Unit 5 russia and eastern europe

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  • outliers of the Tien Shan Alay mountains, in the east Caspian Sea in the west.traversed by the lower courses of the Syr Darya and Amu Darya, both of which drain into the Aral Sea.arid plain encompasses two deserts, separated by the valley of the Amu Darya: the Karakum and the Kyzylkum.The deserts comprise fine-grained sedimentary rocks overlain by extensive sand dunes and sand sheets.Vegetation is sparse, comprising xerophytic (drought-resistant) scrubs and short grasses. There are a number of hills up to 3,300 feet (1,000 metres) in elevation, as well as several depressions below sea level.
  • Continentalityland to experience more thermal variation than water, due to the land's lower specific heat capacity.tends to be dryer than oceanic climateless moisture input to the atmosphere from evaporation.Because temperature and moisture content are key factors in influencing regional climatecontinentality affects and influences both temperature and precipitation.
  • Taiga is a biomeconiferous forests.Canada, Alaska, Sweden, Finland, inland Norway, the Scottish Highlands and Russia northern continental United Statesworld's largest terrestrial biome.Although this biome is correctly named Taiga, the term Boreal forest is usually used to refer to the more southerly part of the biome, while the term Taiga is more often used to describe only the more barren northern areas of the Arctictree line.Since North America and Asia were formerly connected by the Bering land bridge, animal and plant species colonize both continents
  • The Aral Sea is an endorheic basin in Central Asialies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan, in the south.name roughly translates as "Sea of Islands", referring to more than 1,500 islands that once dotted its waters.maximum depth of the sea is 102 feet (31 m).[when?]Once the world's fourth-largest inland saline body of waterarea of 68,000 km2rivers that fed it were diverted by Soviet Unionirrigation projects.By 2007 it had declined to 10% of its original sizeonce prosperous fishing industry has been virtually destroyedunemployment and economic hardship.heavily polluted, with consequent serious public health problems.local climate change, with summers becoming hotter and drier, and winters colder and longer.[4]effort in Kazakhstan to save and replenish the North Aral Sea.dam project completed in 2005 has raised the water level of this lake by two metres.Salinity has dropped, and fish are again found in sufficient numbers for some fishing to be viable. The outlook for the remnants of the South Aral Sea remains bleak.
  • Trans-Siberian Railway or Trans-Siberian Railroad network of railways connecting Moscow and European Russia with the Russian Far East provinces, Mongolia, China and the Sea of Japan. Today, the railway is part of the Eurasian Land Bridge.to connect the capital, St. Petersburg, with the Pacific Ocean port of Vladivostok were approved by Tsar Alexander II in St. Petersburg. His son, Tsar Alexander III supervised the construction; the Tsar appointed Sergei Witte Director of Railway Affairs in 1889. The Imperial State Budget spent 1.455 billion rubles from 1891 to 1913 on the railway's construction, an expenditure record which was surpassed only by the military budget in World War I.In March 1891, the future Tsar Nicholas II personally opened and blessed the construction of the Far East segment of the Trans-Siberian Railway during his stop at Vladivostok, after visiting Japan at the end of his journey around the world. Nicholas II made notes in his diary about his anticipation of travelling in the comfort of The Tsar's Train across the unspoiled wilderness of Siberia. The Tsar's Train was designed and built in St. Petersburg to serve as the main mobile office of the Tsar and his staff for travelling across Russia.The main route of the Trans-Siberian originates in St. Petersburg at MoskovskyVokzal, runs through Moscow, Chelyabinsk, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Ulan-Ude, Chita, Blagoveshchensk and Khabarovsk to Vladivostok via southern Siberia and was built from 1891 to 1916 under the supervision of government ministers of Russia who were personally appointed by the Tsar Alexander III and by his son, Tsar Nicholas II. The additional Chinese Eastern Railway was constructed as the Russo-Chinese part of the Trans-Siberian Railway, connecting Russia with China and providing a shorter route to Vladivostok and it was operated by a Russian staff and administration based in Harbin.The Trans-Siberian Railway is often associated with the main transcontinental Russian train that connects hundreds of large and small cities of the European and Asian parts of Russia. At 9,259 kilometres (5,753 miles),[1] spanning a record 7 time zones and taking eight days to complete the journey, it is the third-longest single continuous service in the world, after