Gavrilo Princip was a member of a Serbian terrorist organization known as “The Black Hand”. Many Serbs wanted to bring Bosnia under Serb control. Princip’s assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand triggered World War I. World War I and the ensuing Treaty of Versailles would create the conditions leading to World War II. World War II would in turn create the conditions leading to the Cold War. Would the world be a different place today if Princip had not carried out his assassination of the Archduke? Millions of people have died as a result of the 20 th century events that followed Princip’s assassination of the Archduke. At very minimum, he triggered World War I. Many would argue that confrontation between the world’s great powers was inevitable. Yet, the Cold War did not lead to global warfare.
Militarism 1. <ul><li>Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships. </li></ul><ul><li>The British feared an attack on their Empire </li></ul>
Militarism 2. <ul><li>Germany was competing with Russia and France to expand their armies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1880 1914 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany 1.3m 5.0m </li></ul><ul><li>France 0.73m 4.0m </li></ul><ul><li>Russia 0.40m 1.2m </li></ul>
Alliances <ul><li>By 1914 all the major powers were linked by a system of alliances. </li></ul><ul><li>The alliances made it more likely that a war would start. </li></ul><ul><li>Once started, the alliances made it more likely to spread. </li></ul>
Who were the Allies? <ul><li>Central Powers: The Central Powers were made up of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Triple Entente: 1907; informal alliance between France, Russia, and Great Britain; France and Russia had maintained an alliance 1895 and Great Britain joined in reaction to ominous developments, especially the Triple Alliance , on the Continent. </li></ul>
Triple Alliance: <ul><li>until the start of World War I in 1914. Each member promised mutual support in the event of an attack by any two other great powers, or for Germany and Italy, an attack by France alone. In a supplementary declaration, Italy specified that her undertakings could not be regarded as being directed against the United Kingdom. Shortly after renewing the Alliance in June 1902, Italy secretly extended a similar guarantee to France </li></ul>Triple Entente:
Imperialism <ul><li>All the great powers were competing for colonies / territory. </li></ul><ul><li>The British feared Germany in Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>The Austrians feared Serbia / Russia in the Balkans The Eastern Question </li></ul>
Nationalism <ul><li>This was an age when all nations wanted to assert their power and independence. </li></ul><ul><li>In Europe Slavs, aided by Serbia and Russia, wanted to be free of Austrian rule. </li></ul>Serbia’s national flag
Significant Individuals 1. <ul><li>Kaiser Wilhelm II </li></ul><ul><li>Built up German army and navy </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive foreign policy </li></ul><ul><li>Determined to make Germany a top nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Distrusted by other powers </li></ul>“ Germany must have its place in the sun” “ The world belongs to the strong.”
Significant Individuals 2 <ul><li>Count Berchtold </li></ul><ul><li>Austrian Prime Minister. </li></ul><ul><li>During the July Crisis, decided on a very tough ultimatum for Serbia </li></ul>“ Were the Serbs to agree to all the demands, this would not be to my liking”
Significant Individuals 3 <ul><li>Bethmann Hollweg </li></ul><ul><li>German Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Gave very strong support to Austria during the July crisis while Kaiser was cruising on his yacht </li></ul>“ The Austrian demands are moderate. Any interference by Britain, France and Russia would be followed by incalculable consequences”
The Crisis 1. <ul><li>28 June 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>Heir to Austrian throne Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo. </li></ul><ul><li>Capital of Bosnia, recently grabbed by Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>Hotbed of Slav nationalism </li></ul>Seal of the Black Hand group
The Crisis 2. <ul><li>“ Black Hand” terrorists attack the Arch Duke </li></ul><ul><li>Bomb attempt fails in morning </li></ul><ul><li>Gavrilo Princip shoots Archduke and wife in the afternoon. </li></ul><ul><li>Austrians blame Serbia for supporting terrorists. </li></ul>
The Crisis 3. <ul><li>Austrians, supported by Germany, send Serbia a tough ultimatum… A Blank Check! </li></ul><ul><li>23 July : The is ultimatum contained ten really tough demands. Failure to meet all of these demands, they said, would result in war. (They expected Serbia to reject the ultimatum, which would give Austria-Hungary an excuse to invade .) </li></ul>“ Demands must be put to Serbia that would be wholly impossible for them to accept …”
