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Technology trends that will shape our future

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Keys technology trends that will shape our future

Keys technology trends that will shape our future

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  • 1. Technology Trends that will endure1. Long Term Evolution (LTE)2. Smart Grids3. Software Defined Networks4. NoSQL5. Near Field Communication (NFC)6. Internet of Things (IoT)/Machine to Machine (M2M)7. Big Data8. Social Networks9. Cloud Computing03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 2
  • 2. Communication networks Ubiquitous computing Internet of Things (IoT) LTE Smart Grids SDNs Cloud Computing NFC Social Networks Big Data NoSQL Scalable, distributed systems03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 3
  • 3. Technology then, now and beyondThen• "It is conceivable that cables of telephone wires could be laid underground, or suspended overhead, communicating by branch wires with private dwellings, country houses, shops, manufactories, etc." – Alexander Graham Bell, 1877• I think there is a world market for maybe five computers. - IBM Chairman Thomas Watson, 1943• Computers in the future may have only 1,000 vacuum tubes and perhaps only weigh 1 1/2 tons. - Popular Mechanics, 1949• 640K ought to be enough for anybody. - Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates,1981Now• IBMs Deep Blue computer defeats world chess champion in game one – ABC news, 1996• Computer Wins on ‘Jeopardy!’ New York Times, 2011FutureGesture recognition, cognitive intelligence, ubiquitous computing etc.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 4
  • 4. 03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 5
  • 5. The forces behind LTE (4G)There are 2 main drivers for LTE Mobile data growth Smart devices03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 6
  • 6. Mobile data growth Mobile data is growing at an exponential speed Mobile data in US & Europe expected to grow at a CAGR of 55% & 42% respectively Mobile data revenues expected to grow at a rate of 18% Mobile broadband connections will reach 1 billion by 2012 segmented between 3G & 4G technologies Customers Angered as iPhones Overload AT&T – New York Times, 200903/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 7
  • 7. Mobile devicesIn the last 2 years• 1 billion new mobile subscriptions added• 2 billion wireless devices soldDevice range from Mobile phones, Smartphones, Netbooks, PDAs, Wireless dongles and Tablets• These devices are bandwidth hogs• Currently there are 3.5 billion subscribers worldwide03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 8
  • 8. The rise and rise of data03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 9
  • 9. The birth of LTE (4G)To handle the growth in mobile data traffic a feasibility study on theUTRA & UTRAN Long Term Evolution was started in December 2004.The objective was "to develop a framework for the evolution of the 3GPP radio-access technology towards a high-data-rate, low-latency and packet-optimized radio- access technology”In 3GPP Release 8 the specifications of the EPS (Evolved Packet Core) which consisted of the E-UTRAN (Enhanced UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network) and EPC (Evolved Packet Core) was created.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 10
  • 10. The evolution to 4G• 1G Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Analog, Circuit Switched, FDMA, FDD  US trials 1978; deployed in Japan (’79) & US (’83)• 2G : Global System for Mobile (GSM)  Digital, Circuit Switched, FDMA and TDMA, FDD• 2G : Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)  Digital, Circuit Switched, FDMA, SS, FDD  Introduced in 1994 in North America03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 11
  • 11. 2.5G, 3G2.5G (GPRS) – 2.5 G GPRS is an enhancement over the GSM. – Provides packet switched services (56 Kbps, 114 Kbps) – Commercial available in 2001/20023G (IMS) – IMT-200 was formed to handle higher network capacity – 144 Kbps for mobile service – 2MBps for fixed access – Operates in the 2Ghz band – The main technologies were selected – Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) – CDMA 2000 (an evolution of IS 95 CDMA) – 2003/200403/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 12
  • 12. 3.5G & 4G3.5 G – HSD(U)PA (High Speed Down/Up link packet access) – HSPA (High Speed Packet access) – Current HSDPA deployments support down-link speeds of 1.8, 3.6, 7.2 and 14.0 Megabit/s.4G (LTE)To handle even higher data throughputs we have the 4G technology4. Long Term Evolution (LTE)5. Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)6. Uses an all-IP core network7. Data rates upto 100 Mbps8. Introduced in 2010 – 2011 by Sprint/AT&T in US03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 13
  • 13. GSM Evolution for Data Access 03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 1403/14/12 INWARDi-http://www.inwardi.com 14
  • 14. Evolution from 1G to 4G 3.99G (4G) 3.5GMigration to 4G HSDPA LTE Upto 100 Mbps HSUPA HSPA 7.2Mbps 14Mbps 2008 2010+ 03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 15
  • 15. Elements of the LTE SystemLTE encompasses the evolution of• Radio access through E-UTRAN (eNodeB)• Non-radio aspects under the term System Architecture Evolution (SAE)Entire system composed of LTE & SAE is called Evolved Packet System (EPS)At a high level a LTE network is composed of• Access network comprised of E-UTRAN• Core Network called Evolved Packet Core (EPC)03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 16
  • 16. LTE Network Elements03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 17
  • 17. LTE Network Elements UE – User Equipment used to connect to the EPS (Evolved Packet System). This is an LTE capable UE The LTE network is comprised of a) Access Network b) Core Network Access network ENB (eNodeB) – The evolved RAN consists of single node, the eNodeB that interfaces with UE. The eNodeB hosts the PHY,MAC, RLC & RRC layers. It handles radio resource management & scheduling. Core Network (Evolved Packet Core-EPC)  MME (Mobility Management Entity) – Performs paging, chooses the SGW during UE attach  S-GW (Serving Gateway) – routes & and forwards user data packets  P-GW (Packet Gateway) – provides connectivity between the UE and the external packet networks.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 18
  • 18. LTE Network Elements03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 19
  • 19. LTE Technologies LTE uses OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) for lower latency and better spectral efficiency Uses MIMO (Multiple In Multiple Out) LTE uses several transmit & receive paths reducing interference with increase in spectral efficiency and throughput. Flatter architecture – Fewer Network elements in the LTE Evolved Packet Core(EPC). This results in lower latency because of lesser number of hops as compared to 3G. Absence of RNC like Network Element(NE).03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 20
