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  • 1. Building Resilience in Haiti: Equity, Information, Growth, and Sustainability Frantz Verella September 30, 2010Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 1 / 36
  • 2. Plan Cities, Complexity and Resilience Equity, Information, Growth and Sustainability Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 2 / 36
  • 3. A Mathematical Metaphor Picture a dynamical system with multiple equilibria Earthquake propelled us outside the basin of attraction of the status quo A sensitive path between chaos and status quo leads to a better equilibrium Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 3 / 36
  • 4. A Mathematical Metaphor Picture a dynamical system with multiple equilibria Earthquake propelled us outside the basin of attraction of the status quo A sensitive path between chaos and status quo leads to a better equilibrium reconstruction must solve this mammoth optimal control problem Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 3 / 36
  • 5. Outline1 Introduction2 Perspectives3 Cities, Complexity, and Resilience Cities Complexity Resilience4 Urban/Regional Planning Equity Information Growth Sustainability Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 4 / 36
  • 6. Community ResilienceIn 2009, the National Academies held a panel on the Applications of SocialNetwork Analysis for Building Community Disaster Resilience.Dr. Fran Norris of Dartmouth Medical School outlined: Social Capital Community Competence Economic Development and Robust Communication Infrastructuresas key ingredients for Community Resilience. Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 5 / 36
  • 7. Community Resilience in Haiti Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 6 / 36
  • 8. Community Resilience in Haiti A population on the edge of survival forced to exhaust the scarce resources of the environment without much regard to their renewal Urban concentrations exhausting the land and paralyzing local initiatives Port-au-Prince hosted nearly 73, 400 inhabitants per square mile (2007) 843 per square mile in Haiti (2009) GDP 733 dollars per year counting the metropolitan area: 50 percent of the population living on 1.37 percent of the land Persistent social inequalities that drain the chances of fulfillment of most of the population Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 7 / 36
  • 9. Vulnerable Communities: Hurricanes and Floods Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 8 / 36
  • 10. Vulnerable Communities: Jan 12th Earthquake Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 9 / 36
  • 11. Outline1 Introduction2 Perspectives3 Cities, Complexity, and Resilience Cities Complexity Resilience4 Urban/Regional Planning Equity Information Growth Sustainability Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 10 / 36
  • 12. Perspectives on Reconstruction Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 11 / 36
  • 13. Perspectives on Reconstruction Cities are Complex Systems/Organisms Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 11 / 36
  • 14. Perspectives on Reconstruction Cities are Complex Systems/Organisms There is an urgent need for a sophisticated understanding and implementation of urban and regional planning Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 11 / 36
  • 15. Perspectives on Reconstruction Cities are Complex Systems/Organisms There is an urgent need for a sophisticated understanding and implementation of urban and regional planning A resilient reconstruction must be animated by the same principles that guide preparedeness and mitigation of risk Equity Information Growth Sustainability Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 11 / 36
  • 16. Outline1 Introduction2 Perspectives3 Cities, Complexity, and Resilience Cities Complexity Resilience4 Urban/Regional Planning Equity Information Growth Sustainability Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 12 / 36
  • 17. Port-au-Prince, Complexity and Resilience Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 13 / 36
  • 18. Port-au-Prince, Complexity and Resilience Adaptation: a significant proportion of the population moves out of the affected areas Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 13 / 36
  • 19. Port-au-Prince, Complexity and Resilience Adaptation: a significant proportion of the population moves out of the affected areas Interaction: the network of this movement is not only based on geographical distance Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 13 / 36
  • 20. Port-au-Princein Haiti’s social, economic, political landscape assembly manufacturing as the single industry growth plan uncontrolled urbanization and rural flight increase in food imports undermining the agricultural production Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 14 / 36
  • 21. Port-au-Princein Haiti’s social, economic, political landscape assembly manufacturing as the single industry growth plan uncontrolled urbanization and rural flight increase in food imports undermining the agricultural production Port-au-Prince becomes an undeserving metropolis Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 14 / 36
  • 22. Port-au-Princein Haiti’s social, economic, political landscape assembly manufacturing as the single industry growth plan uncontrolled urbanization and rural flight increase in food imports undermining the agricultural production Port-au-Prince becomes an undeserving metropolis Adaptive, Complex and Chaotic . . . Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 14 / 36