The Crisis 3. <ul><li>25 July : But the Serb government did not reject the ultimatum. Instead it sent a reply in which it agreed to everything EXCEPT part of demand 6. It was SO conciliatory that, after reading it, Kaiser Wilhelm wrote on 28 July: 'the reply amounted to a capitulation in the humblest style, and with it there disappeared all reason for war'. </li></ul>“ Demands must be put to Serbia that would be wholly impossible for them to accept …”
The Crisis 3. <ul><li>The sentence that caused a war </li></ul><ul><li>6. The [Serbian] Government considers it its duty as a matter of course to begin an investigation against all those persons who have participated in the outrage of June 28th and who are in its territory. As far as the cooperation in this investigation of specially delegated officials of the [Austro-Hungarian] Government is concerned, this cannot be accepted, as this is a violation of the constitution and of criminal procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>Serbian Response to the Ultimatum, 25 July, 1914 </li></ul>“ Demands must be put to Serbia that would be wholly impossible for them to accept …”
Why did Britain get involved? <ul><li>Britain had Ententes with France and Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Only “friendly agreements” but French and Russians given impression Britain would fight. </li></ul><ul><li>The Schlieffen Plan </li></ul>Sir Edward Grey British Foreign Secretary … “There’s some devilry going on in Berlin”
The Schlieffen Plan <ul><li>Germany’s military plan to defeat France and Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Knock out blow” aimed at France first. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid French defences by invasion of Belgium. </li></ul><ul><li>Germans thought Britain would not intervene. </li></ul>Click for Schlieffen Plan
Britain’s Reaction <ul><li>1838- UK had signed a Treaty to protect Belgium. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain also scared of Germany controlling Channel ports . </li></ul><ul><li>Did not want Germany to defeat France and dominate Europe . Britain next? </li></ul><ul><li>UK issued ultimatum to Germany to withdraw troops from Belgium. War declared August 4 1914 </li></ul>
Changing Technology <ul><li>This photo shows horses being loaded onto a transport ship to be sent overseas to join the war effort. Horses were still being used in great numbers during World War I. High ranking army officers commonly rode horses during World War I. Horses and mules were also used to carry heavy equipment to and from the front during the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, many of these horses and mules died before they got to the front because of the harsh journey overseas. Horses and mules also died in WWI because of their inability to free themselves from the thick mud. Many others were wounded and killed during battle. There was a tremendous shortage of horses in Canada during the latter stages of WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>Photo: Courtesy Queen’s University Archives </li></ul>
<ul><li>This photo shows some of the early experimental submarines that were developed during World War I. The submarine was part of the modern style of warfare that was introduced in World War I. </li></ul><ul><li>The German navy had approximately 100 submarines in service during WWI. Initially the Germans used submarines to threaten the Allies' economic blockade. In 1917 the German Kaiser declared unrestricted U-boat warfare against the allies, including neutral ships in British waters. In response, the Allies established armed convoys to protect merchant ships and increased production of mines and depth charges. </li></ul><ul><li>The sinking of neutral ships, like the Lusitania in 1915, polarized public opinion (against the Germans) about the war, and was a major factor in the decision of the United States to join the Allied caused. </li></ul><ul><li>Photo: Courtesy Queen’s University Archives </li></ul>Changing Technology
<ul><li>Above is an official postcard issued during World War I. It depicts soldiers firing a heavy howitzer in France. The weaponry of the war is more advanced at this stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Weapons like the heavy howitzer allowed armies to accurately bomb enemy trenches from great distances away. These long-range heavy artillery weapons led to new battle strategies. One strategy was to continuously bomb the enemy trench line, night and day, in hopes unnerving the enemy and to prevent troops from resting. An offensive usually followed, in hopes of catching a tired and shell-shocked enemy asleep or undermanned. </li></ul><ul><li>Photos: Courtesy Queen’s University Archives </li></ul>Changing Technology