  • 20. Operator strategies for LTE deploymentVoice & SMS are the main source of revenue for the telecom companies. LTE strategy should be one of the following3. Data only services on LTE4. Data only services on LTE with 2G – 3G voice5. Data service on LTE and IMS based VOIP (VoLTE)6. Voice and data service on LTE (VoLGA)The above 3 strategies are not alternatives but a path for evolution10. Data only option targeted to customers with LTE dongles, netbooks, air cards etc11. Voice will remain a major revenue generator for CSP. LTE for data and 2G- 3G network for voice calls. Operators will need to implement a CS-Fallback option (3GPP 23.272) to support voice on 2G-3G networks. The call will fall back to GSM-UMTS network for voice12. Voice and data service on LTE uses the IMS for voice services and LTE for data. This is based on an all –IP network. On Feb 15,2010 the One Voice was adopted by GSMA as the Voice over LTE (VoLTE). This is an end-to-end LTE ecosystem.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 21
  • 21. LTE benefits LTE provides download speeds of 100 Mbps downlink and 50Mbps uplink Reduced latency ( <10 ms ) for better user experience LTE has a better spectral efficiency (can squeeze more data) Lower cost per bit (flatter architecture) LTE base station cost is 1/5th of HSPA cost Backwards compatible o Works with GSM/EDGE/UMTS o Utilizes existing 2G, 3G and new spectrum Reduced CAPEX/OPEX via simple architecture In short LTE provides high throughput, low latency , better spectral efficiency and lower cost-per-bit. LTE provides for better QoE (Quality of Experience)03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 22
  • 22. LTE ServicesBased on the features of LTE newer an richer services can be provided2. Video services (high throughput)3. Low Latency (Gaming)4. Real time video conferencing (high quality)5. M2M services03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 23
  • 23. Telecom in the Indian context• India will be re-auctioning the 2G spectrum from the 122 cancelled licenses• The auction of the 3G spectrum by the government recently concluded in May, 2010 after 34 days and 183 rounds of intense bidding by nine private operators for 22 circles. the 3G spectrum auction was a bonanza for the Indian Government which netted Rs. 66000 crores• India is to auction 4G spectrum later this year. 29 Feb 2012,• Empowered Group of Ministers (EGoM) has decided to earmark the 700 Mhz band for offering fourth generation (4G) mobile services. March 5,201203/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 24
  • 24. 03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 25
  • 25. The Electric GridThe Grid“The Grid,” refers to the electric grid, a network of transmission lines, substations, transformers and more that deliver electricity from the power plant to your home or business.• It’s what you plug into when you flip on your light switch or power up your computer.Issue• The issue with the traditional energy grid is that there are enormous losses in transmission and grid would be strained during peak usage. Moreover any outage of the energy grid would have a domino effect and could effectively cause a blackout in large areas. – The blackout in US in 2003 which was the largest blackout in US history03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 26
  • 26. What makes the Grid “smart”• The Smart Grid will have intelligent sensors and smart meters• The digital technology that allows for two-way communication between the utility and its customers, and the sensing along the transmission lines is what makes the grid smart• These technologies will work with the electrical grid to respond digitally to our quickly changing electric demand.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 27
  • 27. Aspects of a Smart GridThe Smart Grid is made up of the following 4 aspects Smart Home Distribution Intelligence Operation Centers Plug-in vehicles03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 28
  • 28. Smart Home Smart Homes will be equipped with smart meters instead of the traditional meters. These meters will be equipped with 2 way communication with your energy utility. All the appliances in your home will be networked into a “Energy Management System” the EMS. Through the EMS you will be able to monitor your energy usage and ensure that save money by utilizing your appliances during off peak hours. Smart Appliances will be able to communicate with the energy utility and automatically turn off during peak periods and turn on during when the cost of the energy is low. This is known “demand response” when consumers change their consumption patterns based on lower cost or other incentives offered by the utility companies. The homes of the future will have solar panels or wind turbines will generate power and sell the excess power back to the Smart Grid.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 29
  • 29. Distribution Intelligence The smart grid with its transformers, switches, substations will be fitted with sensors that will measure and monitor the energy flow through the grid. These sensors will be able to quickly detect faults and isolate the faulty network from the rest of the network. The Smart Grid will have computer software that will provide the grid with the capacity to self-heal in case of outages and provide better resiliency to the network. Besides security systems will play a key role in the Smart Grid.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 30
  • 30. Grid Operation Centers• The Energy grid consists of transformers, power lines and transmission towers. It is absolutely essential that only as much power as needed is generated.• Otherwise like water sloshing through water pipes excess power generated can cause oscillations and result in the grid to become unstable eventually leading to a black out.• The Smart Grid will have sensors all along the way which measure and monitor the energy usage and be able to respond quickly to any instability.• It will have the power to self-heal.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 31
  • 31. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV)• Plug-in Electric Vehicles like Chevy’s Volt, Ford’s Electric Focus, the Nissan’s Leaf and the Tesla’s electric vehicle.• The electric vehicle will run entirely on electricity and will be eventually lead to reducing the carbon emissions and a greener future.• The PEVs will plug into the grid and will charge during the off-peak periods.• The advantage of the PEVs is that the Smart Grid can utilize the energy stored in the PEVs to other parts of the network which need them most.• The PEVs can serve as distributed source of stored energy supplying the energy to isolated regions during blackouts.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 32
  • 32. Key benefits from Smart Grids Some of the key advantages of smart grids - Better resiliency to failures and quicker recovery times - Automatic re-routing of energy transmission in case of network failures - Faster response to outages with the ability to isolate the faults - Better integration with renewable energy like wind, solar energy - Reduced losses and more efficiency built into the grid.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 33
