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Chapter 1 Notes And Assignments

Chapter 1 Notes And Assignments






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  • Investigation 1.C could be used as a unit project

Chapter 1 Notes And Assignments Chapter 1 Notes And Assignments Presentation Transcript

  • Unit A Energy and Matter Exchange in the Biosphere
    • Overview: The constant flow of energy and cycling of matter in the biosphere leads to a balanced or
    • steady state. This balance is achieved through various biogeochemical cycles and the processes of
    • photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
  • Energy Flows Through the Biosphere
    • Energy from the sun flows through the planet. It may be absorbed for a time, but eventually it is reemitted back into space.
    • Energy is not EVER recycled
  • Photosynthesis
    • This process is the only way living things are able to harness the energy from the sun.
    • The solar energy is turned into chemical energy.
    6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light energy  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
  • Chemosynthesis
    • Chemo synthesizers found deep in the ocean where light can’t reach them, must produce their own chemical energy using raw ingredients found near geothermal vents.
    • These are the only other producers on the planet.
  • Producers
    • Producers that include plants, as well as single-celled photosynthesizers such as algae and phytoplankton, are responsible for the capture of the solar energy the sustains almost all life on the planet.
  • http://curriculum.calstatela.edu/courses/builders/lessons/less/les5/les5gifs/kelp3.gif http://staffwww.fullcoll.edu/tmorris/elements_of_ecology/images/tree_in_field.jpg http://www.visindavefur.hi.is/myndir/phytoplankton_070305.jpg http://www.krisweb.com/krissheepscot/krisdb/html/krisweb/stream/algae.jpg
  • Consumers
    • Every other living thing is unable to make its own energy and must instead consume it.
    • There are primary, secondary and tertiary consumers
  • Investigation 1.B
    • Pg 22 all
    • start keeping track of what you are eating for the next 3 days.
  • Cellular Respiration
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O
    • Once sugar is either produced or consumed, it is broken down into ATP, which is the type of energy that can be used by cells.
    • This means that cellular respiration occurs in both PLANTS AND ANIMALS
  • http://www.windows.ucar.edu/earth/climate/images/carboncycle_sm.jpg The Carbon Cycle
  • Laws of Thermodynamics
    • Energy can’t be created or destroyed just transferred from one form to another
    • Energy always moves from high energy to low energy
    • At every energy conversion, useful energy is lost as heat
  • Incoming solar energy= Outgoing solar energy http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/images/content/172159main_polar_radiation_budget_large.gif
  • Plants are vital for the redistribution of energy
    • Only about 1% or 2% of incoming solar radiation is absorbed by producers.
    • This amount must then be used or stored otherwise it ends up back in space.
  • Trophic Levels
    • The order of energy transfer goes from:
    • Primary producer (1 st trophic level)
    • Primary consumer (2 nd trophic level)
    • Secondary consumer (3 rd trophic level)
    • Tertiary consumer (4 th trophic level)
    • At each transfer the energy available to the next level decreases
  • Section 1.1 Review
    • Pg 15 # 2, 3,4, 7 & 8
  • Food Chains vs. Food Webs http://www.absc.usgs.gov/research/seabird_foragefish/marinehabitat/images/Food_Web3.gif http://www.kidsgeo.com/images/food-chain.jpg
  • Ecological Pyramids
    • These are used to visually show the relationship between trophic levels
  • Pyramid of Numbers http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/file.php/1656/SK220_2_003i.jpg Some times this pyramid can be such that second trophic level can have more numbers in it than the first trophic level.
  • Pyramid of Biomass http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/16cm05/1116/54-12-BiomassPyramids-L.gif
  • Pyramid of Energy http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/16cm05/1116/54-11-NetProductPyramid-L.jpg This graphic shows that only 10% of the energy from one trophic level is transferred to the level above it.
  • Why isn’t there a Quaternary consumer?
  • Biomagnification http://www.ec.gc.ca/ceqg-rcqe/English/Html/Mercury/images/fig4.gif
  • Investigation 1.B
    • Pg 22 all parts of the investigation
    • You should have a record of your food intake for three days. Use this information to complete the entire investigation, including the extension question.
    • This lab will be marked according to the rubric handed out in class.
  • Section 1.2 Review
    • Pg 27 #1, 2, 7, 8, 10
    • Connections pg 28
  • Chapter 1 Review
    • Make a graphic organizer that shows how energy enters the biosphere as well as how energy is transferred in the biosphere
    • Pg 30 # 1, 3, 6-9, 11, 13-15, 17 & 21