<ul><li>The photo on the left is a picture of the H.M.S. "Olympic“. It was used to transport Canadian troops and equipment overseas during World War I. Prime Minister Borden pleaded with Great Britain to help Canada build a navy but Britain refused. </li></ul><ul><li>During the early years of the war, Canadian troops trained while aboard these transport ships. Fitness exercises and shooting drills were done on the crowded decks of the ship. Some troops were tragically killed in accidents during this training. Others died on these ships because of the poor living conditions on these ships </li></ul><ul><li>Photos: Courtesy Queen’s University Archives </li></ul>Changing Technology
<ul><li>Tank warfare was first introduced by France and Britain in 1916. Its role in the war gradually increased as the war progressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Early heavy tanks proved to be ineffective and were soon replaced by lighter versions that soon revolutionized the war. By 1917 the British and French were using 1500 tanks each. Tanks became a regular feature in all offensives and were credited with Allied successes after 1916. </li></ul><ul><li>Photo :Courtesy Queen’s University Archives </li></ul>
<ul><li>The first picture is of a German plane that was used during World War I. The plane was part of the modern style of warfare that evolved during World War I. Initially, the airplane was used primarily for reconnaissance purposes, to spy on the enemy. The airplane did develop into an offensive weapon by the end of World War I. </li></ul><ul><li>The Second picture is a painting of a British airplane that is engaged in air combat. This airplane has a machine gun mounted on its top wing. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1914 the Allies had 220 airplanes, the Central Powers 258. The Germans also used Zeppelins and by 1918 had over 100 of these airships capable of bombing missions. The German Folker aircraft was an early example of a successful fighter plane. At first pilots used rifles and pistols in air battles, although machine guns were soon introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1916 the Allied production of aircrafts equalled the Germans and air battles between "aces" like German Richthofen "The Red Baron" (80 victories) and Bishop the Canadian (72 victories) were becoming legendary. </li></ul><ul><li>Photo: Courtesy Queen’s University Archives </li></ul>
Chemical Warfare The horror and disgust at the wartime use of poison gases was so great that its use was outlawed in 1925 - a ban that, at least in theory, is still in force today. Photos: Courtesy Unites States Air Force Air War College Table Source: First World War.com
In this cartoon, a British soldier laden with his heavy kit and weapons offers to help a lady with her shopping bags. The cartoon, like many others like it, glorifies the self sacrifice and gentility of the Allied troops, in contrast to the rapacious German soldiers. This cartoon appeared in Punch.
In this cartoon the German Kaiser is seen mocking the Belgian King, telling him that he has lost everything. The Belgian replies that he has not lost his soul.
German Kaiser is seen mocking the Belgian King, telling him that he has lost everything. The Belgian replies that he has not lost his soul. The cartoon refers to the fact that neutral Belgium has been invaded and largely overrun by the Germans as they sought to outflank the French and British armies by pushing along the English Channel towards Paris. The Belgians were vastly outnumbered but fought bravely against the Germans.
How did World War I end? <ul><li>World War I (1914–18; first called the Great War) came to an end when the balance of power shifted in favor of the Allies (Serbia, France, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, the United States, and nineteen other nations) against the Central Powers (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire). Although the United States had not been fully prepared to enter the war, the American government mobilized quickly to rally troops and citizens behind the war effort. In April 1917 the U.S. Army numbered slightly more than 100,000 men. By the end of the war, however, the number had soared to about 5,000,000. The arrival of U.S. troops in Europe gave the Allies the manpower they needed to win the war. In November 1918 Germany agreed to an armistice (truce), and the Central Powers finally surrendered. In January 1919, Allied representatives gathered in Paris, France, to draft the peace settlement. </li></ul>
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