  • 33. Smart Grid Ecosystem03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 34
  • 34. Smart Grid in Indian context• With India recently launching a Smart Grid Task Force and Smart Grid Forum coupled with $900B in investment planned for generation, transmission, distribution and power quality.• Research from Zpryme indicates that in 2015 India’s smart grid market will be $1.9 billion.• Further, Zpryme predicts the country’s basic electrical infrastructure needs will grow beyond that, totaling $5.9 billion in the same year.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 35
  • 35. Smart Grid in the Indian context• Electricity generation in June of 2010 was 162 gigawatts, and is predicted to rise seven to ten percent until 2018. By 2032, energy generation is expected to be 800 gigawatts.• Technical issues also plague India’s grid, and line losses are averaging 26 percent with some states as high as 62 percent.• Widespread electrical theft. When energy theft is factored in, transmission line losses average 50 percent. 03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 36
  • 36. Guiding principles for Smart Grids – MoP That it is based on an Indian model and developed indigenously Focuses on power shortage problems Addresses theft prevention and loss reduction Provides power in rural areas Development of alternative sources of power It is affordable of power03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 37
  • 37. Agencies under MoPThe Ministry of Power (MoP) is the umbrella under which an array of agencies operate, each in charge of a separate policy areaThere are 4 agencies under MOP are5. R-APDRP6. DRUM7. Indian Smart Grid Task Force8. BIS03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 38
  • 38. R-APDRPR-APDRP - The Restructured-Accelerated Power Development and Reform Program (R- APDRP) of 2008 intends to implement distribution reform and strengthen IT innovation in India.Split into two phases the first concentrates on information and communications technology (ICT) and investments of power infrastructure to first measure and mitigate inefficiencies and theft. the second phase will focus on implementing changes based upon that data and power transfer systems with the broader goal of modernizing the electrical system as it is built.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 39
  • 39. Agencies under MoP (contd.)DRUM: Established just after the APDRP, the goal of the Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) program is to work in tandem with the RAPDRP to create three “Centers of Excellence” that will serve as guides to improving the electrification of the rest of India.Smart Grid Task Force & Forum: The Smart Grid Task Force and Smart Grid Forum were created in 2010 to coordinate smart grid activities in India.Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS):BIS has taken the lead in adopting international standards (particularly IEC 62056 and IEC 61850) common in the global smart grid community.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 40
  • 40. Indian Smart Grid Task Force (ISGTF)Under the ISGTF• The eight smart grid pilots, which were announced in July 19, 2011 by Sam Pitroda, who is the chairman of Smart Grid India Task Force and adviser to the Prime Minister, are set to be rolled out in the coming months.• , The Power ministry is going to finalize these 8 projects of worth 500 crore (US $ 9.69 million) - Economic Times 03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 41
  • 41. 03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 42
  • 42. Paradigm shift in networking• Networks and networking, as we know it, is on the verge of a momentous change, thanks to a path breaking technological concept known as Software Defined Networks (SDN).• SDN is the result of pioneering effort by Stanford University and University of California, Berkeley and is based on the Open Flow Protocol and represents a paradigm shift to the way networking elements operate. OpenFlow link: http://www.openflow.org/03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 43
  • 43. The philosophy behind SDNs• Software Defined Networks (SDN) decouples the routing and switching of the data flows and moves the control of the flow to a separate network element namely, the flow controller.• The motivation for this is that the flow of data packets through the network can be controlled in a programmatic manner.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 44
  • 44. SDN architectureThe OpenFlow Protocol has 3 components to it.• The Flow Controller that controls the flows,• the OpenFlow switch• Flow TableA secure connection between the Flow Controller and the OpenFlow switch.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 45
  • 45. OpenFlow protocol• The OpenFlow Protocol is an open source API specification for modifying the flow table that exists in all routers, Ethernet switches and hubs.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 46
  • 46. SDN schematic03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 47
  • 47. SDN benefitsAdvantage of SDNs separating the control and data plane of network routers the ability to modify and control different traffic flows through a set of network resources the ability to virtualizes the network resources.Virtualized network resources are known as a “network slice”. A slice can span several network elements including the network backbone, routers and hosts.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 48
  • 48. 03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 49
  • 49. NoSQLIn large web applications where performance and scalability are key concerns a non –relational database like NoSQL is a better choice to the more traditional relational databases like MySQL, ORACLE, PostgreSQL etc03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 50
  • 50. ACID property DBs• While the traditional databases are designed to preserve the ACID (atomic, consistent, isolated and durable) properties of data, these databases are capable of only small and frequent reads/writes.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 51
  • 51. Scalability criteria However when there is a need to scale the application to be capable of handling millions of transactions the NoSQL model works better. There are several examples of such databases – the more reputed are Google’s BigTable, HBase, Amazon’s Dynamo, CouchDB & MongoDB. These databases are based on a large number of regular commodity servers. Accesses to the data are based on get(key) or set(key,value) type of APIs.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 52
