Draft learning matrix

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Draft learning matrix

  1. 1. Walden UniversityProf. Dr. Shirley Weaver Behaviorist Theory EDUC 6115-2 by Cognitive Theory Tina Nkobi Constructivist TheoryInteractive Social Learning Theory Learning Theory Connectivism Matrix Adult Learning
  2. 2. How does learning occur? How is What factorstechnology used influence for learning in learning? your industry? Behaviorist Theory What types oflearning are best What is the roleexplained by this of memory? theory? How does transfer occur?
  3. 3. Behaviorist TheoryHow does learning occur? How does learning occur?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory? Behaviorism focuses on the importance of consequences of theHow does transfer occur? performances and contends that responses that are followed byWhat types of learning are reinforcement are more likely to occur in the future. (Ertmer &best explained by this theory? Newby1993) The theory of behaviorism concentrates on the study ofHow is technology used for overt behaviors that can be observed and measured. (Good & Brophy,learning in your industry? 1990)(I am at an educationalinstitution.)Go to:>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory One needs to differentiate between the classical conditioning (Pavlov)>>Social Learning Theory and the operant (instrumental) conditioning (Skinner).>>Connectivism In the classical conditioning a neutral stimulus - ringing of the bell in>>Adult Learning Pavlov’s Experiment with the dog - is associated with a reflex such as salivation.Return to Main Menu In operant conditioning the learner operates on his environment andMatrix Summary receives a certain reward for a certain behavior (operations). The linkReferences between the operation – the rat pressing the lever in Skinner’s experiment and the reward stimulus (food) is established.
  4. 4. Behaviorist TheoryHow does learning occur? What factors influence learning?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? The most critical factor however is the arrangement of stimuli and consequences within the environment. (Ertmer & Newby1993)What types of learning arebest explained by this theory? Positive Reinforcement or reward: Responses that are rewarded are likely to be repeated.How is technology used forlearning in your industry?(I am at an educationalinstitution.) Negative Reinforcement: Responses that allow escape from painful or unpleasant situations are likely to be repeatedGo to: Extinction or Non-Reinforcement: Responses that are not reinforced>>Behaviorist Theory are not likely to be repeated>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory Punishment: Responses that bring painful or undesirable consequences will be suppressed, but may reappear if reinforcement>>Connectivism contingencies change. (Good & Brophy, 1990)>>Adult LearningReturn to Main MenuMatrix SummaryReferences
  5. 5. Behaviorist TheoryHow does learning occur? What is the role of memory?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? Behaviorism does not study the memory, the acquisition of habits isWhat types of learning arebest explained by this theory? discussed but lacks an explanation as to how these habits are stored or retrieved for future use. Memory is developed in form of habits orHow is technology used forlearning in your industry? automated responses when a stimulus and its response occurs(I am at an educational repeatedly.institution.)Go to:>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism>>Adult LearningReturn to Main MenuMatrix SummaryReferences
  6. 6. Behaviorist TheoryHow does learning occur? How does transfer occur?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? The transfer occurs in the conditioning process until the behavior becomes automatic. The transfer is a result of generalization which isWhat types of learning arebest explained by this theory? conclusion inferred from a set of descriptions or observations.How is technology used forlearning in your industry? Situations involving identical or similar features will all behavior to(I am at an educationalinstitution.) transfer across common elements. The recognition is part of the transfer process. Reinforcing behavior pattern can result in the transferGo to: as well as evaluation and assessment.>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism>>Adult LearningReturn to Main MenuMatrix SummaryReferences
  7. 7. Behaviorist Theory What types of learning are best explainedHow does learning occur? by this theory?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? The use of instructional cues (word, phrase, or sentence that describes a particular aspect of a concept or skill) practice, repletion andWhat types of learning arebest explained by this theory? reinforcement can strengthen stimulus-response associations. Recalling facts, defining and illustrating concepts, applyingHow is technology used forlearning in your industry? explanations and forming a specified procedure automatically is the(I am at an educational result of this process. Behaviorism cannot however fully explain theinstitution.) acquisition of higher level skills where greater depth of processing isGo to: required.>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism>>Adult LearningReturn to Main MenuMatrix SummaryReferences
  8. 8. Behaviorist Theory How is technology used for learning in yourHow does learning occur? industry?What factors influencelearning? (I am at an educational institution.)What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? Behaviorist learning theorists include Edward Watson, John Thorndike, and B.F. Skinner. These theoretical ideas led directly toWhat types of learning arebest explained by this theory? instructional designs and interventions such as the Keller Plan (Keller & Sherman, 1974), computer-assisted instruction, and instructionalHow is technology used forlearning in your industry? systems designs. For example, Gagne’s (1965) events of instruction(I am at an educational proceed through linear and structured phases, including toinstitution.) 1. gain learners attention - multimediaGo to: 2. inform learner of objectives - multimedia>>Behaviorist Theory 3. stimulate recall of previous information – online resources,>>Cognitive Theory video and audio>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism>>Adult Learning 4. present stimulus material - video and audio 5. provide learner guidance online resourcesReturn to Main Menu 6. elicit performance – virtual performance measuring toolsMatrix Summary 7. provide feedback and reinforcement - multimediaReferences 8. assess performance - virtual performance measuring tools
  9. 9. How does learning occur? How is What factorstechnology used influence for learning in learning? your industry? Cognitive Theory What types oflearning are best What is the roleexplained by this of memory? theory? How does transfer occur?
