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Spring conf2010

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  • OK finally – the obligatory triangle – but this is no ordinary triangle - this one is split THIS IS THE FRAMEWORK that MSDE has agree to use as we discuss service delivery within MSDE and amongst all of the state agencies and provate partners who have the resoiurces to support kids and families who do not respond to the Universal strategies – this triangle has both the behavior and the academic side – You may or may not know that this approach is adapted from the public health model – looking at something a simple as the flu – the pblic health model provides infomratin to ALL about how to avoid cathing the flu – then they provide meds for those who have contracted a form of the flu and finally, for those who are at risk – they provide vaccinations, and other more intense prevention strategies Same with academics Same with behavior Up to this point Maryland has invested very heavily in school wide (or Universal) PBIS – our approach has been, if we can get the green zone (universal population) beyond 80%, then we will be able to more efficiently utilize those scarce resources that are needed for both the targeted (yellow) and intensive (red) zones.

Spring conf2010 Spring conf2010 Presentation Transcript

  • Ensuring Social and Academic Inclusion of Students with Special Learning Needs in Mainstream Classrooms Dr. Terry Cumming School of Education University of New South Wales
  • The Challenge
    • Today's students are displaying more challenging behaviours than ever before; teachers report that it is a serious threat to effective teaching/learning
    • Educators often lack specialised skills to address severe problem behaviour
    • This has left them reliant on reactive and crisis management interventions to solve chronic behaviour problems
    • Traditional discipline methods simply do not change the behaviour among the most challenging students
  • Contributing Factors (Mayer, 1995)‏
    • Poverty and language barriers
    • Home
      • Inconsistent discipline
      • Punitive management
      • Lack of monitoring
    • Lack of pro-social community engagement
    • Antisocial network of peers
  • Contributing Factors
    • School
      • punitive disciplinary approach
      • lack of clarity about rules, expectations, and consequences
      • lack of staff support
      • failure to consider and accommodate individual differences
      • academic failure
  • A Solution
    • The answer is not to create new solutions, but to enhance the school's organisational capacity to:
      • Accurately adopt and efficiently sustain their use of research-validated practices
      • Provide a seamless continuum of behavioral and academic support for all students
      • Increase focus, teacher training, community training, and funding for early intervention
  • What is School-wide Positive Behavior Support?
    • School-wide PBS is :
        • A systems approach for establishing the social culture and individualized behavioral supports needed for schools to achieve both social and academic success while preventing problem behavior
    • Evidence-based features of SW-PBS
        • Prevention
        • Define and teach positive social expectations
        • Acknowledge (reward) positive behavior
        • Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior
        • On-going collection and use of data for decision-making
        • Continuum of intensive, individual interventions.
        • Administrative leadership – Team-based implementation (Systems that support effective practices)
  • PBS is NOT...
    • specific practice or curriculum…it’s a general approach to preventing problem behavior
    • limited to any particular group of students…it’s for all students
    • new…its based on long history of behavioral practices & effective instructional design & strategies
  • www.pbis.org
  • Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
  • Responsiveness-to-Intervention & SWPBS
  • School-wide Systems
    • Develop a behaviour team
      • Establish need, priorities, commitment
      • Mission statement
      • Working structures
      • Regular meeting schedule
      • System for communicating information to the team as well as other school staff
      • Opportunities for PBS professional development
      • Develop ways to share information with others and the community
  • School-wide Systems
    • Identify problems
      • Analyze needs to create short and long term goals
      • Focus on academic and social behavior practices
      • Focus on systems needed to support practices for students
    • Set of 5 or fewer rules stated positively
      • List problem behaviours and replacement behaviours
    • Develop procedures for teaching expected behaviours
  • School-wide System
    • Develop procedures for encouraging expected behaviours
    • Revisit procedures for discouraging problem behaviours
    • Develop strategies to make data-based decisions
    • Repeat above procedures in respect to non-classroom settings
  • Tiered Instructional and Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) Framework 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90% Academic Systems Behavioral Systems
    • Intensive, Individually Designed Interventions
    • Address individual needs of student
    • Assessment-based
    • High Intensity
    • Intensive, Individually Designed Interventions
    • Strategies to address needs of individual students with intensive needs
    • Function-based assessments
    • Intense, durable strategies
    • Targeted, Group Interventions
    • Small, needs-based groups for
    • at risk students who do not respond
    • to universal strategies
    • High efficiency
    • Rapid response
    • Targeted, Group Interventions
    • Small, needs-based groups for at- risk students who do not respond to universal strategies
    • High efficiency/ Rapid response
    • Function-based logic
    • Core Curriculum and
    • Differentiated Instruction
    • All students
    • Preventive, proactive
    • School-wide or classroom
    • systems for ALL students
    • Core Curriculum and
    • Universal Interventions
    • All settings, all students
    • Preventive, proactive
    • School-wide or classroom systems for ALL students and staff
  • In the Classroom
    • Use of school-wide expectations and rules
    • Behaviour Management
      • Teaching routines
      • Positive student-adult interactions
    • Instructional Management
      • Curriculum and instructional design (student-centered learning)
      • Differentiated instruction
    • Environmental Management
      • Positive environment for ALL students
  • Behaviour Management