  • 52. Distributed Hash Table (DHT) The database is itself distributed across several commodity servers. Accesses to the data are based on a consistent hashing scheme for example the Distributed Hash Table (DHT) method. In this method the key is hashed efficiently to one of the servers which can be visualized as lying on the circumference of the circle. The Chord System is one such example of the DHT algorithm. Once the destination server is identified the server does a local search in its data for the key value.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 53
  • 53. Distributed Hash Table 0 1 Server 15 14 2 3 12 4 5 11 10 6 7 9 803/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 54
  • 54. Consistent hashing Source: http://www.codeproject.com/Articles/56138/Consistent-hashing03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 55
  • 55. Distributing data• The ability to distribute data and the queries to one of several servers provides the key benefit of scalability.• Clearly having a single database handling an enormous amount of transactions will result in performance degradation as the number of transaction increases.• Applications that have to frequently access and manage petabytes of data will clearly have to move to the NoSQL paradigm of databases.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 56
  • 56. CAP theorem• While databases like NoSQL, HBase, Dynamo etc do not have ACID properties they generally follow the CAP postulate.• The CAP (Consistency, Availability and Partition Tolerance) theorem states that it is difficult to achieve all the 3 CAP features simultaneously.• The NoSQL types of databases in order to provide for availability, typically also replicates data across servers in order to be able to handle server crashes.• Since data is replicated across servers there is the issue of maintaining consistency across the servers. Amazon’s Dynamo system is based on a concept called “eventual consistency” where the data becomes consistent after a few seconds.• What this signifies is that there is a small interval in which it is not consistent.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 57
  • 57. More on NoSQL• The NoSQL since it is non-relational does not provide for the entire spectrum of SQL queries.• Since NoSQL is not based on the relational model queries that are based on JOINs must necessarily be iterated over in these applications.• Hence the design of any application that needs to leverage the benefits of such non- relational databases must clearly separate – the data management layer from – the data storage layer.• By separating the data management layer from how the data is stored we can easily accrue the benefits of databases like NoSQL.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 58
  • 58. Challenges• However the design of distributing data across several commodity servers has its own challenges, besides the ability to have an appropriate function to distribute the queries to.• For e.g. the NoSQL database has to be able handle the requirement of new servers joining the system.• Similarly since the NoSQL database is based on general purpose commodity servers the DHT algorithm must be able to handle server crashes and failures.• In a distributed system this is usually done as follows. The servers in the system periodically convey messages to each other in order to update and maintain their list of the active servers in the database system. This is performed through a method known as “gossip protocol”03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 59
  • 59. NoSQL technology landscape03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 60
  • 60. 03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 61
  • 61. Near Field Communication (NFC)• Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for smartphones and similar devices to establish radio communication with each other by touching them together or bringing them into close proximity, usually no more than a few centimetres.• Communication is also possible between an NFC device and an unpowered NFC chip, called a "tag".• NFC standards cover communications protocols and data exchange formats, and are based on existing radio-frequency identification (RFID) standards including ISO/IEC 1444303/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 62
  • 62. Near Field Communication (NFC)• Near Field Communications (NFC) is a technology whose time has come. Mobile phones enabled with NFC technology can be used for a variety of purposes• One such purpose is integrating credit card functionality into mobile phones using NFC.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 63
  • 63. NFC players• Already the major players in mobile are integrating NFC into their newer versions of mobile phones including Apple’s iPhone, Google’s Android, and Nokia.• We will never again have to carry in our wallets with a stack of credit cards. Our mobile phone will double up as a Visa, MasterCard, etc.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 64
  • 64. NFC applications• NFC also allows retail stores to send promotional coupons to subscribers who are in the vicinity of the shopping mall.• Posters or trailers of movies running in a theatre can be sent as multi-media clips when traveling near a movie hall.• NFC also allows retail stores to send promotional coupons to subscribers who are in the vicinity of the shopping mall besides allowing exchanging contact lists with friends when they are close proximity.• Exchange of information such as schedules, maps, business card and coupon delivery in a few hundred milliseconds• Transferring images, posters for displaying and printing03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 65
  • 65. NFC Ecosystem• Merchants & Consumers• Mobile Device OEM• Smart Card Manufacturer• System Integrators• Banking & Financial• Reader Manufacturer• Semiconductor Manufacturer03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 66
  • 66. 03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 67
  • 67. Connected world• We are progressively moving towards a more connected world, using a variety of devices to connect to each other and to the Net.• We are connected to the network through the mundane telephone, mobile phone, desktop, laptop or iPads.• We use the devices for sending, receiving, communicating or for our entertainment.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 68
  • 68. Internet of Things (IoT)• In 2005, the International Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T), which coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union, came up with a seminal report, “The Internet of Things.”• The report visualizes a highly interconnected world made of tiny passive or intelligent devices that connect to large databases and to the “network of networks” or the Internet.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 69
  • 69. Adding another dimensionThis ‘Internet of Things’ or M2M (machine-to-machine) network adds another dimension to the existing notions of networks. It envisages an anytime, anywhere, anyone, anything network bringing about a complete ubiquity to computing.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 70
