Have participants share with a partner their responses to the statements on the card. Allow time for several comments from the large group.
DO ARTICLE SIMULATION and get “plants” in the audience to say this is what differentiation is NOT. Since everyone had same article, there was no differentiation or respect for what you already knew. Now let’s do an activity that allows us to get to know each other better and can help find out some common interests that you have. Do “Howdy Do” Interest Bingo
Good memory, learn with no or few repetitions, can think abstractedly at an early age, use advanced vocabulary, understand adult humor, overly sensitive, highly imaginative with words or numbers or problem solving, have a rare gift compared to others of their age. What kind of teacher do they need? SHARE and chart: Knowing these, let’s start thinking about differentiation. What is it? What does it mean?
The video you see this afternoon will be great examples of a variety of respectful tasks depending on their readiness level. The simulation this morning was not respectful for you or relevant to your current needs. We want to emphasize the importance of respectful tasks, for all kids, but esp. G/T kids who will challenge the relevance and the need for the task. Why do we differentiate? To allow maximum achievement through flexible, small groups. Because many kids, esp. in early elementary have already learned what you’re going to teach them. And with the passions that middle school or high school kids may have, they may have LOTS to share with someone who will listen. Can give kids opportunities to METACOGNATE and self-reflect about what they’re learning.
So now we’ll do another type of survey to show a type of Learning Profile for you. Producer, Thinker, Relater, Adventurer survey BREAK
To tap into intrinsic motivation that may come from different cultural or educational backgrounds To create those respectful tasks that may broaden their horizons. To honor individual differences in learning styles or interests WITHOUT making them feel that they have to live up to others’ expectations all the time. To combat UNDERACHIEVEMENT; to develop their relationship with themselves, the world and others so they can better manage and understand why and how they are different from their peers. Possibly do survey “Producer, Thinker, Relater, Adventurer” and take a break if necessary.
ORANGE CHART Explain how teachers can differentiate. Ways to diff. each area. Content is by materials (reading, web sites, videos, etc.) of varying complexity. Process is by how you best process information you’ve gained or obtained. For some it is reading, others it is listening, others it is talking, others it is a combination of all 3. Some people like group learning mostly, some refer independent pacing. Some like to do Jigsaw types of reading, others only like working with one partner. How do you think about new information? Product is by giving them a choice in product, whether a poem, a song, a game board, or a skit, or podcast that allows them to demonstrate their new level of understanding. Talk at your tables how you have already diff. some content or some process or some product. Then share (Tina use business cards to call on responders). In this workshop, we vary mostly by process and Learning Profile. You have already done a Multiple Intelligences survey and completed a product based on that area. That ties in with those multiple intelligences. You’ve read about Concrete Sequential, Abstract Random, etc. learning styles. Divide table groups into three small groups (count off). Each group is assigned to watch for ideas from content, product and process and take notes. Small group work -Table members report back on what they saw regarding content, product and process. Show next three slides to give more ideas on differentiating for content, product, and process.
Educational Leadership article – reading complex texts Using lang. of the discipline will increase vocab. For all but esp. ELL students. Some students have an emotional intensity, what vocab can you give them or teach them to engage their emotions? How can they express their new understanding about content and/or vocab. How can you find out what vocab. They already know?
Show grid page and go over extensively. Examine UbD on COL. Talk about using w/ ACE students. Bring up Enduring Understandings on UbD. Talk about REMOVING THE CEILING of learning concept, big ideas, making connections. Theme: Relationships (Generalization) for Gifted kids can be positive or negative. Theme: Relationships (Generalization) can be forced or chosen.
How do they process it? Or make sense of it?
What are some products that students have created for you in your classroom experience?
Explain how teachers can differentiate. Ways to diff. each area. Content is by materials (reading, web sites, videos, etc.) of varying complexity. Process is by how you best process information you’ve gained or obtained. For some it is reading, others it is listening, others it is talking, others it is a combination of all 3. Some people like group learning mostly, some refer independent pacing. Some like to do Jigsaw types of reading, others only like working with one partner. It can include different levels of thinking, different types of problem solving and sometimes, research skills. How do you think about new information? Product is by giving them a choice in the means, that allows them to demonstrate their new level of understanding, whether a poem, a song, a game board, or a skit, or podcast. Talk at your tables how you have already diff. some content or some process or some product. Then share (Tina use business cards to call on responders). In this workshop, we vary mostly by process and Learning Profile. You have already done a Multiple Intelligences survey and completed a product based on that area. That ties in with those multiple intelligences. You’ve read about Concrete Sequential, Abstract Random, etc. learning styles. Divide table groups into three small groups (count off). Each group is assigned to watch for ideas from content, product and process and take notes. Small group work -Table members report back on what they saw regarding content, product and process. Show next three slides to give more ideas on differentiating for content, product, and process.
