. d. Glass fabric tape. e. S-glass. f. E-glass. 4. Vessels. 5. Fibers or fabrics featuring polyethylene, also known as Dyneema. 6. Retro detection devices. 7. Gas tanks. 8. Drilling equipment. 9. Equipment for the production of water from drillings. 10. Vinyl esther resins. 11. Epoxy resins. 12. Hardeners for epoxy resins featuring chemical groups of durable or reliable types, including: a. DETA – diethylenetriamine. b. TETA – thiethylenetramine. c. AEP – aminoethylpiperazine. d. E-100-ethyleneamine. e. Jeffamine T-403. f. Catalyst 4,5,6,22,23,105, 140, 145,150,179,190,240. g. D.E.H 20,24,25,26,29,52,58,80,81,82,83,84,85,87. h. XZ 92740.00 13. Vinyl esther accelerants, including: a. DMA-dimethylaniline.State of Israel b. Cobalt octoate. c. MEKP – methylethyl keyone peroxide. d. AAP – acetyl acetone peroxide. e. CuHP – cumene hydroperoxide. 14. M or H type HTPB, hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene. 15. Water disinfection materials– solutions with a concentration of over 11%. 16. TDI - Toluene diisocyanate.