  • 70. The IoT Eco-systemThe devices in this M2M network will be made up of passive elements, sensors and actuators that communicate with the network.Soon everyday articles from tires to toasters will have these intelligent devices embedded in them.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 71
  • 71. Tomorrow’s ubiquitous world of tags, sensors and smart systems03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 72 Info Day, Budapest, 22 January 2009
  • 72. The future“We are heading into a new era of ubiquity, where the users of the Internet will be counted in billions, and where humans may become the minority as generators and receivers of traffic. Changes brought about by the Internet will be dwarfed by those prompted by the networking of everyday objects “ – UN report03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 73
  • 73. RFID tags• Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) was the early and pivotal enabler of this technology, with a tiny tag responding in the presence of a receiver which emits a signal. Retailers keep track of the goods going out of warehouses to their stores with this technology. – (e.g. JustBooks)03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 74
  • 74. IoT applications• In a typical scenario one can imagine a retail store in which all items are RFID tagged.• A shopping cart fitted with a receiver can automatically track all items placed in the cart for immediate payment and check-out.• Another interesting application is in the payment of highway tolls.• Similarly, plans are already afoot for embedding intelligent devices in the tires of automobiles.• The devices will be used for measuring the tire pressure, speed etc., and warn the drivers of low pressure or tire wear and tear. The devices will send data to the network, which can be processed.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 75
  • 75. IoT applications (contd.)• This technology is also well suited for insurance companies which can give discounts to safe drivers based on the data sent by these sensors. Other promising applications include an implantable device capable of remote monitoring of patients with heart problems. It can warn the physician when it detects an irregularity in the patient’s heart rhythm.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 76
  • 76. IoT (Bridges & Mines)• The ‘Internet of Things’ can also play an important role in monitoring the stress and the load on bridges and forewarn when the stress is too great and a collapse is imminent.• In mines, the sensors can send real-time info on the toxicity of the air, the structural strength of the walls or the possibility of flooding.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 77
  • 77. 03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 78
  • 78. Data explosion• Global mobile data traffic grew 2.3-fold in 2011, more than doubling for the fourth year in a row.• The 2011 mobile data traffic growth rate was higher than anticipated. Last years forecast projected that the growth rate would be 131 percent. This years estimate is that global mobile data traffic grew 133 percent in 2011.• The devices that are connected to the net range from mobiles, laptops, tablets, sensors and the millions of devices based on the “internet of things”.• All these devices will constantly spew data on the internet .03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 79
  • 79. Data explosionMonthly global mobile data traffic will surpass 10 exabytes (10 18)in 2016.Over 100 million smartphone users will belong to the "gigabyte club" (over 1 GB per month) by 2012.Mobile data traffic will grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 78 percent from 2011 to 2016, reaching 10.8 exabytes per month by 2016.Monthly global mobile data traffic will surpass 10 exabytes in 2016Global mobile data traffic will increase 18-fold between 2011 and 2016.Source : Cisco’s Visual networking index –http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11-520862.html03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 80
  • 80. Devices galore• By the end of 2012, the number of mobile-connected devices will exceed the number of people on earth, and by 2016 there will be 1.4 mobile devices per capita.• There will be over 10 billion mobile- connected devices in 2016, including machine-to-machine (M2M) modules- exceeding the worlds population at that time (7.3 billion).03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 81
  • 81. Region wise contributionThe number of mobile-connected devices will exceed the worlds population in 2012.• The average mobile connection speed will surpass 1 Mbps in 2014.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 82
  • 82. Bandwidth hungry devices Due to increased usage on smartphones, handsets will exceed 50 percent of mobile data traffic in 2014. • Monthly mobile tablet traffic will surpass 1 exabyte per month in 2016. • Tablets will exceed 10 percent of global mobile data traffic in 2016.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 83
  • 83. What applications will hog bandwidth?03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 84
  • 84. Data, data everywhere …• Fortunately the explosion in data has been accompanied by falling prices in storage and extraordinary increases in processing capacity.•• The data by themselves are useless.• However if processed they can provide insights into trends and patterns which can be used to make key decisions.• For e.g. the data exhaust that comes from a user’s browsing trail, click stream provide important insight into user behavior which can be mined to make important decisions.• Similarly inputs from social media like Twitter, Facebook provide businesses with key inputs which can be used for making business decisions.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 85
  • 85. What is BigData?• BigData involves determining patterns, trends and outliers among mountains of data• The patterns are used to make business and strategic decisions• Analyzing large data sets—so-called big data—will become a key basis of competition, underpinning new waves of productivity growth and innovation03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 86
  • 86. The 3 V’s of Big Data• Big Data enters the picture. Big Data enables the management of the 3 V’s of data – volume, – velocity and – variety.There is a virtual explosion of dataThe rate at which the data is generated, or the velocity, is also growing phenomenally the variety and the number of devices that are connected to the network.Besides there is a tremendous variety to the data. Data is both structured, semi-structured and unstructured. Logs could be in plain text, CSV,XML, JSON and so on.The issue of 3 V’s of data makes Big Data most suited for crunching this enormous proliferation of data at the velocity at which it is generated.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 87
