*As media continue to evolve, several trends have
*Media audiences: less mass, more selective.
*Audience fractionalization or segmentation
*Reduced audience for any single media vehicle
*Definition of mass communication still applies;
audiences still large, organizations still complex.
*Specialization is evident, but potential to reach
mass audience still exists.
*Convergence means coming together or uniting in
common theme or focus.
assets extending range of activities.
Owners of several
media properties combine operations.
One mechanism contains
functions of two or more devices e.g. the iPhone .
• Audience members can control what they see and
hear, and when.
• Technological advances (VCR, DVR, VOD) give more
power to consumers.
• More sources of information, including blogs
• More flexibility in consuming products (download
single track vs. buy full album)
• Create own classifieds/ ads -Craigslist
* A strategy making content available via a
number of different delivery methods to a
number of different receiving devices.
Example: Music videos started on cable/satellite networks,
went to websites, to iPods, to cell phones.
Television content, newspaper content, magazine content, all
are repackaged for multiple devices.
* User-generated content (peer production): people share and
collaborate on content.
* YouTube, MySpace, Flickr, Wikipedia
* Reflects Web 2.0
* Web 2.0 = communities, people, uploading
* Web 1.0 = companies, pages, downloading
*Small screen devices allow media to become
*iPads & tablets
*Significant milestone in development of
* Online communications that use special techniques
that involve participation, conversation, sharing,
collaboration, and linkage.
* At the start of 2011, Facebook had more than 500
million users; that would rank the Website third
largest in the world if it were a country.
* Businesses & politicians are turning to social media
to market their products.