In your classroom, don’t always choose responders the same way. Last time, we used the cards to pick a reporter for the group. This time we allow your group to choose a reporter. Talk about this question and be prepared to share with whole group.
Preassessment for us was having you create your business card and tell us your level of readiness & amount of background knowledge about differentiation. It was also observing you during the reading of the article about who was actually trying to read it, who was just skimming it, and who was ignoring it because they’ve already had a ton of it. Thus, we’ve done some preassessment to determine who needs the next level of assignment.
When we think about how to preassess, we need to ask these questions. Have participants share the types of observation, selected response and constructed response assessments they use or list those with which they are familiar. Examples: Observation: Students engaged in learning activity, Students interacting with one another, Informal classroom observations, Directed questioning, Observation of student performance or process. Selected Response: True/false, Matching, Fill-in-the-blank, Multiple-choice Constructed Response: Essays, Research papers. Logs/Journals, Reports ,Stories/PlaysPoems, Performance Models
Here we have some types of preassessment. Draw a Tree Map on the back of a sheet of paper or on a sticky note. Divide this list into 3 categories: observation, selected response or constructed response. Define each type. Then work with your table mates to see if you could list some other types of preassessment instruments that might also fit into one of these 3 categories.
This statement answers the question. Any preassessment is a good tool if it gives us the information to make the best instructional decisions for our students. BREAK – Multiple Intelligences Survey When you have decided your method for preassessment, you need some type of tool to determine the quality. One type of tool could be the Checklist for Designed Preassessments. Distribute handout “Checklist for Designed Preassessments.” Go over elements of Checklist. Divide group into thirds based on Business Cards. BREAK Provide examples of several preassessments for “beginning learners” and use the checklist to determine which assessments would be good preassessment tools. If they do not have a lesson and want to design a preassessment, use the biology lesson from the Concept Based Curriculum training. Allow time for participants to work in groups to decide which tools would be best for preassessment. They should come to the conclusion that any of them would be effective if they answer the question: Which one gives me the information I need to make the best educational decision at this time? When work is completed, complete the slide with The one that best answers this question:
Advanced Group gets a page off of COL and creates a Pre Assessment for it. You will share on document camera or chart paper. Middle group gets “biology” and creates a Pre Assessment for it. Struggling group gets “Algebra and Rome” and uses the checklist to evaluate its effectiveness. Process with whole group. Ask about whether group placement worked for them. Sometimes preassessment needs to be more extensive. As year progresses, you can get better at creating appropriate preassessment tools to ensure proper placement for your students.
Remember the idea of “Readiness” from Nature and Needs. The “zone” that pushes students beyond their comfort level, just like I pushed you with your Preassessment Checklist activity. 5 TH GRADE FRACTIONS VIDEO – what kinds of questions would be on that pre-assessment to divide into groups?
Here is something to help you think about adjusting for students with higher or lower levels of readiness. What would students with less-developed readiness need? What would advanced students need? So, I can ask you to list the causes of the Civil War after reading which is simple. But then I can ask you to evaluate how the causes of the Civil War were the same or different for World War II. I can ask you to complete a short answer question about why Romeo and Juliet is a wonderful example of tragedy storytelling or to justify in an essay why it is the greatest writing ever produced by Shakespeare. Here are some items they should have discussed: Less-developed students need: Someone to help them identify and make up gaps in their learning so they can move ahead. More opportunities for direct instruction or practice. Activities or products that are more structured or concrete, with fewer steps, closer to their own experience, and calling on simpler reading tasks. A more deliberate pace of learning. More advanced students need: To skip practice with previously mastered skills and understandings Activities and products that are quite complex, open-ended, abstract, and multi-faceted, drawing on advanced reading material A brisk pace of work, or slower pace to allow for greater depth of exploration of a topic. What strategies to use to differentiate according to readiness: Compacting Tiered products Tiered tasks / alternative forms of assessment
Share Pat’s example of General Interest survey. This will tell you a little about content, preferred processing activities. Complete it, then get with a partner and have them analyze your responses (x’s and o’s) in order to decide what instructional activities would keep you motivated through the course of the study. Switch. Opportunity to write in their own topics. Mention example of Rome as subject specific type. Handout “How to Create your Own” – go over extensively. Opportunity
Metacognition begins to play an important part for all students as they get older. For gifted students, they can begin to megacognate at an earlier age. Remember their innate ability to reason by analogy, to store and retrieve large amounts of information, to develop a more sophisticated vocabulary? Gifted students should be given an opportunity to reflect upon and think about their learning style that is most effective and productive for them. The teacher can use this information to plan flexible groups, to plan differentiated activities, to allow choice in assessment products. Do the Producer/Thinker/Relater choice sheet first.
