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Mumps

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  • 1. Mumps
  • 2. Definition
    Mumps is a disease caused by mumps virus (an RNA virus of the paramoxyvirus) and can infect many parts of the body, especially the parotid salivary glands.
  • 3. Signs and Symptoms
    Fever
    Headache
    Loss of appetite
    Parotitis (parotid inflammation)
    Other symptoms: testicular pain (in males), abdominal pain, seizures, stiff neck, and difficulty swallowing. 
    Orchitis (severe pain, swelling, and tenderness in a male's testicles)
  • 4. Complications
    Brain inflammation (encephalitis or meningitis)
    Hearing loss
    Inflammation of the pancreas, heart, and other organs are rare complications.
    If you develop mumps in the first 12-16 weeks of a pregnancy, it may increase the risk of miscarriage.
    WARNING!!
  • 5.
  • 6. Mode of Transmission
    Mumps is spread by mucus or droplets from the nose or throat of an infected person, usually when a person coughs or sneezes. Surfaces of items (e.g. toys) - when the infected touched them without washing their hands, thensomeone else touches the same surface and then rubs their eyes, mouth, nose etc. (this is called fomite transmission).
  • 7. Period of Communicability
    Affected people are infectious from about six days before, until about five days after, a parotid gland begins to swell
  • 8. Susceptibility
    Persons should be considered susceptible to mumps unless they have documentation of (1) physician-diagnosed mumps, (2) adequate immunization with live mumps virus vaccine on or after their first birthday, or (3) laboratory evidence of immunity.
  • 9. Methods of Control
    Outbreak control included isolation of the patient with symptoms, seclusion of patients potentially incubating mumps virus, and immunization of susceptible patients and health care workers.
    Symptoms may be relieved by the application of intermittent ice or heat to the affected neck/testicular area and by acetaminophen/paracetamol (Tylenol) for pain relief.
  • 10. Warm salt water gargles, soft foods, and extra fluids may also help relieve symptoms.
    Patients are advised to avoid fruit juice or any acidic foods, since these stimulate the salivary glands, which can be painful.
  • 11. Prevention and Control
    immunization with a mumps vaccine, invented by Maurice Hilleman 
    The vaccine may be given separately or as part of the MMR immunization vaccine which also protects against measles and rubella.
    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the routine administration of MMR vaccine at ages 12–15 months and at 4–6 years.
  • 12. wash hands well and often with soap, and to teach children to wash their hands too.
    Eating utensils should not be shared, and surfaces that are frequently touched (toys, doorknobs, tables, counters, etc) should also be regularly cleaned with soap and water, or with cleaning wipes.
  • 13. MMR
    Two doses of mumps-containing vaccine, given as combination measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine, separated by at least 28 days, are routinely recommended for all children. The first dose is given on or after the first birthday; the second is given at 4 - 6 years of age. Most adults who have not been vaccinated should also receive 1 dose of MMR vaccine, but adults who work in healthcare, a school/university setting, and persons at high risk of exposure to mumps should get 2 doses.