the Moscow–Pyongyang (10,267 km, 6,380 mi)[2] and the Kiev–Vladivostok (11,085 km, 6,888 mi)[3] services, both of which also follow the Trans-Siberian for much of their routes. The route was opened by TsarevichNicholas Alexandrovitch of Russia after his eastern journey ended.A second primary route is the Trans-Manchurian, which coincides with the Trans-Siberian as far as Tarskaya (a stop 12 km east of Karymskaya, in ZabaykalskyKrai), about 1,000 km east of Lake Baikal. From Tarskaya the Trans-Manchurian heads southeast, via Harbin and Mudanjiang in China's Northeastern Provinces (from where a connection to Beijing is used by one of Moscow–Beijing trains), joining with the main route in Ussuriysk just north of Vladivostok. This is the shortest and the oldest railway route to Vladivostok. Some trains split at Shenyang, China, with a portion of the service continuing to Pyongyang, North Korea.The third primary route is the Trans-Mongolian Railway, which coincides with the Trans-Siberian as far as Ulan Ude on Lake Baikal's eastern shore. From Ulan-Ude the Trans-Mongolian heads south to Ulaan-Baatar before making its way southeast to Beijing.In 1991, a fourth route running further to the north was finally completed, after more than five decades of sporadic work. Known as the Baikal Amur Mainline (BAM), this recent extension departs from the Trans-Siberian line at Taishet several hundred miles west of Lake Baikal and passes the lake at its northernmost extremity. It crosses the Amur River at Komsomolsk-na-Amure (north of Khabarovsk), and reaches the Pacific at Sovetskaya Gavan.[edit] War and revolutionAfter the revolution of 1917, the railway served as the vital line of communication for the Czechoslovak Legion and the Allied armies that landed troops at Vladivostok during the Siberian Intervention of the Russian Civil War. These forces supported the White Russian government of Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak, based in Omsk, and White Russian soldiers fighting the Bolsheviks on the Ural Front. The intervention was weakened, and ultimately defeated, by partisan fighters who blew up bridges and sections of track, particularly in the volatile region between Krasnoyarsk and Chita.[4]The Trans-Siberian also played a very direct role during parts of Russia's history, with the Czechoslovak Legion using heavily armed and armoured trains to control large amounts of the railway (and of Russia itself) during the Russian Civil War at the end of World War I.[5] As one of the few organised fighting forces left in the aftermath of the Imperial collapse, and before the Red Army took control, the Czechs and Slovaks were able to take use their organisation and the resources of the railway to establish a temporary zone of control before eventually continuing onwards towards Vladivostok, from where they emigrated back to Czechoslovakia through Vancouver in Canada, through Canada to Europe, or the Panama Canal to Europe also through Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Port Said and Triest.
  • The Chernobyl disasternuclear reactoraccidentoccurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine (then part of the Soviet Union).worst nuclear power plant disaster in history and the only level 7 event on the International Nuclear Event Scale.severe release of radioactivity following a massive power excursion that destroyed the reactor.Most deaths from the accident were caused by radiation poisoning.On April 26, 1986 at 01:23 a.m. (UTC+3) reactor number four at the Chernobyl plant, near Pripyat in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, exploded. Further explosions and the resulting fire sent a plume of highly radioactive fallout into the atmosphere and over an extensive geographical area.Four hundred times more fallout was released than had been by the atomic bombing of Hiroshima.[2]plume drifted over large parts of the western Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Northern Europe,nuclear rain falling as far away as Ireland.Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia were badly contaminated, resulting in the evacuation and resettlement of over 336,000 people.60% of the radioactive fallout landed in Belarus.forcing the Soviet government to become less secretive.substantial decontamination and health care costs of the Chernobyl accident.difficult to accurately quantify the number of deaths caused by the events at Chernobylharder to determine whether a death has been caused by exposure to radiation.56 direct deaths (47 accident workers, and nine children with thyroid cancer)4,000 extra cancer deaths among the approximately 600,000 most highly exposed people.affected areas are now considered safe for settlement and economic activity.[5]