  • 87. Case study - Walmart• Wal-Mart, a large US retail store, has 460 terabytes of data stored on Teradata mainframes• HURRICANE FRANCES was on its way, barreling across the Caribbean, threatening a direct hit on Floridas Atlantic coast.• A week ahead of the storms landfall, Wal- Mart‘s CIO pressed her staff to come with forecasts based on available terabytes of shopper’s history data• The experts mined the data and found that the stores would indeed need certain products - and not just the usual flashlights, for e.g pop-tarts and beer• Trucks filled with toaster pasteries and six- packs were sent to Florida and sold quickly03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 88
  • 88. Where is Big Data being used?• Big Data has been used by energy companies in identifying key locations for positioning their wind turbines. To identify the precise location requires that petabytes (10 15) of data be crunched rapidly and appropriate patterns be identified.• Used in predicting traffic grid locks• Big Data including identifying brand sentiment from social media, to customer behavior from click exhaust to identifying optimal power usage by consumers.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 89
  • 89. What makes Big Data different?• The key difference between Big Data and traditional processing methods are that the volume of data that has be processed and the speed with which it has to be processed. As mentioned before the 3 V’s of volume, velocity and variety make traditional methods unsuitable for handling this data.Associated technologies for processing – Hadoop – Cloud03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 90
  • 90. 03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 91
  • 91. The enterprise & social networking• We are in the midst of a Social Networking revolution as we progress to the next decade.• As technology becomes more complex in a flatter world, cooperating and collaborating will not only be necessary but also essentially imperative.• McKinsey in its recent report “Wiring the Open Source Enterprise” talks of the future of a “networked enterprise” which will require the enterprise to integrate Web 2.0 technologies into its enterprise computing fabric.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 92
  • 92. The networked enterprise• Social Software utilizing Web 2.0 technologies will soon become the new reality if organizations want to stay agile.• Social Software includes those technologies that enable the enterprise to collaborate through blogs, wikis, podcasts, and communities.• A collaborative environment will unleash greater fusion of ideas and can trigger enormous creative processes in the organization.• According to Prof. Clay Shirky of New York University the underused human potential at companies represents an immense “cognitive surplus” which can be tapped by participatory tools such as Social Software.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 93
  • 93. Key benefits of Social NetworkingA fully operational social network in the organization will enable• quicker decision making,• trigger creative collaboration and• bring together a faster ROI for the enterprise.A shared knowledge pool enables• easier access to key information from across the enterprise and• facilitates faster decision making.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 94
  • 94. The Social Network communityThe social network community could include• Employees• Customers• Contractors• Suppliers03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 95
  • 95. Organizations using Social Networking• American Express – has a blog entitled OPEN Forum• Bank of America – has two social networking pages: Small Business Community on Clearspace and Medal Me! on Facebook• Ford has a social network on FORDSocial• IBM has a social network developerWorks• Starbucks has My Starbucks IdeaAnd many more03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 96
  • 96. 03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 97
  • 97. What is the Cloud Computing? What is the cloud computing ? 3. Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to on demand, like the electricity grid. 4. Cloud Computing refers to both the applications delivered as services over the Internet and the hardware and systems software in the datacenters that provide those services 5. Allows for a utility style usage of computing resources 6. Cloud promises real cost savings and agility to the customer 7. Applications can expand and contract with the natural ebb and flow of the business life cycle 8. Uses virtualization technologies03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 98
  • 98. Why the cloud?Cloud Architectures address key difficulties surrounding large-scale data processing.2. In traditional data processing it is difficult to get as many machines as an application needs.3. Second, it is difficult to get the machines when one needs them.4. Third, it is difficult to distribute and coordinate a large-scale job on different machines, run processes on them, and provision another machine to recover if one machine fails.5. Fourth, it is difficult to auto scale up and down based on dynamic workloads.6. Fifth, it is difficult to get rid of all those machines when the job is done.Cloud Architectures solve such difficulties03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 99
  • 99. The cloud perspective• From an engineering perspective the cloud is a computing architecture characterized by a large number of interconnected identical computing devices that can scale on demand and that communicate via an IP network.• From a business perspective it is computing services that are scalable and billed on a usage basis.• Allows customers to shift traditional Capital Expenditures (CapEx) into their Operating Expenditure (OpEx) budgets03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 100
  • 100. What is virtualization? Transforms from “one server- one application” to multiple virtual machines on each physical machine Run Multiple OS on a single machine  a thin layer is introduced over either the hardware or on top of the OS Uses a technology known as Hypervisor Leaders in Virtualization – VMware, Citrix Xen03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 101
  • 101. What is a hypervisor The Hypervisor is a layer of software running directly on computer hardware replacing the operating system thereby allowing the computer hardware to run multiple guest operating systems concurrently The Hypervisor presents to the guest OS a virtual OS and manages the execution of the guest OS. Multiple instances of a variety of OS’es can share a virtualized resource03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 102
  • 102. Benefits of Hypervisor• Increase server utilization• Consolidate server farms• Decrease complexity• Decrease Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) 03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 103
  • 103. The Cloud Architecture03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 104
  • 104. Cloud based Services Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is the • delivery of hardware (server, storage and network), • Delivery of associated software (operating systems virtualization technology, file system), as a service. • users must deploy and manage the software services themselves • Amazon Web Services Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and Secure Storage Service (S3) are examples of IaaS offerings.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 105