  10. 10. Cognitive TheoryHow does learning occur? How does learning occur?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? The learning occurs with the changes in the probability of response.What types of learning arebest explained by this theory? Acquiring knowledge is processed through mental structure changes, rather thanHow is technology used for through responses through stimuli. The mind is used as reference tool to processlearning in your industry?(I am at an educational past information and create new knowledge (Ertmer & Newby, 1993).institution.)Go to:>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism>>Adult Learning The focus lies in of how the learnt is acquired rather than what is learnt. TheReturn to Main Menu information processing thus creates new knowledgeMatrix SummaryReferences
  11. 11. Cognitive TheoryHow does learning occur? What factors influence learning?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? Like in behaviorism environmental changes play a role. Instructional explanations, demonstration and illustrative examples can influence theWhat types of learning are learning.best explained by this theory?How is technology used forlearning in your industry?(I am at an educational The role of practice and correct feedback willinstitution.) influence the learning. The cognitive approach focuses on the mental processing activities andGo to: acknowledges the process of planning, goal->>Behaviorist Theory setting and organizational strategies.>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism>>Adult Learning The encoding process of the information will create new knowledge.Return to Main Menu Motivation, attention and perception are key factors that will influence theMatrix Summary learning.References
  12. 12. Cognitive TheoryHow does learning occur? What is the role of the memory?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? Information is received, organized, stored in memory and then retrieved in an organized and meaningful manner. Techniques such as analogies, hierarchicalWhat types of learning are relationships and matrices help to relate the new information to priorbest explained by this theory? knowledge. Rehearsal plays an important factor.How is technology used forlearning in your industry? The information going in as sensory input and processes through short-term-(I am at an educationalinstitution.) memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) and is then encoded for later retrieval.Go to:>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory Metacognition refers to ones knowledge>>Constructivist Theory concerning ones own cognitive processes or>>Social Learning Theory anything related to them, e.g., the learning- relevant properties of information or data>>Connectivism (Flavell, 1976).>>Adult LearningReturn to Main Menu Metacognition refers to deliberate, conscious control of mental activities.Matrix Summary Metacognition includes knowledge and monitoring activities designed to ensureReferences that tasks are completed successfully (Schunk, 2011).
  13. 13. Cognitive TheoryHow does learning occur? How does transfer occur?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? Transfer is not a unitary phenomenon but rather is complex. Transfer refers to knowledge being applied in new ways, in new situations, or in familiar situationsWhat types of learning are with different content.best explained by this theory?How is technology used for When a learner understands how to apply knowledge in a different set oflearning in your industry? circumstances and when irrelevant information is eliminated, transfer occurs(I am at an educationalinstitution.) more easily (Ertmer & Newby, 1993). Specific instructional or relevant events will trigger responses. The learner needs to understand the connection between theGo to: usefulness of the information before accessing the knowledge. Humans select>>Behaviorist Theory and pick out relevant information, they rehearse the information and start putting this gained information into context from previous acquired knowledge>>Cognitive Theory and constructing a meaning to the information being processed.>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism>>Adult LearningReturn to Main MenuMatrix SummaryReferences
  14. 14. Cognitive Theory What types of learning are bestHow does learning occur? explained by this theory?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? Complex forms of learning, such as problem solving or greater levels of critical thinking or analysis Feedback for results of knowledge, rather than observableWhat types of learning are behavior; to relate new information to existing information; analogies andbest explained by this theory? metaphors are used (Ertmer & Newby, 1993).How is technology used forlearning in your industry? Problem solving involves the acquisition, retention, and use of production(I am at an educationalinstitution.) systems, which are networks of condition–action sequences (rules) in which the conditions are the sets of circumstances that activate the system and the actionsGo to: are the sets of activities that occur (Anderson, 1990; Andre, 1986).>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory Reasoning refers to the mental processes involved in generating and evaluating>>Constructivist Theory logical arguments(Anderson, 1990).>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism>>Adult Learning Homework is a mechanism for transfer because students practice and refine, at home, skills learned in school.Return to Main MenuMatrix SummaryReferences
  15. 15. Cognitive Theory How is technology used for learning in yourHow does learning occur? industry?What factors influencelearning? (I am at an educational institution.)What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? Students increasingly are learning in computer-based environments.What types of learning arebest explained by this theory? Functions of technology.How is technology used forlearning in your industry? Tool to support knowledge construction. Information vehicle for exploring(I am at an educational knowledge to support learning by constructinginstitution.)Go to: Context to support learning by doing>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism Social medium to support learning by conversing>>Adult Learning Intellectual partner to support learning by reflecting (Jonassen et al., 1999)Return to Main MenuMatrix SummaryReferences
  16. 16. How does learning occur? How is What factorstechnology used influence for learning in learning? your industry? Constructivist TheoryWhat types of learning are What is the rolebest explained of memory?by this theory? How does transfer occur?
