Preschool children belong to the fourth
stage of Erikson’s psychosocial stage
which is the Industry vs. Inferiority.
It is the psychosocial crisis that children
will have to resolve in this stage.
Industry vs. Ineriority
Industry refers to a child’s involvement in
situations where long, patient work is
demanded of them.
Inferiority is the feeling created when
a child gets a feeling of failure when
they cannot finish or master their
In this stage, children will
most likely, have begun
going to school. School
experiences become the
priority, with children so
busy doing school work.
Understanding the self
One’s self concept is the knowledge about
the self, such as beliefs regarding
personality, traits, physical
characteristics, abilities, values, goals and
It also involves a sense of belonging
and acceptance, a sense of good
and a sense of being capable of
Healthy self-concept means
that he can
Feels accepted by his
family and friends
Primary school children’s
self concept is influenced
not only by their parents, but
also by the growing number
of people they begin to
interact with, including
teachers and classmates.
In this transition from pre-elementary to primary
school, children tend to become increasingly
self-confident and able to cope well with social
The issue of FAIRNESS and
EQUALITY become important to them
as they learn to care for people who
are not part of their families.
Making friends is a crucial but very important
part of children’s social and emotional
growth. As soon as they will tend to show
natural inclination to be around other
Children, during this stage, most
likely belong to a Peer groups.
Primary school children prefer to belong
to peer groups of the same gender. Many
children will use their surroundings to
observe and mingle with other children.
Some will see this as an opportunity to
make friends while others remain a bit of
It is characterized by a long-standing pattern
of a disregard for other people’s rights, often
crossing the line and violating those rights. It
usually begins in childhood or as a teen and
continues into their adult lives.
How can parents and teachers
help children make friends?
• Expose the children to kid-rich environments (e.g.
• Create a play group in your class and let the
children mingle with their classmates.
• When your children hit other children, remind
them that their behavior hurts others.
• Coordinate with the parents and other
teachers so that the children will have
greater opportunity to interact with other
Once children reach school age, they begin
to take pride in their capacity to exert
effort. They like receiving feedbacks from
their parents and teachers. This becomes
a great opportunity for parents and
teachers to encourage positive
emotional responses from children
by acknowledging their
mature, compassionate behaviors.