Using Cameras for Wildlife Research, Management, and Education in Jefferson County Open Space Parks Tim Sandsmark,  Admini...
Benefits of Camera Surveys <ul><li>Medium to large mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Rare or secretive species </li></ul><ul><li>2...
Appropriate Uses <ul><li>Monitors Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Limits to Population Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Game Trails </...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Be a Stinker! Get Respect!
 
 
Other Bait Site Visitors
 
 
 
Fencing Impacts to Wildlife Lookout Mtn. Monitoring Objectives 1.  Monitor wildlife use pre/post opening 2.  Monitor speci...
Lookout- General Summary <ul><ul><li>110 acres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1112 unique records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4...
Potential Error <ul><li>Winter Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Camera Shutter Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul><ul><li>C...
 
 
 
Objective 1.  Monitor wildlife use pre/post opening
Cam 1 140% CR Objective 2.  Monitor species movement (spatial)
Cam 2 20% CR
Cam 3 79% CR
Cam 4 48% CR
Objective 2.  Monitor species movement (seasonal)
Objective 2.  Monitor species movement (temporal)
Noon Midnight
Compare LKT hours of activity with other survey locations. Based on LKT species only. Noon Midnight
Cam 1 Social Use Humans 26  9% CR Dogs  0 Wildlife 411  140% CR Objective 3.  Monitor human use at opening
Cam 4 Social Use Humans  5  1% CR Dogs  10  3% CR Wildlife 192  48% CR
 
Monitoring wildlife and recreational activity on newly acquired land
 
Hildebrand Ranch Wildlife Movement- Funnels
 
 
 
 
292% 21.98% 27.59% 8.19% 1.29% 36.21% 1.29% 46.12% 76.72% 54.74% 2.16% 20.26% 2008 Capture Rate (232 TN) 51 Skunk 155% 692...
 
Deer
Elk
Seasonal Use - Elk
Bear
All Mammals
Movement During Park Hours
Visitor Use Impacts? 33.5 14,090 South Valley Combined 14.3 9.7 5,988 4,086 South Valley South Lot 19.3 13.5 8,087 5,657 S...
Deer and Elk Hours of Movement Backcountry vs.  Human Use Areas Noon Midnight
 
 
Trail Planners
Trail Buster
Elk Meadow Park
 
 
 
 
Elk Meadow 3 Cameras- Movement, Beds, and Water Source 397 Unique Records 650 Trap Nights 61% Capture Rate
 
 
Elk Meadow
 
Elk Meadow
 
Elk Meadow
 
Elk Meadow
 
 
Elk Meadow
Concluding Comments <ul><li>Humans enjoy wildlife </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birdwatchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect an...
Just some other neat photos
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
… and just for fun
 
 
Bigfoot!
 
The End!
 
 
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Evergreen Garden Club Wildlife Camera Program

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Powerpoint program presented on motion activated wildlife camera research being conducted by Jefferson County Open Space

