Robert plays football for a small team in Birmingham. facts & permanent states
It rarely rains in the desert. general thruts & laws of nature
He usually trains for 5 hours a day. habits & routines (with always, usually, etc)
The next match starts at 5:30 next Sunday. timetables & programmes (in the future)
Robert takes the ball, passes it to Ben and scores. sporting commentaries, reviews & narrations
The fans love him. He is a very good player. feelings & emotions
usually, often, always, every day / week / month / year, in the morning / afternoon / evening, at night / the weekend, on Fridays etc. TIME EXPRESSIONS
Arthur is learning how to ski this week. actions taking place at or around the moment of speaking
We are staying at an expensive hotel at the moment. temporary situations
Our friends are visiting us tomorrow. fixed arrangements in the near future
The team is playing better and better all the time. currently changing & developing situations
They are always talking in class. with adverbs such always to express anger or irritation at a repeated action
now, at the moment, at present, these days, nowadays, still, today, tonight etc. TIME EXPRESSIONS
You look gorgeous today. verbs of the senses (see, hear, smell, taste, feel, look, sound, seem, appear,etc)
They know what to do. verbs of perception (know, believe, understand, realise, remember, forget, etc)
Susan prefers to go to the theatre than to the cinema. verbs which express feelings & emotions (like, love, hate, enjoy, prefer, detest, desire, want, etc)
The tour includes meals and transportation. some other verbs (be, contain, include, belong, fit, need, matter, cost, own, want, owe, weigh, wish, have, keep, etc)
BE a permanent characteristic a temporary condition She’s usually quite honest. She isn’t being very honest.
THINK = believe = are considering I think they will win the championship this year. They are thinking of buying a laptop.
HAVE = own, possess = 1) are experiencing 2) is taking 3) are eating They have a good coach. They are having a wonderful season. He is having a bath. They are having their breakfast now.
SEE = 1) it is visible 2) understand = is meeting I can see the tower from here. I can see what you are trying to do. Kelly is seeing her boss at one o’clock.
TASTE = it is, has the flavour of = is testing The cake tastes fruity. Mum is tasting the food to check if it’s too salty.
SMELL = has the aroma = is sniffing The cake smells very good. Aunt Vicky is smelling the roses.
APPEAR = seem to = is performing They appear to be tired. My favourite actor is appearing in this play.
FIT = is the right size = are installing This dress fits me very well. The technicians are fitting the new scoreboards at the stadium.
EXPECT = think = anticipate I don’ expect you like this, but I’m leaving the company. I’ve been expecting you to arrive since 8 o’clock this morning.
We have been to the stadium twice. an action happened at unstated time in the past; the time is unimprotant or unknown
They have known them for five years. an action started in the past and continues up to the present, especially with stative verbs
John has cleaned the house. a recently sompleted action, when the event is still relevant or is still news
She has lost five kilos. personal experiences & changes
We have typed five letters today. an action happened within a specific time period which is not over at the moment of speaking (today, this morning / evening / week / month, etc)
A new zoo for endangered species has opened in the Lake District. It took five years to build and runs entirely on solar energy. general news or information, followed by more detail using the past simple
She has gone to school.(= She’s on her way there or she’s there now. She hasn’t come back yet) She has been to Chicago.( = She has visited Chicago but she isn’t there now. She has come back.) She has been in Japan for two years. (= She lives in Japan now.) HAVE BEEN or HAVE GONE
for, since, already, always, just, ever, never, so far, today, this week / month, how long, lately, recently, still, yet, by now, etc. TIME EXPRESSIONS
Present Perfect Continuous
They have been playing well the whole match. to put emaphasis on the duration of an action which started in the past and continues up to the present
He’s sweating because he has been running all day. an action which started in the past and lasted for some time; it may still be continuing or have already finished with the result visible in the present
Somebody has been using my computer. to express anger, irritation or annoyance
They are very likely to win the cup because they have been training a lot. for repeated actions in the past continuing to the present
for, since, how long, all day / morning / month, lately, recently, etc. TIME EXPRESSIONS