  • 105. Cloud based servicesPlatform as a Service (PaaS)Platform as a Service (PaaS) is• an application development and deployment platform delivered as a service over the Web• This platform consists of infrastructure software, and typically includes a database, middleware and development tools.• Some PaaS offerings have a specific programming language or API. For example, Google AppEngine is a PaaS offering where developers write in Python or Java.Software as a Service (SaaS)• A SaaS provider typically hosts and manages a given application in their own data center and makes it available to multiple tenants and users over the Web.• Oracle CRM On Demand, Salesforce.com, and Netsuite are some of the well known SaaS examples.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 106
  • 106. The Cloud Architecture03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 107
  • 107. Types of Cloud ArchitecturesThere are 3 types of Cloud Architecture2. Public clouds3. Private clouds4. Hybrid clouds03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 108
  • 108. Public CloudsPublic Clouds• External organizations provide the infrastructure and management required to implement the cloud.• Typically billed based on usage.• Transfers the cost from a capital expenditure to an operational expense• Temporary applications or applications with burst resource requirements typically benefit from the public cloud’s ability• Public clouds have the disadvantage of hosting your data in an offsite organization outside the legal and regulatory umbrella of your organization.• In addition, as most public clouds leverage a worldwide network of data centers.• These issues result in potential regulatory compliance issues which preclude the use of public clouds for certain organizations or business applications.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 109
  • 109. Private CloudsPrivate Clouds• The infrastructure is controlled completely by the enterprise.• Typically, private clouds are implemented in the enterprise’s data center and managed by internal resources.• A private cloud maintains all corporate data in resources under the control of the legal and contractual umbrella of the organization. This eliminates the regulatory, legal and security concerns associated with information being processed on third party computing resources.• Currently, private clouds require Capital Expenditure and Operational Expenditure.• Requires highly skilled labor to ensure that business services can be met.• The private cloud can also be used by existing legacy IT departments to dramatically reduce their costs and as an opportunity to shift from a cost center to a value center in the eyes of the business.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 110
  • 110. Hybrid CloudsHybrid Clouds• To meet the benefits of both approaches, newer execution models have been developed to combine public and private clouds into a unified solution.• Applications with significant legal, regulatory or service level concerns for information can be directed to a private cloud.• Other applications with less stringent regulatory or service level requirements can leverage a public cloud infrastructure.• Implementation of a hybrid model requires additional coordination between the private and public service management system.• Involves a federated policy management tool, seamless hybrid integration, federated security, information asset management, coordinated provisioning control, and unified monitoring systems.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 111
  • 111. Business Benefits of Cloud ArchitecturesThere are some clear business benefits to building applications using Cloud Architectures• Almost zero upfront infrastructure investment: If you have to build a large-scale system it may cost a fortune to invest in real estate, hardware (racks, machines, routers, backup power supplies), hardware management (power management, cooling), and operations personnel. Now, with utility-style computing, there is no fixed cost or startup cost.• Just-in-time Infrastructure:• The solutions are low risk because you scale only as you grow.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 112
  • 112. Intel’s Enamoly Architecture03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 113
  • 113. Major Cloud providersAmazon EC2• Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) is at one end of the spectrum. An EC2 instance looks much like physical hardware, and users can control nearly the entire software stack, from the kernel upwards. This low level makes it inherently difficult for Amazon to offer automatic scalability and failover, because the semantics associated with replication and other state management issues are highly application-dependent.Google’s AppEngine• AppEngine is targeted exclusively at traditional web applications, enforcing an application structure of clean separation between a stateless computation tier and a stateful storage tier. AppEngine’s impressive automatic scaling and high-availability mechanisms, and the proprietary MegaStore data storage available to AppEngine applications, all rely on these constraints.Microsoft Azure• Applications for Microsoft’s Azure are written using the .NET libraries, and compiled to the Common Language Runtime, a language-independent managed environment. Thus, Azure is intermediate between application frameworks like AppEngine and hardware virtual machines like EC2.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 114
  • 114. When to use the Cloud?• A first case is when demand for a service varies with time. Provisioning a data center for the peak load it must sustain a few days per month leads to underutilization at other times, for example. Instead, Cloud Computing lets an organization pay by the hour for computing resources, potentially leading to cost savings even if the hourly rate to rent a machine from a cloud provider is higher than the rate to own one.• A second case is when demand is unknown in advance. For example, a web startup will need to support a spike in demand when it becomes popular, followed potentially by a reduction once some of the visitors turn away.• Finally, organizations that perform batch analytics can use the cloud computing to finish computations faster: using 1000 EC2 machines for 1 hour costs the same as using 1 machine for 1000 hours.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 115
  • 115. Typical charges on the CloudFor example in the Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) from Amazon Web Services (AWS) sells2. 1.0-GHz x86 ISA “slices” for 10 cents per hour,3. A new “slice”, or instance, can be added in 2 to 5 minutes.4. Amazon’s Scalable Storage Service (S3) charges $0.12 to $0.15 per gigabyte-month Windows Azure Google App Engine CPU 0.12 hr 0.10/hr Bandwidth (out) $0.15/GB $0.12/GB Bandwidth (in) $0.10/GB $0.10/GB Pricing unavailable Storage (Files) $0.15/GB/month (Blobstore) $9.99/month (SQL $0.15/GB/month Storage (DB) Server up to 1GB) ($0.005/GB/day)03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 116