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  • Bait site at Ralston Buttes. Park or front range study Bait site at Ralston Buttes as part of CDOW study
  • Bait site- Ralston
  • Coyote and skunk at Ralston bait site
  • Foax and skunk at Ralston site
  • Bobcat and skunk at bait site at Ralston
  • Spotted skunk at Ralston Buttes (also seem at Hildrebrand and Lacy property- Coal Creek Canyon
  • Golden eagle at bait site- Ralston Buttes
  • Red tailed hawk
  • Goshawk
  • Turkey vultures at Lacy propery, Coal Creek
  • The cameras were used to address 3 main objectives. Monitor change in wildlife activity before and after change in fence. Site 1 originally had a tall gate that was reduced to a shortened fence opening. The PMP team is wrestling with a desire to allow wildlife freer movement across the Nature Center grounds. The fence has a historic value associated with the Boetcher Mansion as well as defining property boundaries. Monitor species movement Monitor human uses at openings. There are concerns with the development of social trails, dogs, and facility safety.
  • 4 cameras were used for about a year and a half. We collected over 5,000 photos. After analyzing the photos, we recorded over 1,000 unique records. A unique record indicates when a species was moving, or active, passing by a camera. A herd of 20 elk crossing the camera may record several photos, but it represents only 1 unique record. Cameras were out on the site for over 1800 trap nights, or 24 hours periods. After taking out the times when cameras were not functioning, the actual number of active trap nights was over 1400. The capture rate average from all 4 cameras is 75%. The capture rate is the number of unique records divided by the actual trap nights. Again, this does not represent numbers of individuals. 75% capture rate means that wildlife would be caught by the cameras 3 times out of 4 days.
  • There of course is room for error in these surveys. Batteries do not function well in cold winter temperatures. Shutter speeds might slow down, or just not be fast enough to catch a species running across the infra-red beam. Some species find ways to go around the camera, such as foxes and coyotes. All in all, capture rates are likely much lower than actual use.
  • Note fox numbers
  • The yellow and pink bars are dog and human records at the cameras. The main human use corresponds with the low wildlife use. This makes me wonder if the wildlife have changed their behavior somewhat to avoid periods of activity when people are most active.
  • This graph compares LKT wildlife use with the same species of wildlife, but from surveys that are in remote areas of our system.
  • This graph compares LKT wildlife use with the same species of wildlife, but from surveys that are in remote areas of our system. Note that wildlife use when people are around at LMNC declines during the day more so than remote areas.
  • People and dogs were only recorded at Locations 1 and 4. About once every 10 days, a person or persons entered or left through this gap. Note that there are not posted signs prohibiting this activity. There is a path along the road, and a trail less than 50 yards away.
  • This looks at if wildilfe are moving in one direction or another at certain times of the day. Deer are moving west around 7 and to the east at about 8 at night.
  • Elk moving east in from about 8 p.m. to midnight and then moving west early in the moring around 5 a.m.
  • Bulls move in during mating season in the fall.
  • Bear also moving east and west in similar patterns as deer and elk
  • General moving east at dusk and west at dawn.
  • Although movement is significant at night, it does occur often during park hours.
  • So human impact on wildlife has to be considered
  • Man made objects like the fence and it’s impacts on wildlife.
  • Injured elk at LMNC
  • Has trail planning and management implications
  • As a result of significant wildlife movement demonstated by the wildlife cameras, decisions were made to not put a trail in this area at Hildebrand
  • Closer to home here, Elk Meadow research is happening.
  • Camera on forest edge at Elk
  • Still human use and dogs off leash which cause problems for wildlife
  • Unlike Hildebrand- considerable movement and activity during the day
  • Critical water hole- note nursing calf
  • Dominant species in this area
  • Black bear
  • Actively feeding the summer, mating in the fall, having young in spring (probably why April is low).
  • Mating season!
  • Bulls move in for mating in the early fall. Males expend a lot of energy during mating season and are not feeding as much so go into winter weaker and some die, but genes pass on during mating.
  • Cows during mating season
  • Black bears in “big hole” area of Mt. Falcon area.
  • Ring tailed cat at Ralston Buttes
  • Lion at Ralston
  • Bobcat at ralston
  • Coyote at ralston
  • Grey fox
  • Domestic cat at Ralston
  • Beavers at Lair
  • Mule deer on left, white tail on right
  • raccoons
  • Evergreen Garden Club Wildlife Camera Program