When we preassess, we can see their strengths and can build self-efficacy, their self-confidence in affecting their own learning and increasing their engagement.
Divide into groups, give task cards and let them create.
This is our evaluation piece. It will help us prepare for next week. Please turn in before you leave!
The answer to the first question has already been covered: to assess their prior conceptual understanding of the upcoming unit, to assess their level of problem solving skills, to find out more about their interests and learning styles, to help you establish small, flexible groups for differentiated activities and products, etc. The answer to the second question has more to do with the affective needs of gifted students: If you have taken the time to find out where their interests are AND will allow them to produce something to demonstrate their understanding IF they show you that they know 85% of what you are preparing to teach, the classroom environment is more respectful. They are more willing to work for you because you care. They can contribute because you believe they have something important to impart to others.
Core 3 march07
Differentiation Based on the book by Carol Ann Tomlinson Presented by Tina Flatt Carrollton-Farmers Branch ISD Advanced Academic Services Spring 2011
Business Card Name My favorite type of preassessment is... I know to plan for differentiated instruction when... I typically preassess students by... When I think about preassessing students, I have learned that...
<ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>To understand some basic principles of differentiation especially Pre-assessment </li></ul><ul><li>To understand that differentiation can be through content, process and product </li></ul><ul><li>To understand that differentiation can take place according to the students’ readiness, learning profile or interests </li></ul><ul><li>To be aware of low prep and high prep instructional strategies </li></ul><ul><li>To try implementing a few new ideas into your classroom </li></ul>
Quick Write <ul><li>Take 2 minutes and write down eveything you remember about the Nature or Needs of gifted kids. Consider the Cognitive or Social/Emotional areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Share with the group. </li></ul>
What Differentiation is… <ul><li>A way of thinking about teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts of teachers to response to the variance of learners’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>Guided by general principles such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respectful tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible grouping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing assessment and adjustment </li></ul></ul>
What Differentiation is not… <ul><li>Individualized instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Chaotic </li></ul><ul><li>The same assignment for all learners with MORE questions for some and fewer questions for others </li></ul><ul><li>A recipe for teaching </li></ul>
Why? <ul><li>Why do we do this? Why is differentiation important? What can happen if we do it and what can happen if we don’t do it. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk with your group – come up with 3 reasons for differentiating and * most important. </li></ul>
Teachers can differentiate Content Process Product Learning Profile Readiness Interests According to students’
Differentiating Content <ul><li>By giving different levels of reading material </li></ul><ul><li>By letting different students work at different web sites </li></ul><ul><li>By using different questions to increase higher level thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Tool: Kaplan’s Depth & Complexity Icons </li></ul>
Big Ideas <ul><li>Enduring Understanding: A concept that crosses disciplines, time periods, can be used to make multiple connections. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Question: A statement that is true or almost always true about the concept and can be explored in depth as the student matures. </li></ul>
Differentiating Process <ul><li>How do students’ access information? </li></ul><ul><li>Some like to hear it, others like to read it </li></ul><ul><li>Some need to work alone, others need to work with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Tools: Jigsaw reading, Visual-Verbal Representations, videos, podcasts, etc. </li></ul>
Differentiating Products <ul><li>What can the learner produce for you to demonstrate his/her new level of understanding? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you give them a choice based on their learning style or area of intelligence? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you give everyone the same product but ask the gifted kids to include a different component? </li></ul><ul><li>Tool: Kingore’s product list; www.rubistar.org </li></ul>
Teachers can differentiate Content Process Product Learning Profile Readiness Interests According to students’
Preassessment Is… Any method, strategy or process used to determine a student’s current level of readiness or interest in order to plan for appropriate instruction. <ul><li>What the student already knows about what is being planned </li></ul><ul><li>What standards, objectives, concepts and skills the individual student understands (asynchronous development) </li></ul><ul><li>What further instruction and opportunities for mastery are needed. </li></ul><ul><li>What requires reteaching or enhancement. </li></ul><ul><li>What areas of interests are found within a unit of study </li></ul><ul><li>How to set up flexible groups according to readiness level or interest or learning profile: Whole, individual, partner, or small group </li></ul>
On-going Assessment: A Diagnostic Continuum Preassessment (Finding Out) Pre-test (either multiple choice or true-false) Ranking areas of interest on a specific topic KWL Checklist of student skills Observation of student work habits Self-evaluation of learning styles Questioning Strategies Open Ended Writing to check for vocabulary usage Short open ended writing
The one that best answers this question: Which Method of Preassessment Works Best? “ Which one gives me the information I need to make the best educational decision at this time?”
