Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

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This is a presentation regarding Albert Ellis' REBT. Ellis' model teaches us to dispute irrational beliefs and replace them with rational ones to experience effective change.

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Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

  1. 1. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
  2. 2. “People are disturbed not by things, but by their view of things.” Epictetus
  3. 3.  Born in 1913 in Pittsburgh and moved to New York 4 years later  Has a training institute in New York  Developed a pattern of taking care of himself and being self- responsible
  4. 4.  During adolescence, he was quite shy with girls  He made himself talk to 100 girls at the Bronx Botanical Gardens during a 1-month period  Although he didn’t get a date, this method decreased his fear of rejection  Died at the age of 93
  5. 5.  In 1956, at the APA annual convention, Ellis gave his 1st paper on RATIONAL THERAPY, his term then for REBT.  Ellis regretted using the term RATIONAL THERAPY, because many psychologists misinterpreted it as meaning therapy without emotion.
  6. 6.  originally called Rational Therapy  soon changed to Rational-Emotive Therapy  In the early 1990’s changed to Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (Frogatt, 2005)
  7. 7. a result of the dissatisfaction with his practice 0f psychoanalysis and with person-centered therapy
  8. 8.  Thinking Allowed  Source:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GyRE-78g_z0
  9. 9.  Individuals respond to an activating event (A) with emotional and behavioral consequences (C).  The emotional and behavioral consequences are not only caused by the activating event but by the individual’s BELIEF SYSTEM (B).
  10. 10.  IRRATIONAL BELIEFS (B) often cause difficult emotional and behavioral consequences (C).
  11. 11.  Individuals’ problems (emotional , behavioral consequences) stem not only from activating events but from their beliefs about such events (Sharf, 2008).
  12. 12.  The War on Musturbation (Ellis movie clip #2: ABCs of REBT)  Source:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DxUKR1-f_WA&fe
  13. 13.  A major role of the therapist is to dispute (D) these irrational beliefs (B).
  14. 14.  The War on Musturbation (Ellis movie clip #3: social phobia)  Source  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GNBG0VdZvXg&f
  15. 15. Responsible Hedonism Humanism Rationality
  16. 16.  Hedonism – seeking pleasure and avoiding pain  This view does not lead to irresponsible behavior, because individuals with a responsible attitude toward hedonism think through the consequences of their behavior.
  17. 17.  Ellis believes that individuals should be accepted for themselves, a concept similar to Carl Rogers’ “Unconditional Positive Regard” (Ellis & Dryden, 1997; Ziegler, 2003)  Ellis believes that individuals preferably should have Unconditional Self Acceptance (USA).  They should accept that they make mistakes, that they have worth, and that some of their own assets are stronger than other assets that they or others possess.
  18. 18.  It refers to people using efficient, flexible , logical, and scientific ways of attempting to achieve their values and goals (Ellis, 2005).  Therapy with REBT shows individuals how they can get more of what they want from life by being rational.
  19. 19. Biological Factors Social Factors Vulnerability to Disturbance
  20. 20. Ellis (cited in Sharf, 2008) believes that certain severe mental disturbances are partly inherited and have strong biological components.
  21. 21. Individuals are likely to define themselves as good or worthwhile, depending on how they see others reacting to them.
  22. 22. Examples of Irrational Beliefs (Ellis cited in Sharf, 2008): Irrational Beliefs About Competence and Success – “Because I strongly desire to get A’s in all subjects, I “must” get all A’s at all times and do perfectly well.”
  23. 23. Irrational Beliefs about Love and Approval - “Because I strongly desire to be loved by Sarah, I absolutely “must” always have her approval.”
  24. 24. Irrational Beliefs about being Treated Unfairly – “Because I strongly desire Eric to treat me considerately and fairly, he absolutely “must” do so at all times and under all conditions, because I am always considerate and fair to him.
  25. 25. Irrational Beliefs about Safety and Comfort – “Because I strongly desire to have a safe, comfortable, and satisfying life, I “ must” find life easy, convenient, and gratifying at all times.
  26. 26. 3 categories of irrational beliefs Dryden (1990) and Ellis (1991b cited in Sharf, 2008) 1. Demands about self 2. Demands about others 3. Demands about the world and/or life conditions
  27. 27. Musturbation – the term for all types of must statements Low frustration tolerance- individuals who cannot tolerate frustration easily are more likely to be disturbed than those who can (Harrington cited in Sharf, 2008).
  28. 28.  Related to the concept of low frustration tolerance to disturbance is anxiety. 1.Discomfort Anxiety – individuals’ comfort level is threatened and they must get what they want. 2.Ego Anxiety - individuals’ sense of self worth is threatened and they feel that they must perform well.
  29. 29. Goals of REBT
  30. 30. Clearer and more rational thinking New philosophy of life that can make the client feel more appropriately and act more efficiently and effectively ( Villar, 2011).
  31. 31.  Cognitions, emotions and behaviors that create the problems and their underlying themes  Here-and-now irrational ideas and their accompanying self-verbalizations (Ellis, 1974;1994 cited in Villar, 2011)
  32. 32.  A = represents the activating event  B = stands for irrational belief/s  C =represents the emotional and behavioral consequences largely determined by the individual’s beliefs about this event  D = stands for disputing the irrational beliefs  E = represents an effective rational outlook accompanied by emotional and behavioral changes