    1. 1. Using Cameras for Wildlife Research, Management, and Education in Jefferson County Open Space Parks Tim Sandsmark, Administrator Lookout Mountain Nature Center, Jefferson County Open Space Special thanks to Bryan Posthumus, Natural Resource Specialist, Jeffco Open Space
    2. 2. Benefits of Camera Surveys <ul><li>Medium to large mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Rare or secretive species </li></ul><ul><li>24 hour surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>Survey areas with difficult access. </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost- 1 digital camera~1 week seasonal pay </li></ul>
    3. 3. Appropriate Uses <ul><li>Monitors Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Limits to Population Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Game Trails </li></ul><ul><li>Movement Corridors </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal, Spatial, Temporal Use </li></ul><ul><li>Bait Sites </li></ul>
    4. 13. Be a Stinker! Get Respect!
    5. 16. Other Bait Site Visitors
    6. 20. Fencing Impacts to Wildlife Lookout Mtn. Monitoring Objectives 1. Monitor wildlife use pre/post opening 2. Monitor species movement (temporal, seasonal, spatial) 3. Monitor human use at opening
    7. 21. Lookout- General Summary <ul><ul><li>110 acres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1112 unique records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1477 actual trap nights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LKT average CR 75% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture Rate= Unique Records/Actual Trap Nights </li></ul></ul>
    8. 22. Potential Error <ul><li>Winter Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Camera Shutter Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul><ul><li>Capture rates are likely much lower than actual use. </li></ul>
    9. 26. Objective 1. Monitor wildlife use pre/post opening
    10. 27. Cam 1 140% CR Objective 2. Monitor species movement (spatial)
    11. 28. Cam 2 20% CR
    12. 29. Cam 3 79% CR
    13. 30. Cam 4 48% CR
    14. 31. Objective 2. Monitor species movement (seasonal)
    15. 32. Objective 2. Monitor species movement (temporal)
    16. 33. Noon Midnight
    17. 34. Compare LKT hours of activity with other survey locations. Based on LKT species only. Noon Midnight
    18. 35. Cam 1 Social Use Humans 26 9% CR Dogs 0 Wildlife 411 140% CR Objective 3. Monitor human use at opening
    19. 36. Cam 4 Social Use Humans 5 1% CR Dogs 10 3% CR Wildlife 192 48% CR
    20. 38. Monitoring wildlife and recreational activity on newly acquired land
    21. 40. Hildebrand Ranch Wildlife Movement- Funnels
    22. 45. 292% 21.98% 27.59% 8.19% 1.29% 36.21% 1.29% 46.12% 76.72% 54.74% 2.16% 20.26% 2008 Capture Rate (232 TN) 51 Skunk 155% 692 Total 64 Red 19 Raccoon 3 Lion 84 Gray 3 Fox 30% 107 Elk 94% 178 Deer 13% 127 Coyote 5 Bobcat 17% 47 Bear 2006 Capture Rate (64 TN) 2008 Activity Species
    23. 47. Deer
    24. 48. Elk
    25. 49. Seasonal Use - Elk
    26. 50. Bear
    27. 51. All Mammals
    28. 52. Movement During Park Hours
    29. 53. Visitor Use Impacts? 33.5 14,090 South Valley Combined 14.3 9.7 5,988 4,086 South Valley South Lot 19.3 13.5 8,087 5,657 South Valley North Lot 23.26 14.7 9,768 6,175 Deer Creek Park Maximum Visitors/Hour Mean Visitors/Hour Maximum Monthly Visitation Mean Monthly Visitation Location
    30. 54. Deer and Elk Hours of Movement Backcountry vs. Human Use Areas Noon Midnight
    31. 57. Trail Planners
    32. 58. Trail Buster
    33. 59. Elk Meadow Park
    34. 64. Elk Meadow 3 Cameras- Movement, Beds, and Water Source 397 Unique Records 650 Trap Nights 61% Capture Rate
    35. 67. Elk Meadow
    36. 69. Elk Meadow
    37. 71. Elk Meadow
    38. 73. Elk Meadow
    39. 76. Elk Meadow
    40. 77. Concluding Comments <ul><li>Humans enjoy wildlife </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birdwatchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect and Appreciation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humans impact wildlife </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Riparian and wetlands, corridors, funnels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development, fencing, roads, trails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreation- heavy numbers of people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wildlife react to humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance, attraction, habituation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escape cover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large animals need big spaces </li></ul></ul>
    41. 78. Just some other neat photos
    42. 110. … and just for fun
    43. 113. Bigfoot!
    44. 115. The End!

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