  17. 17. Constructivist TheoryHow does learning occur? How does learning occur?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? The learning occurs in this theory through the interaction. The information is received through the guidance of a peer or instructor and the learner creates theWhat types of learning are knowledge through the exchange of knowledge with his peers. The engagementbest explained by this theory? in applying existing knowledge and real world experience, learning toHow is technology used for hypothesize and testing theories can result in developing conclusions from theirlearning in your industry? findings and creating meaning through social engagement and collaboration.(I am at an educationalinstitution.)Go to:>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism>>Adult Learning The individual creates knowledge and develops concepts – it recognizes aReturn to Main Menu relationship between prior knowledge/experience and sensory input. The internal representation of knowledge is at all times open to change. Hence inMatrix Summary order to understand a learning that has taken place within an individual, theReferences actual experience must be examined (Bednar et a., 1991)
  18. 18. Constructivist TheoryHow does learning occur? What factors influence learning?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? Situations co-produce knowledge along with cognition through activity. Every action is viewed as an interpretation of the current situation based on an entireWhat types of learning are history of previous interactions. The interaction between the learner andbest explained by this theory? environmental factors „construct“ the knowledge.How is technology used forlearning in your industry? Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (ZDP) for any learner is this range of(I am at an educationalinstitution.) activities that are difficult but not impossible and which you can do if you have assisted by a peer or instructor. With this in mind it is critical that learningGo to: should occur in realistic settings and that the selected learning tasks are related>>Behaviorist Theory to the learners lived experience.>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism>>Adult LearningReturn to Main Menu The social interactions contribute to the construction of knowledge it beingMatrix Summary cultural or social. Knowledge can be achieved by sharing and solving otherReferences defined tasks with other peers or under the guidance of an instructor.
  19. 19. Constructivist TheoryHow does learning occur? What is the role of memory?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? Learning is not only about the learner’s knowledge about specific facts but rather an interpretation about the information, “Understanding is developed throughWhat types of learning are continued, situated use… and does not crystallize into a categorical definition”best explained by this theory? that can be called up from memory. (Ertmer & Newby1993)How is technology used forlearning in your industry?(I am at an educationalinstitution.) Memory is always “under construction” as a continuousGo to: process of information which is cumulative history of>>Behaviorist Theory interactions and representative experience. It is not a>>Cognitive Theory specific piece of knowledge of pre-packed information>>Constructivist Theory stored in the brain, but a flexible use of knowledge from pre-existing experiences as well as the interaction>>Social Learning Theory through peers that will construct new knowledge.>>Connectivism>>Adult LearningReturn to Main Menu According to Brown et al. there are three vital factors to facilitate a meaningfulMatrix Summary long-lasting learning: activity (practice), concept (knowledge) and cultureReferences (context).
  20. 20. Constructivist TheoryHow does learning occur? How does transfer occur?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? In the constructivist view the transfer occurs by the actual doing authentic activities anchored in meaningful contexts. (Ertmer & Newby1993)What types of learning are Students actively participate in problem-solving and critical thinking regarding abest explained by this theory? learning activity. They are "constructing" their own knowledge by testing ideasHow is technology used for and approaches based on their prior knowledge and experience, applying theselearning in your industry? to a new situation, and integrating the new knowledge gained with pre-existing(I am at an educational intellectual constructs. The social dimension of learning is also central to the ideainstitution.) of situated learning and communities of practice.Go to:>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism>>Adult Learning The transfer in cognitive constructivism is about how the individual learnerReturn to Main Menu understands things, in terms of developmental stages and learning styles (Piaget)Matrix Summary whereas the social constructivism, emphasizes how meanings andReferences understandings evolve out of social interactions (Vygotsky).
