Mod 7 drugs


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Intro to Psych Mod 7

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  • Preview Question 10: What are dependence and addiction? Can substance abusers overcome their addictions?
  • Addictive drugs quickly corrupt: After taking drugs only (perhaps) 10% become addict. Addiction cannot be overcome voluntarily: It can be to a large extent. Addiction not different than repetitive pleasure-seeking behaviors: Indeed. But should we stretch the concept to cover social behaviors?
  • Preview Question 11: What are depressants, and what are their effects?
  • Preview Question 12: What are stimulants, and what are their effects?
  • Preview Question 13: What are hallucinogens, and what are their effects?
  • Preview Question 14: Why do some people become regular users of consciousness-altering drugs?
  • Mod 7 drugs

    1. 1. States of Consciousness <ul><li>Drugs and Consciousness: Module 7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependence and Addiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoactive Drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influences on Drug Use </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Drugs and Consciousness <ul><li>Psychoactive Drug: A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood (affects consciousness). </li></ul>What are dependence and addiction? Can substance abusers overcome their addictions?
    3. 3. Dependence & Addiction <ul><li>Continued use of a psychoactive drug produces tolerance . With repeated exposure to a drug, the drug’s effect lessens. Thus it takes greater quantities to get the desired effect. This can lead to dependence and addiction (compulsive drug craving and use). </li></ul>
    4. 4. Withdrawal & Dependence <ul><li>Withdrawal: Upon stopping use of a drug (after addiction), users may experience the undesirable effects of withdrawal—which is the discomfort and distress that follow after discontinuation of an addictive drug. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence: Absence of a drug may lead to a feeling of physical pain, intense cravings (physical dependence), and negative emotions (psychological dependence) . </li></ul>
    5. 5. Misconceptions About Addiction <ul><li>T or F: Addictive drugs quickly corrupt. </li></ul><ul><li>FALSE. Medically speaking of prescribed psychoative drugs, it is rare that they will cause addiction. Only perhaps 10% of those using will have a difficult time using in moderation or stopping altogether. </li></ul><ul><li>T or F: Addiction cannot be overcome voluntarily. </li></ul><ul><li>FALSE. Support groups are nice, however, people often recover on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>T or F: Addiction is no different than repetitive pleasure-seeking behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>FALSE. This line of thinking can turn addiction into an all-purpose excuse. (i.e. embezzling for gambling addiction) </li></ul>Addiction is a craving for a chemical substance, despite its adverse consequences (physical & psychological).
    6. 6. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Psychoactive drugs are divided into three groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Depressants </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulants </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucinogens </li></ul>
    7. 7. Depressants <ul><li>Depressants are drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions. They include: </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Barbiturates </li></ul><ul><li>Opiates </li></ul>
    8. 8. Depressants <ul><li>Alcohol affects motor skills, judgment, and memory…and increases aggressiveness while reducing self awareness. </li></ul>Drinking and Driving Daniel Hommer, NIAAA, NIH, HHS Ray Ng/ Time & Life Pictures/ Getty Images
    9. 9. Depressants <ul><li>2. Barbiturates: Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment. Nembutal, Seconal, and Amytal are some examples. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Depressants <ul><li>3. Opiates: Opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety. They are highly addictive. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Stimulants <ul><li>Stimulants are drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions. Examples of stimulants are: </li></ul><ul><li>Caffeine </li></ul><ul><li>Nicotine </li></ul><ul><li>Cocaine </li></ul><ul><li>Ecstasy </li></ul><ul><li>Amphetamines </li></ul><ul><li>Methamphetamines </li></ul>
    12. 12. Caffeine & Nicotine <ul><li>Caffeine and nicotine increase heart and breathing rates and other autonomic functions to provide energy. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Why Do People Smoke? <ul><li>People smoke because it is socially rewarding. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking is also a result of genetic factors. </li></ul>Russel Einhorn/ The Gamma Liason Network
    14. 14. Why Do People Smoke? <ul><li>Nicotine takes away unpleasant cravings (negative reinforcement) by triggering epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and endorphins. </li></ul><ul><li>Nicotine itself is rewarding (positive reinforcement). </li></ul>