  • The term Vikingthe Norse (Scandinavian)explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates who raided, traded, explored and settled in wide areas of Europe and the North Atlantic islands from the late 8th to the mid-11th century.[1]These Norsemen used their famed longships to travel as far east as Constantinople and the Volga River in Russia, and as far west as Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland, and as far south as Al Andalus.[2] This period of Viking expansion – known as the Viking Age – forms a major part of themedieval history of Scandinavia, Britain, Ireland and the rest of Europe in general.Popular conceptions of the Vikings often differ from the complex picture that emerges from archaeology and written sources. A romanticized picture of Vikings as Germanic noble savagesbegan to take root in the 18th century, and this developed and became widely propagated during the 19th-century Viking revival.[3] The received views of the Vikings as violent brutes or intrepid adventurers owe much to the modern Viking myth which had taken shape by the early 20th century. Current popular representations are typically highly clichéd, presenting the Vikings as familiar caricatures.[3]
  • Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian:  Ива́нЧетвёртый, Васи́льевич​ (help·info), Ivan Chetvyorty, Vasilyevich; 25 August 1530 – 28 March [O.S. 18 March] 1584),[1] known in English as Ivan the Terrible (Russian:  Ива́нГро́зный​ (help·info), Ivan Groznyi), was Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 until his death. His long reign saw the conquest of the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, andSiberia, transforming Russia into a multiethnic and multiconfessional state spanning almost one billion acres, approximately 4,046,856 km2 (1,562,500 sq mi).[2] Ivan oversaw numerous changes in the transition from a medieval nation state to an empire and emerging regional power, and became the first Tsar of a new and more powerful nation.Historic sources present disparate accounts of Ivan's complex personality: he was described as intelligent and devout, yet given to rages and prone to episodic outbreaks of mental illness. One notable outburst may have resulted in the death of his groomed and chosen heir Ivan Ivanovich, which led to the passing of the Tsardom to the younger son: the weak and possibly mentally retarded[3] Feodor I of Russia. His contemporaries called him "Ivan Groznyi" the name, which, although usually translated as "Terrible", actually means something closer to "Great"[dubious – discuss] and carries connotations of might, power and strictness rather than horror or cruelty.[4][5][6]
  • Peter I the Great or PyotrAlexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр Алексе́евич Рома́нов, Пётр I, Pyotr I, or Пётр Вели́кий, PyotrVelikiy) (9 June [O.S. 30 May] 1672 – 8 February [O.S. 28 January] 1725)[1] ruled Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May [O.S. 27 April] 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly half-brother, Ivan V.He carried out a policy of modernization and expansion that transformed the Tsardom of Russiainto a 3-billion acre Russian Empire, a major European power.
  • Saint Petersburg (Russian:  Са́нкт-Петербу́рг (help·info), tr. Sankt-Peterburg,IPA: [ˈsanktpʲɪtʲɪrˈburk]) is a city and a federal subject (a federal city) of Russialocated on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea. The city's other names were Petrograd (Russian: Петроград, IPA: [pʲɪtrɐˈgrat], 1914–1924) and Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград, IPA: [lʲɪnʲɪnˈgrat], 1924–1991). It is often called just Petersburg (Russian: Петербург) and is informally known as Peter(Russian: Питер, IPA: [ˈpitʲɪr]).Founded by Tsar Peter I of Russia on May 27, 1703, it was the capital of theRussian Empire for more than two hundred years (1713–1728, 1732–1918). Saint Petersburg ceased being the capital in 1918 after the Russian Revolution of 1917.[10]It is Russia's second largest city after Moscow with 5.132 million inhabitants. Saint Petersburg is a major European cultural centre, and an important Russian port on the Baltic Sea.Saint Petersburg is often described as the most Western city of Russia.[11] Among cities of the world with over one million people, Saint Petersburg is the northernmost. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monumentsconstitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is also home to The Hermitage, the largest art museum in the entire world.[12] Russia's political and cultural centre for 200 years, the city is sometimes referred to in Russia as theNorthern Capital. Over its history it has also been referenced as "Venice of the North(СевернаяВенеция)",[13] "Northern Palmyra" (СевернаяПальмира), "New Rome" (НовыйРим), "Fourth Rome" (ЧетвертыйРим), "Paradise" (Парадиз), "New Babylon" (НовыйВавилон), "Snowy Babylon (СнежныйВавилон), "Second Paris" (ВторойПариж), "Russian Athens" (РусскиеАфины),"Queen of Baltic (ЦарицаБалтики).[14] A large number of foreign consulates, international corporations, banks and other businesses are located in Saint Petersburg.