  21. 21. Constructivist TheoryHow does learning occur? What types of learning are bestWhat factors influencelearning? explained by this theory?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? Constructivism is most effective for advanced knowledge acquisition, whereWhat types of learning are initial misconceptions and biases can be discovered, negotiated, modified orbest explained by this theory? removed (Ertmer & Newby, 1993). While it is likely that introductory knowledgeHow is technology used for can be supported by the objectivist approaches, as learners acquire thatlearning in your industry? knowledge they can begin to deal will complex and ill-structured problems,(I am at an educational which can be addressed well with constructivists approaches to learning.institution.)Go to:>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism>>Adult Learning Use of problem-solving skills that allow learners to go beyond whats givenReturn to Main Menu (developing pattern-recognition skills, presenting alternative ways of representing problems)Matrix Summary Examples: group work, scaffolding, case studies, discovery learningReferences
  22. 22. Constructivist Theory How is technology used for learning in yourHow does learning occur? industry?What factors influencelearning? (I am at an educational institution.)What is the role of memory? The growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web, in particular, are attracting theHow does transfer occur? attention of tertiary educational institutions worldwide. Constructivist distance education pedagogies moved distance learning beyond the narrow type of knowledgeWhat types of learning are transmission that could be encapsulated easily in media through the use ofbest explained by this theory? synchronous and asynchronous, human communications-based learning.How is technology used for From an instructional point of view in regards to an educational setting the roots of thelearning in your industry? constructivist model most commonly applied today originate from the work of(I am at an educational Vygotsky and Dewey, joined together in the broad category of social constructivism.institution.) Social-constructivist pedagogies, perhaps not coincidently, developed in conjunction with the development of two-way communication technologies. At this time, ratherGo to: than transmitting information, technology became widely used to create opportunities for both synchronous and asynchronous interactions between and among students>>Behaviorist Theory and teachers. (Bednar, et. A, 1991)>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory E-learning environments should be Internet or web platform,>>Connectivism learners can access the learning environment in their embedded and situated contexts – anywhere and anytime>>Adult Learning E-learning environments should be portable as far as possible so that they can be used in the context.Return to Main Menu E-learning environments can use the social communicative and collaborative dimensionsMatrix Summary E-learning environments should have scaffolding structures whichReferences contain the genres and common expressions used by the community. (Hung, D. W. L., & Der-Thanq, C. 2001).
  23. 23. How does learning occur? How is What factorstechnology used influence for learning in learning? your industry? Social Learning TheoryWhat types of learning are What is the rolebest explained of memory?by this theory? How does transfer occur?
  24. 24. Social LearningTheory How does learning occur?How does learning occur?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory? Learning occurs actively - by doing and vicariously - by observing, reading, and listening. Observational learning consists of four processes:How does transfer occur? attention, retention, production, and motivation.What types of learning arebest explained by this theory?How is technology used forlearning in your industry?(I am at an educationalinstitution.)Go to:>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism>>Adult Learning Social cognitive theory is its emphasis on learning from your social environment. Meaningful learning occurs when learners engage in social activities. (Ormrod, 1999)Return to Main MenuMatrix SummaryReferences
  25. 25. Social LearningTheory What factors influence learning?How does learning occur?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory? Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior hasHow does transfer occur? functional value. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behaviorWhat types of learning are if it results in outcomes they value.best explained by this theory?How is technology used for Stages of cognitive development identified by Piaget are associated withlearning in your industry? characteristic age spans, they vary for every individual. Furthermore,(I am at an educational each stage has many detailed structural forms. The information processinginstitution.) is influenced through imitating and modeling.Go to:>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism>>Adult Learning Values reflect what persons find self-satisfying. There are two types of expectations. Outcome expectations refer to the expected outcomes of actions. Efficacy expectations, or self-efficacy, refer toReturn to Main Menu one’s perceived capabilities for learning or performing tasks at specific levels.Matrix SummaryReferences
  26. 26. Social LearningTheory What is the role of memory?How does learning occur?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory? The role of the memory has not been investigated in depth. Social cognitive theory assumes that memory includes information stored as images or symbols.How does transfer occur? The environment can reinforce modeling. Human activity and the environment inWhat types of learning are which one lives influence learning. Historical developments inherited by thebest explained by this theory? learner in their culture. (Ormrod, 1999)How is technology used forlearning in your industry?(I am at an educationalinstitution.) One of the key components of Social LearningGo to: Theory is learning through modeling and/or>>Behaviorist Theory observation. Accordingly, memory has to do with>>Cognitive Theory the conditions necessary for effective modeling>>Constructivist Theory to occur or be repeated. These conditions are reflective of the blending between behaviorist>>Social Learning Theory and cognitive theories: Attention, Retention>>Connectivism through rehearsal, memory coding, motor>>Adult Learning reproduction strategy and Motivation (Ormrod, 2008)Return to Main MenuMatrix SummaryReferences
  27. 27. Social LearningTheory How does transfer occur?How does learning occur?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory? Transfer is a cognitive process and depends on the assumption that certain actions in new or different situations are socially acceptable and will be met withHow does transfer occur? favorable outcomes. The learners self-efficacy also can facilitate transfer.What types of learning are (Schunk, D. H., 2011)best explained by this theory?How is technology used forlearning in your industry?(I am at an educationalinstitution.)Go to:>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism>>Adult Learning Social cognitive principles also are reflected in worked examples, tutoring, and mentoring. Symbolic coding and rehearsal, mental images, and cognitiveReturn to Main Menu organization play a part in processing the information (Bandura, 1977).Matrix SummaryReferences