  • 23. Lessons from American CitiesIn 1961, Jane Jacobs published The Death and Life of Great AmericanCities, one of the most influencial volumes on urban planning. A critiqueof modernist planning, Jacobs: argues against artificial separation of land use as residential, commercial, and industrial favors a mixed, redundant and local approach to land/resource allocationVibrant cities are made of interacting neighborhoods and communities thatare multifaceted, multipurpose, and whose functionalities are redundant. Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 15 / 36
  • 24. Complex SystemsIn The Architecture of Complexity (1962), Herbert Simon wrote that: Roughly, by a complex system I mean one made up of a large number of parts that interact in a nonsimple way. In such systems, the whole is more than the sum of the parts, [. . . ] , given the properties of the parts and the laws of their interaction, it is not a trivial matter to infer the properties of the whole.” The study of complex systems originated in non-equilibrium statistical physics Recently social scientists have become increasingly interested in complex systems Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 16 / 36
  • 25. Cities and ComplexityMichael Batty, in Cities and Complexity (2005), advocates a generativeunderstanding of cities via computational models. Considering cities ascomplex systems, he brings to urban planning: tools: Agent-based Modeling, Cellular Automata concepts: self-organization, criticality, complex networks, spatial epidemics, emergence methods: mean-field approximation, simulationof complexity science.The processes that animate a city are the macroscopic outcomes of themicromotives and microbehaviors of the city’s inhabitants. Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 17 / 36
  • 26. Resilience Resilience is property of a material that absorbs energy when deformed elastically; and releases this energy when it regains its shape. In The Resilient City (2005), Vale and Campanella, suggest that major modern cities are resilient as they are routinely able to rebound from disaster. Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 18 / 36
  • 27. Three Noteworthy Axiom of Resilience Resilience Benefits from the Inertia of Prior Investment Disasters Reveal the Resilience of Governments Resilience Entails More than Rebuilding Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 19 / 36
  • 28. Tangshan, China July 28th 1976, the city of Tangshan is hit by a magnitude 7.8 earthquake over 250 thousand people killed, in a city of about one million. Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 20 / 36
  • 29. Tangshan, China July 28th 1976, the city of Tangshan is hit by a magnitude 7.8 earthquake over 250 thousand people killed, in a city of about one million. The city was rebuilt within a decade, by Chinese officials. In 2008, Tangshan’s population was over seven million, with a GDP per capita of 6, 817 dollars. Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 20 / 36
  • 30. Grand Goˆve and Ravine du Sud aUnmitigated Risk to Natural Disaster Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 21 / 36
  • 31. Outline1 Introduction2 Perspectives3 Cities, Complexity, and Resilience Cities Complexity Resilience4 Urban/Regional Planning Equity Information Growth Sustainability Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 22 / 36
  • 32. Elements of a Course of Action Regional and Urban Planning Agriculture and Environmental Conservation Decentralized and Robust Economic Growth Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 23 / 36
  • 33. Equity Education Health Care Access to Credit Access to Markets Mobility Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 24 / 36
  • 34. Mobility Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 25 / 36
  • 35. Information Education Energy Layered and Dense Communication Infrastructures Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 26 / 36
  • 36. The NGO Network Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 27 / 36
  • 37. Growth Access to Credit and Markets Mobility Low Transaction Cost Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 28 / 36
  • 38. Growth =⇒ Decentralization Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 29 / 36
  • 39. Growth =⇒ Decentralization Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 30 / 36
  • 40. Growth =⇒ Decentralization Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 31 / 36
  • 41. Sustainability Agriculture and Environmental Conservation Regional and Urban Planning Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 32 / 36
  • 42. Sustainable Agriculture Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 33 / 36
  • 43. Conservation Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 34 / 36
  • 44. Ecological Tourism Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 35 / 36
  • 45. Closing Remark Cities, Complexity, and Resilience Urban/Regional Planning Reconstruction is an issue of colossal importance Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 36 / 36
  • 46. Closing Remark Cities, Complexity, and Resilience Urban/Regional Planning Reconstruction is an issue of colossal importance In the aftermath of the second world war, the major issue of debate in Berlin, Nagasaki and Hiroshima was not: Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 36 / 36
  • 47. Closing Remark Cities, Complexity, and Resilience Urban/Regional Planning Reconstruction is an issue of colossal importance In the aftermath of the second world war, the major issue of debate in Berlin, Nagasaki and Hiroshima was not:election Verella () Building Resilience September 30, 2010 36 / 36