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World Englishes Final

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  • 1. World Englishes APPROACHES, ISSUES, AND RESOURCES Braj B. Kachru – University of Illinois Kanlapan, Mela & Velasco, Joseph
  • 2. World Englishes
    • We can no longer simply view English as a worldwide lingua franca; rather, as many nonnative varieties of English become standardized.
    Braj B. Kachru University of Illinois
  • 3. Conferences that moved the concept of World Englishes
    • East-West Culture Learning Institute (currently the Institute for Culture and Communication) of the East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
      • Larry E. Smith
    • Linguistics Institute of the Linguistic Society of America, hosted by the University of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign, USA
      • Braj Kachru
    Participants from Bangladesh, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, India, the Philippines, New Zealand, Great Britain and Germany.
  • 4. Results of the Honolulu Conference
    • Teaching of English should be reflected in all cases of sociocultural contexts and the educational policies of the countries concerned.
    • No organization exist that takes account of any language in the light of this fundamental distinction
    • It is not for us to define the policies to be adopted, but the conference identified a number of fundamental issues. These issues can be considered under four headings:
      • (a) Basic research,
      • (b) Applied research,
      • (c) Documentation, dissemination, and liaison
      • (d) Professional support activities
  • 5. Why use the term Englishes?
    • The term symbolizes:
      • Functional & formal variations
      • Divergent sociolinguistic context
      • Ranges and varieties of English in Creativity
      • Various type of acculturization in parts of the Western and non-Western world.
    • Emphasizes “WE-ness”, and not the dichotomy between us and them (the native and non-native speakers)
  • 6. The Spread and Stratification of English
    • Functionally uninsightful & linguistically questionable
      • when discussing the functions of English in multilingual societies
  • 7. The Spread and Stratification of English
    • This earlier distinction has come under attack
    • Quirk rejects this terminological triad
      • “ I doubt its validity and frequently fail to understand its meaning.”
  • 8. Kachru’s Concentric Circles of English
  • 9. Kachru’s Concentric Circles of English
    • Inner Circle
      • Represents the traditional bases of English
      • Dominated by the “mother-tongue” varieties of the language
    • Outer Circle
      • English has been institutionalized as an additional language
    • Expanding Circle
      • Includes the rest of the world where English is used as the primary foreign language.
    Expanding Circle Inner Circle Outer Circle
  • 10. Characteristics of the Stratification
    • The study of the spread and stratification of English in the non-Western world is a post-1960 phenomenon
    • Consequence of the theoretical and methodological insights gained by what are termed “socially realistic linguistic” approaches to language study
    • The exponents of stratification in the Outer Circle have been interpreted in two ways: as a lectal range and as a cline in English bilingualism
  • 11. Interactional Contexts of World Englishes
    • The shift of the focus on to the functions of English in various types of interactional contexts , both in the Inner and Outer Circles.
    • The study and analysis of English in interactional contexts has resulted in the studies such as the following:
      • Discourse strategies
      • Speech acts
      • Code-mixing
  • 12. Descriptive and Prescriptive Concerns
    • Sacred cows of theoretical and applied linguistics are under aggression as an outcome of two major development:
      • the impact of description, analysis, methodology, and relevance shown in sociolinguistic models, and the research initiatives
      • ideas provided by scholars from the outer circle
  • 13. The Bilingual’s Creativity and Literary Canon
    • Bilingual Creativity
      • “ Those creative linguistic processes which are the result of competence in two or more languages.”
      • Not used for acquisitional inadequacies in a language
      • Refers to the designing of a text which uses linguistic resources from two or more related or unrelated languages
  • 14. Contact Literatures in English
    • Result of the contact of English with other languages in multilingual and multicultural context like in the case of Africa and Asia.
    • The contact varieties, as time passes, acquire stable characteristics in their pronunciation, syntax, vocabulary and discoursal and style strategies.
    • Long-term contact results in Nativisation and Acculturation.
    • Nativisation
      • Refers to the process which creates a localized linguistic identity of a variety
    • Acculturation
      • Gives English distinct and local cultural identities.
    Such writing can be found in South Asia, West Africa, the Philippines and Southeast Asia.
  • 15. Three facts on the Bilingual’s Creativity in English
    • The institutionalized nonnative varieties have an educated variety and a cline of sub-varieties.
    • Writers in contact literature in English engage in lectal mixing
    • In such writing, there are style-shifts which are related to the underlying sociolinguistic and cultural context
    The result of such style-shifts, appropriate to non-Western contexts, is new discourse strategies, use di stinctly different speech acts, and development of new registers in English
  • 16. Issue’s on the Bilingual’s Creativity in English
    • Question of language deficiency vs. difference
    • Recognition of Innovations used for stylistic effect as “foregrounding”
    • Recognition of various text types – code mixed or noncode mixed – which are internationally meant for bilingual readers who share the bilingual’s linguistic repertoire and cultural and literary canon.
    • Recognizing functional appropriateness of lacalized sublanguages and registers
    • Providing contrastive typologies of linguistic and cultural conventions
    • Describing the formal and functional characteristics of bilingual’s language mixing and switching
  • 17. Multicanons of English
    • The results of this extensive use of English over a long period has resulted in multicanons of English and a “shift of the canon”
  • 18. The Two Faces of English: Nativisation and Englishisation
    • Two processes have developed, as it were, two faces of English.
    • One showing what the contact has formally done to various varieties of English.
    • The other showing what impact the English language and literature have had on other languages of the world
  • 19. The Two Faces of English: Nativisation and Englishisation
    • Nativisation
      • Vocabularies of the world have been most receptive to borrowing from English
      • An example is the Japanese language wherein 81% of the borrowed vocabulary Japanese are words of English origin.
    • Englishisation
      • In Thai, passivisation has traditionally been used with adversative connotation (the use of thuuk). This semantic constraint is not changing due to the influence of English.
  • 20. Fallacies Concerning Users and Uses
  • 21. The Power and Politics of English
    • A number of recent studies address issues related to the ideological, cultural and elitist power of English
    • Related to such power is the immense economic advantage of English to the countries in the Inner Circle, particularly Britain and the United States .
    • “ The world wide market for EFL training is worth a massive ₤6.5 billion a year according to a new report from the Economic Intelligence Unit” (EFL Gazette. March, 1989).
    • The very existence of their power thus provides the Inner Circle with incentives for devising ways to maintain attitudinal and formal control.
  • 22. Teaching World Englishes
  • 23. Why teach World Englishes?
    • It is obvious that World Englishes provide a challenging opportunity to relate three academic areas– language, literature, and methodology .
    • The approach to World Englishes has to be cross-cultural and cross-linguistic.
    • The sources involve diverse cultures, languages, and literatures in contact with English.
    • One has to have interdisciplinary perspectives focusing on the linguistic face of World Englishes.
  • 24. What Motivates the Paradigm Shift?
  • 25. What are the Resources for Teaching?
    • In the 1970’s, this question would have been difficult to answer. One would have had to depend primarily on papers from journals and selected notes.
    • However, as Gorlach (1991) rightly observes, “the books published in 1982-84 make up a particularly impressive list: It is no exaggeration to say that the following ten books more or less suffice to teach a full academic course on the topic.”
  • 26. Conclusion