  28. 28. Social LearningTheory What types of learning are bestHow does learning occur?What factors influence explained by this theory?learning?What is the role of memory? We internalize some of the processes from a social environment, eventually use them independently, and then begin thinking of complex issues on our own.How does transfer occur? Structure is provided and a knowledgeable person helps a learner expand theirWhat types of learning are Zone of Proximal Development into more challenging activities (Ormrod, 2008).best explained by this theory? Vygotskys theory was an attempt to explain consciousness as the end product of socialization. For example, in the learning of language, our first utterances withHow is technology used for peers or adults are for the purpose of communication but once mastered theylearning in your industry? become internalized.(I am at an educationalinstitution.) Attention - an individual’s characteristicsGo to: such as sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set,>>Behaviorist Theory past reinforcement affect attention.>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory Retention - Ways to increase attention is though symbolic coding, mental images, cognitive organization,>>Social Learning Theory symbolic rehearsal, and motor rehearsal.>>Connectivism>>Adult Learning Motor Reproduction or the ability to replicate a behavior. Motivation means having a good reason to imitate or learners must demonstrateReturn to Main Menu what they have learned.Matrix SummaryReferences
  29. 29. Social Learning How is technology used for learning in yourTheory industry?How does learning occur?What factors influence (I am at an educational institution.)learning?What is the role of memory? Interactive learning, collaborative learning, facilitating learning, authentic learning, learner-centered learning to achieve high quality learning. UtilizingHow does transfer occur?What types of learning are Course Management Systems (CMS) tools to interact with other learners as wellbest explained by this theory? as monitoring learners own progress. Technology tools can extend memory andHow is technology used for make thinking visible. Internet, web, and social media have given education in anlearning in your industry? e-learning setting a new tool to facilitate learning.(I am at an educationalinstitution.) The virtual platform enables cross-cultural contacts as well as collaborativeGo to: learning, apprenticeships, problem-based instruction, reciprocal teaching, and>>Behaviorist Theory other learning that involves learners with others (Kim, 2001).>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism>>Adult LearningReturn to Main Menu The use of modeling is highly recommended in instruction. The key is to beginMatrix Summary with social influences, such as models, and gradually shift to self-influence as the learner internalizes skills and strategies. (Schunk, 2011).References
  30. 30. How does learning occur? How is What factorstechnology used influence for learning in learning? your industry? ConnectivismWhat types of learning are What is the rolebest explained of memory?by this theory? How does transfer occur?
  31. 31. ConnectivismHow does learning occur? How does learning occur?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? The factor that influences learning in connectivism is the diversity of network, strength of ties and context of occurrence (Davis, Edmunds, & Kelly-What types of learning are Bateman, 2008).best explained by this theory?How is technology used forlearning in your industry?(I am at an educationalinstitution.)Go to:>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory Learning is a process that occurs within nebulous environments of shifting core>>Constructivist Theory elements – not entirely under the control of the individual. Learning (defined as>>Social Learning Theory actionable knowledge) can reside outside of ourselves (within an organization or>>Connectivism a database), is focused on connecting specialized information sets, and the>>Adult Learning connections that enable us to learn more are more important than our current state of knowing (Siemens, 2005).Return to Main MenuMatrix SummaryReferences
  32. 32. ConnectivismHow does learning occur? What factors influence learning?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? “George Siemens’ theory of Connectivism is the combined effect of three different components: chaos theory, importance of networks, and the interplayWhat types of learning are of complexity and self-organization” (Davis et al., 2008)best explained by this theory?How is technology used forlearning in your industry?(I am at an educationalinstitution.) Siemens principles of connectivism:Go to: Learning and knowledge rest in diversity of opinions.>>Behaviorist Theory Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.>>Cognitive Theory Learning may reside in non-human appliances.>>Constructivist Theory Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known.>>Social Learning Theory Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual>>Connectivism learning.>>Adult Learning Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill and interpret them correctlyReturn to Main Menu Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all learningMatrix Summary activities.References Decision making will influence the learning process.
  33. 33. ConnectivismHow does learning occur? What is the role of memory?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? Adaptive patterns, representative of current state, existing in networks (Davis, et al., 2008).What types of learning arebest explained by this theory? Essentially, there is more value in knowing how to acquire knowledge, interpretHow is technology used for the value of knowledge, and distribution of knowledge than in maintaininglearning in your industry? knowledge facts that are continuously evolving and changing.(I am at an educationalinstitution.) Memory is defined by connection ofGo to: nodes-networking. The nodes>>Behaviorist Theory are endlessly dissolving and resolving,>>Cognitive Theory the connections are endlessly forming,>>Constructivist Theory and what is important is not the connection, the bridge or the node,>>Social Learning Theory but the ways, contexts, conditions in>>Connectivism which they form, coalesce, emerge or>>Adult Learning disappear or are constructed. That is where the learning is.Return to Main Menu (Davis, Edmunds, & Kelly-Bateman, 2008).Matrix SummaryReferences
  34. 34. ConnectivismHow does learning occur? How does transfer occur?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? Transfer occurs through connecting to information (by adding nodes) and growing the network via social/conceptual/biological connections (Davis, et al.,What types of learning are 2008)best explained by this theory?How is technology used for The brain does not hold chunks of information/knowledge, it is networked.learning in your industry?(I am at an educational Conceptual connections generate meanings.institution.) Internet, web, and social media have raised the profile of networks because we now experience them in our daily life.Go to:>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory>>Connectivism Connecting to adding nodes. The nodes are endlessly dissolving and resolving,>>Adult Learning the connections are endlessly forming, and what is important is not the connection, the bridge or the node, but the ways, contexts, conditions inReturn to Main Menu which they form, coalesce, emerge or disappear or are constructed.Matrix Summary Transfer per se, of isolated facts is unnecessary as long as the individual has the technological skills to find the information necessary (Davis, et al., 2008)References
  35. 35. ConnectivismHow does learning occur? What types of learning are bestWhat factors influencelearning? explained by this theory?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? Complex learning, learning which has a rapid changing core and learning occurring from diverse knowledge sources (Davis, et al., 2008)What types of learning arebest explained by this theory?How is technology used forlearning in your industry?(I am at an educationalinstitution.)Go to:>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory Technology has impacted and evolved the education system and how instructions should>>Social Learning Theory be delivered. Today, our networks are explicit in tools like>>Connectivism Facebook, Twitter, Google+, Email, and LinkedIn. These services provide users>>Adult Learning the ability to analyze how they are connected to others and share the information.Return to Main MenuMatrix Summary Connectivism emphasizes on distribution and connectivity of knowledge and learning within a collaborative network. Social networks, technological andReferences informational networks distribute the information.