DIFFERENTIATED LEARNING EXPERIENCES: (Example of a tiered activity) Three : Get with your group, choose a subject area, and create a rough draft example of a pre-assessment that could be used to show student readiness for a concept/unit/lesson in your chosen content area. Two : Use a pre-designed KUD lesson and create an appropriate preassessment instrument. One : Use Checklist for Designed Preassessment to evaluate effectiveness in providing useful information.
Readiness Moderate challenge and relaxed alertness Student’s entry point to a particular skill New learning takes place at “zone of proximal development” Pushes student 10% beyond comfort zone
Interest Surveys <ul><li>General interest inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Subject-specific inventory that includes ranking various sub-topics within the unit in terms of interest level. (e.g. During our study of Cultures, which topic would you be interested in learning more about: languages, religions, music/arts, government, economics) </li></ul><ul><li>Tools: Secondary or Primary Interest Surveys </li></ul>
Learning Styles <ul><li>Abstract Random vs. Concrete Random </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete Sequential vs. Abstract Sequential </li></ul><ul><li>Adventurer vs. Relater </li></ul><ul><li>Producer vs. Thinker </li></ul>
A few final thoughts <ul><li>We tend to talk about “kids” as a whole rather than studying individuals. As long as we see them as a group, we teach them as a group. </li></ul><ul><li>The first layer of a differentiated curriculum is pre-assessment of their content knowledge AND their readiness, interests, learning styles. </li></ul>
A few more final thoughts <ul><li>You MUST have some anchor activities that all students can do with little to no explanation so that you can meet with your flexible groups and assign differentiated activities/assessments. (i.e. Thinking Maps, Concept Definition Map, Zoom In/Zoom Out, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Using flexible grouping will allow teachers to connect with individuals, give them respectful tasks, & allow for ongoing adjustments to instruction. </li></ul>
Show what you know <ul><li>Get into groups according to your area of strongest intelligence. Create one of the following products to show what you’ve learned about differentiation. </li></ul>
Naturalist – Create an analogy between some force in nature and differentiating or preassessment. Musical – Write new words to an existing song or write a rap about differentiating or preassessment. Bodily-Kinesthetic – Make up a cheer about differentiating or preassessment . Spatial – Make a flow chart or map of how preassessment relates to differentiation Logical-Mathematical – Create a math formula or a symbol for differentiation Verbal-Linguistic – Write a poem about preassessment Intrapersonal – Write a diary entry from the point of view of the frustrated student who is now being challenged appropriately Interpersonal – Role play a conversation in the lounge about what you know about preassessment as a helpful tool for differentiation.
Preassessment What is it? What is it like? What is it not? Examples
Table Talk <ul><li>What would be the purpose of using a pre-assessment tool in instructional decisions? </li></ul><ul><li>How would use of a pre-assessment tool combat underachievement in gifted learners? </li></ul>
What next? <ul><li>Bring back a pre-assessment instrument that we can evaluate according to the checklist. (Choose a unit off of COL that is coming up for your subject, and create an appropriate pre-assessment for the unit. Be sure to base your instrument on content readiness, instructional process that you might use, or product that students will use to show mastery.) </li></ul>
Sites to explore for Differentiating <ul><li>Do a Google search for “Tic Tac Toe” menus or “Choice Boards” for Differentiating </li></ul><ul><li>Explore what comes up for your content area </li></ul><ul><li>Print one off for your content area as a reference for tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pvusd.net/departments/GATE/choiceboards.php </li></ul>
More Websites <ul><li>http://www.doe.in.gov/exceptional/gt/tiered_curriculum/welcome.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.sedl.org/loteced/communique/n06.html (foreign language teachers) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.learnerslink.com/bloom's_questions.htm (Bloom’s Taxonomy questioning stems) </li></ul>