  • 116. Amazon EC2 pricingStandard on- Linux/UNIX Windows Data Transfer IN demand Usage Usage instance All data transfer in $0.000 per GBSmall (Default) $0.085 per $0.12 per hour hour Data Transfer OUT First 1 GB / month $0.000 per GBLarge $0.34 per $0.48 per hour hour Up to 10 TB / month $0.120 per GBExtra Large $0.68 per $0.96 per hour hour Next 40 TB / month $0.090 per GB03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 117
  • 117. What does the cloud look like?Data center of Facebook,Oregon, US 03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 118
  • 118. Cloud WorthinessProcessing Pipelines• Document processing pipelines – convert hundreds of thousands of documents from Microsoft Word to PDF, OCR millions of pages/images into raw searchable text• Image processing pipelines – create thumbnails or low resolution variants of an image, resize millions of images• Video transcoding pipelines – transcode AVI to MPEG movies• Indexing – create an index of web crawl data• Data mining – perform search over millions of recordsBatch Processing Systems• Back-office applications (in financial, insurance or retail sectors)• Log analysis – analyze and generate daily/weekly reports• Nightly builds – perform nightly automated builds of source code repository every night in• parallel• Automated Unit Testing and Deployment Testing – Test and deploy and perform automated unit testing (functional, load, quality) on different deployment configurations every night03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 119
  • 119. Cloud worthiness Websites • Websites that “sleep” at night and auto-scale during the day • Instant Websites – websites for conferences or events (Super Bowl, sports tournaments) • Promotion websites • “Seasonal Websites” - websites that only run during the tax season or the holiday season Mobile interactive applications (M2M). M2M services will be attracted to the cloud because these services generally rely on large data sets that are most conveniently hosted in large datacenters. Parallel batch processing. Cloud Computing presents a unique opportunity for batch-processing and analytics jobs that analyze terabytes of data and can take hours to finish. If there is enough data parallelism in the application, users can take advantage of the using hundreds of computers for a short time.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 120
  • 120. Cloud worthinessThe rise of analytics.A special case of compute-intensive batch processing is business analytics. A growing share of computing resources is now spent on understanding customers, supply chains, buying habits, ranking, and so on..Extension of compute-intensive desktop applications.The latest versions of the mathematics software packages Matlab and Mathematica are capable of using Cloud Computing to perform expensive evaluations.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 121
  • 121. Security in the Cloud Data Confidentiality and Auditability • Current cloud offerings are essentially public (rather than private) networks, exposing the system to more attacks. There are also requirements for auditability, in the sense of Sarbanes-Oxley and Health and Human Services Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations that must be provided for corporate data to be moved to the cloud. • Other standards include PCI, SOX,03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 122
  • 122. Key benefits of the Cloud• More efficient resource utilization: Better infrastructure utilization• Usage-based costing: Utility-style pricing allows billing the customer only for the infrastructure that has been used. The customer is not liable for the entire infrastructure that may be in place.• Potential for shrinking the processing time: Parallelization is the one of the great ways to speed up processing. If one compute-intensive or data intensive job that can be run in parallel takes 500 hours to process on one machine, with Cloud Architectures, it would be possible to spawn and launch 500 instances and process the same job in 1 hour. Having available an elastic infrastructure provides the application with the ability to exploit parallelization in a cost-effective manner reducing the total processing time.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 123
  • 123. The futureA recent study by IDC predicts• Revenue from cloud innovation will reach $1.1 trillion a year by 2015• cloud computing will generate over two million jobs in India and nearly 14 million new jobs worldwide by 2015.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 124
  • 124. Cloud providers in India Source: www.techno-pulse.com03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 125
  • 125. Tinniam V Ganesh Feel free to get in touch with me at tvganesh.85@gmail.com Do read my technical blog Giga thoughts : http://gigadom.wordpress.com/03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 126
  • 126. Additional Slides03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 127
  • 127. 03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 128
  • 128. Bandwidth shortage• A key issue of the computing infrastructure of today is data affinity, which is the result of the dual issues of data latency and the economics of data transfer.• Jim Gray (Turing award in 1998) whose paper on “Distributed Computing Economics” states$1≈ 1 GB sent over the WAN≈ 10 Tops (tera cpu operations)≈ 8 hours of cpu time≈ 1 GB disk space≈ 10 M database accesses≈ 10 TB of disk bandwidth≈ 10 TB of LAN bandwidthThere is a disproportionate contribution by the WAN bandwidth and may lead to a bandwidth shortage03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 129
  • 129. Spectrum crunch• The growth in mobile data traffic has been exponential.• Given the current usage trends, coupled with the theoretical limits of available spectrum, the world will run out of available spectrum for the growing army of mobile users.• The demand for wireless capacity will outstrip spectrum availability by the middle of this decade or by 2014.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 130
  • 130. IPv4 exhaustion• The issue is that IPv4 can address only 2^32 or 4.3 billion devices.• Already the pool has been exhausted because of new technologies like IMS which uses an all IP Core and the Internet of things with more devices, sensors connected to the internet – each identified by an IP address.• The solution to this problem has been addressed long back and requires that the Internet adopt IPv6 addressing scheme. IPv6 uses 128-bit long address and allows 3.4 x 1038 or 340 trillion, trillion, trillion unique addresses.• IPv6 adoption is not happening at the pace it should.03/14/12 Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gm 131

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