  36. 36. Connectivism How is technology used for learning in yourHow does learning occur? industry?What factors influencelearning? (I am at an educational institution.)What is the role of memory? Learning Management System (LMS) enable administrators and instructors in the corporateHow does transfer occur? training world to track employee/staff learning progress, manage content, and roster students.What types of learning arebest explained by this theory? These systems help learners take control of and manage their own learning.How is technology used forlearning in your industry? Socially-based tools comprise of blogs, wikis, social bookmarking sites, social networking(I am at an educational sites, content aggregation through RSS and Atom, podcast and video cast tools, searchinstitution.) engines, emails, and voice over IP.Go to: Technology tools provide the means through which individuals engage and manipulate both resources and their own ideas. Examples include brainstorming and concept mapping>>Behaviorist Theory software. Others help to represent knowledge and facilitate communication. For instance, the Collaborative Visualization provides visualization software designed to help students collect,>>Cognitive Theory analyze data and visualize effects. Tools, like simulations enable learners to experiment with>>Constructivist Theory modeling complex ideas.>>Social Learning Theory Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE) is software that supports a>>Connectivism networked, multimedia environment in which students collaborate on learning activities. They do this by creating “posts” to express their ideas or integrate outside information about a>>Adult Learning topic. This builds a communal database producing shared knowledge about the topic or problem. CSILE also facilitates connections between schools and the scientific community, allowing practicing scientists to serve as mentors to students.Return to Main Menu The Horizon Report, “introduces six emerging technologies or practices that are likely to enterMatrix Summary mainstream use in learning-focused organizations within three adoption horizons over the next one to five years” (Johnson, Levine, & Smith, 2009, p. 3) in the areas of “mobiles, cloudReferences computing, geo-tagging, personal web, semantic aware applications and smart objects.
  37. 37. How does learning occur? How is What factorstechnology used influence for learning in learning? your industry? Adult LearningWhat types of learning are What is the rolebest explained of memory?by this theory? How does transfer occur?
  38. 38. Adult LearningHow does learning occur? How does learning occur?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? The term andragogy was originally formulated by a German teacher, Alexander Kapp, in 1833 (Nottingham Andragogy Group 1983: v). He used it to describeWhat types of learning are elements of Platos education theory. Andragogy (andr- meaning man) could bebest explained by this theory? contrasted with pedagogy (paid- meaning child and agogos meaning leading)How is technology used for (Davenport, 1993).learning in your industry?(I am at an educationalinstitution.)Go to:>>Behaviorist Theory>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory The term was later used by the American educator Malcom Knowles in the mid>>Social Learning Theory 20th century. Knowles’ research had an emphasis on the difference between the>>Connectivism education of adults and children.>>Adult Learning While pedagogy defined the science of teaching children, the science of teaching adults was not highly researched until Knowles. Knowles term andragogy defines a philosophy of adult learning processes rather than an entire theory. AndragogyReturn to Main Menu holds a set of assumptions about how adults learn.Matrix Summary Andragogy emphasizes the value of the process of learning. Adult learning isReferences problem-centered rather than content-oriented.
  39. 39. Adult LearningHow does learning occur? What factors influence learning?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory? Life-Experience - Adult have experiences that they bring with them into new learningHow does transfer occur? situations. This enables a rich contribution of how the information will be acknowledged and interpreted. Unfortunately this may cause misinformation or biasesWhat types of learning are related to the new learning and can be counterproductive.best explained by this theory? Readiness to learn - As a person matures his readiness to learn becomes orientedHow is technology used for increasingly to the developmental tasks of his social roles. Whether or not an adult islearning in your industry? ready to learn depends on what they need to know in order to deal with life(I am at an educational situations.institution.) Problem centered focus - As a person grows older the time perspective changes fromGo to: one of postponed application of knowledge to>>Behaviorist Theory immediacy of application. Adults need to see the immediate application of learning.>>Cognitive Theory The learning opportunities will enable them to solve>>Constructivist Theory problems. We assume that maturity leads to a shift>>Social Learning Theory from subject centre learning towards problem solving learning.>>Connectivism Internal motivation. Adults will seek learning>>Adult Learning opportunities due to some external motivators (teachers, applications), but the motivators such as self-esteem, quality of life, self-actualization, etc. are internal.Return to Main MenuMatrix Summary Adults need to know why they need to learn something. Adults need to know what’sReferences in it for them – how this new knowledge will solve a problem or how it can be applied.