  33. 33.  Albert Ellis's Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)  Source:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v9ezZIkxR74
  34. 34.  The REBT Self-Help Form (Dryden, Walker, and Ellis, 1996) – clients enter their activating events and consequences, help determine important irrational beliefs.  Clients then dispute the irrational beliefs that apply and replace them with effective rational beliefs.  Such a form can have both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
  35. 35.  The A-B-C- assessment usually starts from the beginning of the first session and continues throughout the therapy.  Therapists listen while clients describe feelings and behaviors (consequences that they feel are caused by specific experiences (activating events).  Therapists listen to the beliefs the clients have about the activating event. (Bernard cited in Sharf, 2008).
  36. 36.  Millon Clinical MultiAxial Inventory II  Beck Depression Inventory  Frustration Discomfort Scale can be used to distinguish self-esteem from frustration intolerance
  37. 37.  Ellis believes that the best way to develop a therapeutic relationship is to help solve the client’s immediate problem (Ellis & Dryden, 1997).  Ellis identifies the activating events, irrational beliefs, and emotional and behavioral consequences (ABC).  Ellis may do this for 2 or 3 sessions and then possibly work on larger issues.
  38. 38.  The relationship between client and therapist is important in REBT.  With patient who are unfamiliar with REBT, the therapist often introduces the purpose of therapy.  When working with children, therapists may proceed cautiously in developing a relationship before teaching REBT methods.
  39. 39. 1. Coping Self Statements – an individual who is afraid of public speaking may write down and repeat to himself several times a day such as “ I want to speak flawlessly, but it is alright if I don’t,” “No one is killed for a poor speech,” and “I am an articulate person.”
  40. 40. 2. Cost-Benefit analysis – individuals who are addicted to smoking may be asked to make lists of the advantages of stopping smoking and disadvantages of continuing smoking. They will think seriously about these advantages and disadvantages 10 or 20 times a day.
  41. 41. 3. Psychoeducational Methods – listening to audio tapes that teach the principles of REBT is often recommended. 4. Teaching Others – persuading others not to use irrational beliefs can help the persuader to learn more effective ways of disputing her own irrational beliefs.
  42. 42. 5. Problem Solving - by helping people expand their choices of what they want to do and be, REBT helps them choose rational thoughts, feelings and actions.
  43. 43. 1. Imagery – imagining asking a woman for a date, being turned down, and working on experiencing healthy rather that unhealthy negative emotions. (Dryden and Ellis, 2001, 2003)
  44. 44. 2. Role Playing – repeated role playing of the situation gives the individual a chance to feel better about her social skills and change inappropriate emotional self statements (Ellis, 1986)
  45. 45. 3. Shame Attacking Exercise – although the exercise can be practiced in a therapy session, it is done outside therapy. Examples:  engaging strangers in conversations  asking silly questions to receptionist or teachers
  46. 46. 4. Forceful self-statements - I f a client told himself that it is awful and terrible to get a C on an examination, this self-statement can be replaced by a forceful and more suitable statement such as “ I want to get an A, but I don’t have to!” (Dryden and Ellis, 2003)
  47. 47. 5. Forceful self- dialogue  Arguing strongly and vigorously against an irrational belief has an advantage over therapist-client dialogue since all of the material comes from the client.
  48. 48. 1. Activity Homework Examples:  Rather than quitting a job, a client may work with an unreasonable boss and listen to their unfair criticism but mentally dispute the criticism and not accept the boss’ beliefs as her own.
  49. 49. 2. Reinforcements and Penalties  Task accomplishment = reward  Failure to accomplish task = penalty
  50. 50. 3. Skills Training Example:  Assertiveness Training Workshop/s can be helpful for those who are shy  workshops on communication skills, job interviewing skills
  51. 51. Some techniques fall into 2 or 3 of those categories.
  52. 52. If you would get release and let your anger out, Disrupt the blasted peace and scream and yell and shout, Just go to any length to show you can’t be still, And you’ll display enormous strength—until the time you’re killed! Pound, pound, pound! Pound, pound, pound! Pound your enemies! Oh what fun it is to stun anyone who does not please you! Sock, sock, sock! Knock, knock, knock! Howl and whine and cry! And everyone from you will run and hate you till you die! Pout, pout, pout! Shout, shout, shout!—when things are a mess! Rip, rip, rip! Slip, slip, slip into a profound depression! Think, think, think! Drink, drink, drink only of cruel fate! Keep your mind preoccupied with everyone you hate.
  53. 53.  Three Rational Humorous Songs  Source:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ti2U3jyvpKM
  54. 54. Not only does REBT stress cognitive insight, but it also emphasizes emotional insight.
  55. 55. 1. Acknowledging that disturbances come not only from the past but also from irrational beliefs. 2. How individuals continually indoctrinate themselves with the same kind of irrational beliefs that originated in the past. 3. Accepting first 2 levels of insight with the realization that knowledge of these insights does not automatically change people.
  56. 56.  Awareness of rational beliefs is not sufficient; active challenging of irrational beliefs, and development of rational beliefs, using knowledge of the A-B-C theory of personality is essential.
  57. 57. Individuals not only have changed feelings, thoughts and beliefs but also know how they have done so and why (Ellis, 2002; Ellis, 2003d cited in Sharf, 2008).

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