    • Rules
      • Create classroom specific from school-wide
      • Teach social skills directly at specific times
      • Monitor and reinforce all day
      • Reteach for new students as they enter
    • Establish predictable routines
      • Teach and practice routines
    • Formal classroom management system
      • Reinforcement systems
      • Consistency is key
  • Behaviour Management
    • Effective Strategies
      • Engage in active decision making
      • Circulate throughout room, scan constantly
      • Attend only to positive behaviour when possible
      • Give students task choice
      • Humor, not sarcasm
      • Positive reinforcement for students who comply with rules and routines
      • Modeling
      • Be a teacher, not a friend
      • Deal with inappropriate behaviour immediately and consistently
  • Instructional Strategies- Attention
    • Gain and maintain attention
    • Use a simple and portable cue to prompt students to listen
    • Avoid starting instruction until all students are listening
    • Provide specific verbal praise to peers to redirect attention
    • Reinforce students who are attending immediately
    • Use proximity control
  • Instructional Strategies- Questions
    • High rates of opportunities for students to respond
    • Information before questions
    • Reinforcement for correct responses
  • Instructional Strategies-Feedback
    • Precise: specific about what was done correctly/incorrectly
    • When giving corrective feedback, provide instruction
    • High rates of positives to negatives
  • Instructional Strategies: Errors
    • Error correction (skill deficit?)
    • Signal an error has occurred (refer to rules, "We respect others in this room and that means not using put downs")
    • Ask for an alternative appropriate response ("How can you show respect and still get your point across?")
    • Provide an opportunity to practice the skill and provide verbal feedback ("That's much better, thank you for showing respect towards others")
  • Environmental Strategies
    • What do I want my classroom to look like?
    • How do I want children to treat me as a person?
    • How do I want children to treat one another?
    • What kind of information or values do I want to communicate to students about being an adult, an educator, a woman or a man in today's society?
    • How do I want children to remember me when the last day of school ends and I am no longer part of their daily lives?
  • For Individual Students
    • Functional Behaviour Assessment (FBA)
    • Should focus on child’s behaviour in specific situations than on underlying traits or dispositions
    • Focus on individual rather than a norm group
    • Interested in discovering situational influences on behaviour rather than history
    • Behaviours may change as the result of the context in which they occur
    • The purpose of assessment is to obtain information that will assist in intervention
    • Assessment is conducted in a variety of ways
    • Behaviour change strategies are reliant on data collection
  • Functional Behaviour Assessment
    • When a student’s behaviour consistently interferes with his or her own learning, consistently interferes with the learning of others, or consistently interferes with your ability to conduct class, a behaviour intervention plan for that student should be developed.
    • In order to do this, conduct an assessment to make sure the behaviour is not due to curriculum mismatch. If the curriculum is not mismatched, you will want to do a functional assessment of the student’s behaviour.
  • Steps in Conducting a FBA
    • Identify the Target behaviour and the replacement behaviour
    • Problem Analysis
      • Examine data, ABC analysis
      • Identify the function of the behaviour
    • Design an appropriate Behaviour Intervention Plan based on the results of the FBA
    • Progress monitoring
  • Setting Events
    • What academic or nonacademic activities are most associated with the student’s problem behaviour?
    • What changes in routines set the stage for the problem behaviours?
    • What times of the day are problem behaviours occurring most frequently?
    • Does the problem behaviour occur more in particular classrooms, with particular teachers, or during particular assignments?
    • Where, when, and with whom are the behaviours most and least prevalent?
    • Are some of the setting events occurring at home or on the way to school?
  • ABC Analysis
    • Using anecdotal observations to determine the antecedent, behaviour, and consequence
    • Used to determine the function of a particular behaviour
    • Functions
      • Attention
      • Power/control
      • Escape/avoidance
      • Sensory stimulation
      • Frustration: deficits in language, communication, academics, social skills
  • Replacement Behaviour
    • What will be taught to replace the inappropriate behavior that meets the same identified function?
    • Replacing the behavior with an appropriate skill is an important step in extinguishing the problem behavior
  • Behaviour Plan Development
    • Once it has been decided what some possible reasons for misbehavior are, it is now time to put a working behavior plan in place.
    • Keep in mind that flexibility is important and some components of the initial plan may need to change over time.
  • Behaviour Plan-Elements
    • Behaviour of concern, stated specifically
    • Replacement behaviour (should serve the same function as behaviour you are trying to eliminate/decrease)
    • Specific social skills to be taught
    • Description of behavioural and instructional strategies to be used
  • Behaviour Plan-Elements
    • Description of environmental changes & preventative measures to be taken (i.e. strategic seating, limited “escape route”, furniture arrangement for maximizing safety of all students)
    • Progress monitoring, including but not limited to:
      • Frequency counts
      • Duration counts
      • Documentation of student response
      • ABC chart
      • Anecdotal notes
  • Rules of Thumb
    • Target no more than 3 behaviors to change according to severity when first developing the plan.
    • Give the interventions a minimum of 2-3 weeks before changing and trying something else.
    • Expect that some behaviors may get more intense before they improve.
    • Be sure that any and all appropriate staff members have access to and understand the BIP.
  • Rules of Thumb
    • Keep consistent data to track and analyze progress (or lack thereof).
    • Be flexible.
    • Change reinforcers periodically so as not to satiate student with the same thing.
    • Use a variety of reinforcers to include verbal, tangible, activity-based and parent-involved (as much as possible).