  40. 40. Adult LearningHow does learning occur? What is the role of memory?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? Adults integrate new knowledge with existing related knowledge, ensuring high levels of recall. The activation of existing knowledge in the long-term-memoryWhat types of learning are enable the retrieval of meaningful information enabling the learner to elaboratebest explained by this theory? and integrate the new information into a memorable whole thus creating newHow is technology used for knowledge.learning in your industry?(I am at an educationalinstitution.) Memory is a function of cognition, encoding and retrieval. Adults face additional challengesGo to: as they get older resulting in memory decay>>Behaviorist Theory and retrieval issues.>>Cognitive Theory>>Constructivist Theory>>Social Learning Theory Older adults may face processing deficits. This may lead to inaccurate processing of>>Connectivism the information that is being recognized>>Adult Learning or interpreted.Return to Main MenuMatrix Summary Structural deficit in adults leads to speed and capacity limitations associated withReferences age-related changes in the central nervous system.
  41. 41. Adult LearningHow does learning occur? How does transfer occur?What factors influencelearning?What is the role of memory?How does transfer occur? Adult learners are most interested in immediate application of their learning (Conlan, Graboswski, & Smith, 2003).What types of learning are Adults observe and grasp information from their educational setting and usebest explained by this theory? previous knowledge to process the new information. They apply it immediatelyHow is technology used for to everyday situations on the job, at home, or in a different educational settinglearning in your industry? from where the information was obtained.(I am at an educationalinstitution.) Transfer for adults is not automatic and must be facilitated in the form of coaching, revision exercises. This assists the adult learners to transfer learningGo to: into daily practice so that it is sustained.>>Behaviorist Theory Transference is most likely to occur in the>>Cognitive Theory following situations:>>Constructivist Theory Association — participants can associate the new information with something that they already>>Social Learning Theory know.>>Connectivism>>Adult Learning Similarity — the information is similar to material that participants already know; that is, it revisits a logical framework or pattern.Return to Main MenuMatrix Summary Critical attribute element — the information learned contains elements that are extremely beneficialReferences (critical) on the job” (Lieb, 1991).
  42. 42. Adult LearningHow does learning occur? What types of learning are bestWhat factors influencelearning? explained by this theory?What is the role of memory? I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.How does transfer occur? (Confucius, 551BC - 479BC)What types of learning are Action Learning: Learners work in small groups on a given scenario and createbest explained by this theory? new knowledge through activities and tasks. Experiential learning: Experiential learning is a learning theory that is learner-How is technology used forlearning in your industry? centered and operates on the premise that individuals learn best by experience.(I am at an educational A good way to describe this theory is “learning by doing”. Experiential learninginstitution.) thus has the learner directly involved with the material being studied instead of just thinking and talking about that material (Conlan, et al., 2003).Go to: Project Based learning: In Project Based Learning, students work in groups to>>Behaviorist Theory solve challenging problems that are authentic and often interdisciplinary. Learners decide how to approach a problem and what activities to pursue>>Cognitive Theory (Conlan, et al., 2003).>>Constructivist Theory Self-Directed Learning: Defined as the process in which individuals take on the>>Social Learning Theory responsibility for their own learning process by diagnosing their personal>>Connectivism learning needs, setting goals, identifying resources, implementing strategies and evaluating the outcomes(Conlan, et al., 2003).>>Adult Learning Transformational Learning: Transformative, or transformational, learning occurs when the individual is forced to encounter an event or situation that isReturn to Main Menu inconsistent with his or her existing perspective. This shift in perspective can be gradual or sudden, and the individual moves through a series of stages in theMatrix Summary cognitive restructuring and reconciliation of experience and action (Stansberry &References Kymes, 2007).
  43. 43. Adult Learning How is technology used for learning in yourHow does learning occur? industry?What factors influencelearning? (I am at an educational institution.)What is the role of memory? In the respective of instructional design and concept of adult learning manyHow does transfer occur? factors play key roles. Prensky defines generational differences in how peopleWhat types of learning are learn and differentiates between the "digital immigrant," and the "digitalbest explained by this theory? natives". The first group takes to technology as a means of survival in the business world but did not grow up with technology as a primary source ofHow is technology used for production or information. The latter have an advanced technological skill setlearning in your industry? and always connected.(I am at an educationalinstitution.) Learning Management System (LMS), training coordinators and learningGo to: facilitators enable collaborative learning through a learning platform. Individual learning plans and learning assessments, linked to the overall development of>>Behaviorist Theory any learner.>>Cognitive Theory Web based trainings for personal development.>>Constructivist Theory Courses can be accessed through a learning platform or a LMS. Resources can be used online and>>Social Learning Theory can be downloaded as an offline resource.>>Connectivism Social networking, such as Facebook, Blogs, Podcasts,>>Adult Learning etc allows learners to collaborate, converse, provide input, create content and share it.Return to Main Menu Adult learners will be successful in online courses when instructors utilize theMatrix Summary tools available to create effective online learning communities that promoteReferences dialogue, discussion, and reflection, all of which allow learners to develop deeper understandings and to gain knowledge.