    15. 15. Cocaine <ul><li>Cocaine induces immediate euphoria followed by a crash. Crack, a form of cocaine, can be smoked. Other forms of cocaine can be sniffed or injected. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Ecstasy <ul><li>Ecstasy or Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a stimulant and mild hallucinogen. It produces a euphoric high and can damage serotonin-producing neurons, which results in a permanent deflation of mood and impairment of memory. </li></ul>Greg Smith/ AP Photos
    17. 17. Hallucinogens <ul><li>Hallucinogens are psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input. </li></ul>Ronald K. Siegel
    18. 18. Hallucinogens <ul><li>LSD: (lysergic acid diethylamide) powerful hallucinogenic drug that is also known as acid . </li></ul><ul><li>THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol): is the major active ingredient in marijuana (hemp plant) that triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations. </li></ul> Hemp Plant
    19. 19. <ul><li>After a close brush with death, many people report an experience of moving through a dark tunnel with a light at the end. Under the influence of hallucinogens, others report bright lights at the center of their field of vision. </li></ul>Near-Death Experiences (From “Hallucinations” by R.K. Siegel. Copyright © 1977 Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved.)
    20. 20. Drugs Summary
    21. 21. Influences on Drug Use The graph below shows the percentage of US high- school seniors reporting their use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine from the 70s to the late 90s. Drug use increased during the 70s. Then with increased drug education and a more realistic and deglamorized media depiction of taking drugs, drug used declined sharply. After the early 90s, drugs were again glamorized is some music and films.
    22. 22. Influences on Drug Use The use of drugs is based on biological, psychological, and social-cultural influences.
    23. 23. Biopsychosocial Approach <ul><li>Biological Influences </li></ul><ul><li>Some are biologically vulnerable to particular drugs. Heredity influences some aspects of alcohol abuse problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted individuals are more susceptible to alcoholism if one or both biological parents have a history of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Having an identical rather than fraternal twin with alcoholism puts one at increased risk for problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys who at age 6 are excitable, impulsive and fearless are more likely as teens to smoke, drink, and use other drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers have also identified genes that are more common among people and animals predisposed to alcoholism. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Biopsychosocial Approach <ul><li>Psychological and Social-Cultural Influences </li></ul><ul><li>One psychological factor is the feeling that one’s life is meaningless and directionless, a common feeling among school dropouts who subsist without job skills, without privilege, and with little hope. </li></ul><ul><li>Many experienced significant stress or failure and are depressed. </li></ul><ul><li>When young unmarried adults leave home, alcohol and other drug use increases; when they marry and have children, it decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>What predicts usage is instead the ups and downs in young people’s perceptions of the degree of risk involved. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Marijuana Use The use of marijuana in teenagers is directly related to the “perceived risk” involved with the drug.
    26. 26. Biopsychosocial Approach <ul><li>Drug use can also have social roots. This is evident in differing rates of drug use across cultural and ethnic groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol and drug use are extremely low among the Amish, Mennonites, Mormons, and Orthodox Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>African-American teens have sharply lower rates of drinking, smoking and cocaine use. </li></ul><ul><li>Peer influence is not just a matter of what friends do and say but also of what adolescents believe friends are doing and favoring. </li></ul><ul><li>People whose beginning use was influenced by their peers are more likely to stop using drugs when friends stop or the social network changes. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Biopsychosocial Approach <ul><li>Most soldiers who became drug-addicted while in Vietnam ceased their drug use after returning home. </li></ul><ul><li>Teenagers who come from happy families and do well in school tend not to use drugs, largely because they rarely associate with those who do. </li></ul><ul><li>Our friends influence us, but we also select as friend those who share our likes and dislikes. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Influence for Drug Prevention and Treatment <ul><li>Education about the long-term costs of drug’s temporary pleasures </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts to boost people’s self-esteem and purpose in life </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to modify peer associations or to “inoculate” youth against peer pressures by teaching refusal skills </li></ul>
    29. 29. The Bottom Line <ul><li>People rarely abuse drugs if they understand the physical and psychological costs, feel good about themselves and the direction their lives are going in, and are in a peer group that disapproves of using drugs. </li></ul>