The domain

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the domain =bacteria ata ni??..hehe

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The domain

  1. 1. The Domain BACTERIA
  2. 2. According to Bergey’s Manual, the Domain Bacteria contains <ul><li>23 phyla </li></ul><ul><li>32 classes </li></ul><ul><li>5 subclasses </li></ul><ul><li>77 orders </li></ul><ul><li>14 suborders </li></ul><ul><li>132 families </li></ul><ul><li>871 genera </li></ul><ul><li>& 5007 species </li></ul>
  3. 3. Phenotypic Categories of Bacteria <ul><li>A. Gram-negative bacteria with a cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>B. Gram-positive bacteria with a cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>C. those that lack a cell wall </li></ul>
  4. 4. Characteristics that provides data for identification and classification of bacteria: <ul><li>Cell shape and morphological arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Staining reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Motility </li></ul><ul><li>Colony morphology </li></ul><ul><li>atmospheric requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemical and metabolic activities </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes they produces </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogenicity </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic composition </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cell Morphology <ul><li>Three Basic Shapes of Bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cocci – round or spherical bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacilli – rectangular or rod-shaped bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirilla – curved and spiral-shaped bacteria </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cocci may be seen : <ul><li>Singly or in pairs – diplococci </li></ul><ul><li>Chains – streptococci </li></ul><ul><li>Clusters – staphylococci </li></ul><ul><li>Packets of four – tetrads </li></ul><ul><li>Packets of eight - octads </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bacilli may occur: <ul><li>Singly or in pairs – diplobacilli </li></ul><ul><li>In chains – streptobacilli </li></ul><ul><li>In long filaments </li></ul><ul><li>Or branched </li></ul><ul><li>Rods are quite short resembling elongated cocci – coccobacilli Ex. Listeria monocytogenes, Haemophilus influenza </li></ul>
  8. 21. The Domain
  9. 22. Domain Archaea <ul><li>Domain Archaea is mostly composed of cells that live in extreme environments. While they are able to live elsewhere, they are usually not found there because outside of extreme environments they are competitively excluded by other organisms. Species of the domain Archaea are not inhibited by antibiotics, lack peptidoglycan in their cell wall (unlike bacteria, which have this sugar/polypeptide compound), and can have branched carbon chains in their membrane lipids of the phospholipid bilayer. It is believed that Archaea are very similar to prokaryotes that inhabited the earth billions of years ago. It is also believed that eukaryotes evolved from Archaea, because they share many mRNA sequences, have similar RNA polymerases, and have introns. Therefore, it is believed that the domains Archaea and Bacteria branched from each other very early in history, and membrane infolding produced eukaryotic cells in the archaean branch approximately 1.7 billion years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three main groups of Archaea:  extreme halophiles ,  methanogens , and  hyperthermophiles . </li></ul>
  10. 23. According to Bergey’s Manual, the Domain Bacteria contains <ul><li>2 phyla </li></ul><ul><li>8 classes </li></ul><ul><li>12 orders </li></ul><ul><li>21 families </li></ul><ul><li>69 genera </li></ul><ul><li>217 species </li></ul>
  11. 24. Groups of Archaea <ul><li>extreme halophiles </li></ul><ul><li>  methanogens </li></ul><ul><li>  hyperthermophiles . </li></ul>
  12. 25. Ex. Of Extremophiles Piezophiles (formerly barophiles) Extremely high pressure Halophiles Extremely salty Psychrophiles Extremely clod Thermophiles Extremely hot Alkaliphiles Extremely alkaline Acidophiles Extremely acidic NAME GIVEN TO THOSE TYPES OF EXTREMOPHILES TYPE OF EXTREME ENVIRONMENT

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