  44. 44. References• Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy. Internationa, Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12.3• Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press.• Bednar, A.K., Cunningham, D., Duffy, T.M., & Perry, J.D. (1991). Theory into practice: How do we link? In G.L. Anglin (Ed.), Instructional technology: Past, present, and future (pp. 88-101). Englewood• Cercone, K. (2008, April). Characteristics of adult learners with implications for online learning design. AACE Journal, 16(2), 137- 159. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ805727). Retrieved April 4, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.• Ertmer, P. A., Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly.• Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34• Good, T. L., Brophy, J. E. (1990). Educational psychology: A realistic approach. (4th ed.).White Plains, NY: Longman• Hung, D. W. L., & Der-Thanq, C. (2001). Situated Cognition, Vygotskian Thought and Learning from the Communities of Practice Perspective: Implications for the Design of Web-Based E-Learning. Educational Media International, 38(1), p. 3-12.• Jonassen, D., Tessmer, M., & Hannum, W. H. (1999). Task analysis methods for instructional design. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates• Keller, F. S., and Sherman, J. G. (1974). The Keller Plan Handbook. Menlo Park, CA.: W. A. Benjamin.• Ormrod, J. (2008). Human Learning (5th ed.). New Jersey, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.• Schunk, D. H. (2011). Learning Theories an Educational Perspective. (Publishing as A. & B. Pearson Education, Inc., Ed.)Learning (6th ed.). Boston• Stansberry, S. & Kymes, A. (2007). Transformative learning through “Teaching with technology” electronic portfolios. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literature, 50(6), (pp. 488-496). Main Menu Matrix Summary References continued 
  45. 45. References - Web articles• Davis, C., Edmunds, E., & Kelly-Bateman, V. (2008). Connectivism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology (p. ). Retrieved from Retrieved from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Connectivism• Johnson, L., Levine, A., & Smith, R. (2009). The Horizon Report (2009 ed.). Retrieved from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/CSD5612.pdf• Kim, B. (2001). Social Constructivism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/• Lieb, S. (1991, Fall). Principles of adult learning. Vision. Retrieved from http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/adults-2.htm• Conlan, J., Grabowski, S., & Smith, K. (2003). Adult learning. In M. Orey (Ed.),Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved December 2, 2010, Retrieved from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Adult_Learning• Emerging theories and online learning environments for adults. (2002). In Theories of Educational Technology. Retrieved November 24l, 2010, Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/a/boisestate.edu/edtechtheories/• Lieb, S. (1991, Fall). Principles of adult learning. Vision. Retrieved from http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/adults-2.htm Main Menu Matrix Summary  Back to References
  46. 46. Matrix Summary Social Learning Questions Behaviorism Cognitivism Constructivism Connectivism Adult Learning Theory Distributed within a Material is learner Learning occurs network, social,How does learning Observable behavior Structured, Social, meaning created by centered and actively - by doing technologically enhanced, occur? main focus computational each learner (personal) learner is self- and vicariously recognizing and directed interpreting patterns Prior knowledge Human activity and experience; What factors Nature of reward, Existing schema, Engagement, participation, and the biological and Diversity of networkinfluence learning? punishment, stimuli previous experiences social, cultural environment in psychological which one lives development; socio-cultural views Information is Memory is hardwiring Symbolic coding more likely to be of repeated experiences and rehearsal, Adaptive patterns, stored in memoryWhat is the role of Encoding, storage, Prior knowledge remixed to - where reward and mental images, representative of current when it has greater memory? retrieval current context punishment are most and cognitive state, existing in networks meaning or influential organization application to the learner The use of knowledge Internalization Co-emergent is stored in memory. A Socialization some of the process, is relevantHow does transfer Stimulus, response learner understands Group Learning, processes from a Connecting to nodes and applicable to occur? how to apply Collaboration social the learner’s knowledge environment experiences Collaborative learning; What types of Reasoning, clear apprenticeships; Complex learning, rapid Transfer concepts learning are best Task-based learning objectives, problem Social group Learning problem-based changing core, diverse and knowledge to explained by this solving instruction; knowledge sources new circumstances theory? reciprocal teaching Interactive Reflections andHow is technology learning, feedback on the By expanding theused for learning in Audio-video materials; Relate new To help learners actively collaborative relevance of their capacity to create an your industry? computer assisted information to existing explore complex topics. learning, learning; facilitate external network (I am at an instruction Computer information; analogies Interactive problem based facilitating self-direction; use consisting of people, educational games and metaphors software package learning, learner’s information and content institution.) authentic knowledge and learning, learner experience

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