  • The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. The Tsar was deposed and replaced by a provisional government in the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar was in use in Russia at the time). In the second revolution, during October, the Provisional Government was removed and replaced with a Bolshevik (Communist) government.The February Revolution (March 1917) was a revolution focused around Petrograd(now St. Petersburg). In the chaos, members of the Imperial parliament or Dumaassumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government. The army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution and TsarNicholas II of Russia, the last Tsar of Russia, abdicated. The Soviets (workers' councils), which were led by more radical socialist factions, initially permitted the Provisional Government to rule, but insisted on a prerogative to influence the government and control various militias. The February Revolution took place in the context of heavy military setbacks during the First World War, which left much of the army in a state of mutiny.A period of dual power ensued, during which the Provisional Government held state power while the national network of Soviets, led by socialists, had the allegiance of the lower-class citizens and the political left. During this chaotic period there were frequent mutinies and many strikes. When the Provisional Government chose to continue fighting the war with Germany, the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions campaigned for the abandonment of the war effort. The Bolsheviks formed workers militias under their control into the Red Guards (later theRed Army) over which they exerted substantial control.[1]In the October Revolution (November in the Gregorian calendar), the Bolshevik party, led by Vladimir Lenin, and the workers' Soviets, overthrew the Provisional Government in St Petersburg. The Bolsheviks appointed themselves as leaders of various government ministries and seized control of the countryside, establishing the Cheka to quash dissent. To end the war, the Bolshevik leadership signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918.Civil war erupted between the "Red" (Bolshevik), and "White" (anti-Bolshevik) factions, which was to continue for several years, with the Bolsheviks ultimately victorious. In this way the Revolution paved the way for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). While many notable historical events occurred in Moscow and St Petersburg, there was also a broad-based movement in cities throughout the state, among national minorities throughout the empire, and in the rural areas, where peasants took over and redistributed land.
  • Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (22 April 1870 – 21 January 1924), born Vladimir IlyichUlyanov, was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and communist politician who led the October Revolution of 1917. As leader of the Bolsheviks, he headed the Soviet state during its initial years (1917–1924), leading the country through the Russian Civil War, and worked to create a socialisteconomic system.As a theorist, his extensive theoretical and philosophical contributions to Marxism producedLeninism, the Russian application of Marxism.[1]
  • Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878[2] – 5 March 1953) served as the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. Stalin assumed the leading role in Soviet politics after Vladimir Lenin's death in 1924, and gradually marginalized his opponents until he had become the unchallenged leader of the Soviet Union.Stalin launched a command economy, replacing the New Economic Policy of the 1920s withFive-Year Plans and launching a period of rapid industrialization and economic collectivization. The upheaval in the agricultural sector disrupted food production, resulting in widespread famine, including the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932–1933 (known in Ukraine as theHolodomor).[3]During the late 1930s, Stalin launched the Great Purge (also known as the "Great Terror"), a campaign to purge the Communist Party of people accused of sabotage, terrorism, or treachery; he extended it to the military and other sectors of Soviet society. In practice, the purges were indiscriminate. Targets were often executed, imprisoned in Gulag labor camps or exiled. In the years which followed, millions of members of ethnic minorities were alsodeported.[4][5]
  • A Duma is any of various representative assemblies in modern Russia and Russian history. The State Duma in the Russian Empire and Russian Federation corresponds to the lower house of the parliament.Simply it is a form of Russian governmental institution, that was formed after the last Czar, Nicholas II.It is also the term for a council to early Russian rulers ('Boyar Duma'), as well as for city councils in Imperial Russia ('Municipal dumas'), and city and regional legislative bodies in the Russian Federation.Moscow city duma
  • PyotrIlyich Tchaikovsky[a 1] (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893)[a 2] was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. His wide ranging output includes symphonies, operas, ballets, instrumental andchamber music and songs. He wrote some of the most popular concert and theatrical music in the classical repertoire, including the ballets Swan Lake, The Sleeping Beauty and The Nutcracker, the 1812 Overture, his First Piano Concerto, his last three numbered symphonies, and the operaEugeneOnegin.Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky[1] (17 June [O.S. 5 June] 1882 – 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born, naturalised French, later naturalised American composer, pianist, and conductor.He is widely acknowledged as one of the most important and influential composers of 20th century music.[2][3][4] He was a quintessentially cosmopolitan Russian who was named byTime magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the century.[5] He became a naturalised French citizen in 1934 and a naturalized US citizen in 1945. In addition to the recognition he received for his compositions, he also achieved fame as a pianist and a conductor, often at the premieres of his works.Stravinsky's compositional career was notable for its stylistic diversity. He first achieved international fame with three ballets commissioned by the impresario Sergei Diaghilev and performed by Diaghilev's Ballets Russes (Russian Ballets): The Firebird (1910), Petrushka(1911/1947), and The Rite of Spring (1913). The Rite, whose premiere provoked a riot, transformed the way in which subsequent composers thought about rhythmic structure, and was largely responsible for Stravinsky's enduring reputation as a musical revolutionary, pushing the boundaries of musical design.After this first Russian phase Stravinsky turned to neoclassicism in the 1920s. The works from this period tended to make use of traditional musical forms (concerto grosso, fugue,symphony), frequently concealed a vein of intense emotion beneath a surface appearance of detachment or austerity, and often paid tribute to the music of earlier masters, for example J.S. Bach and Tchaikovsky.
  • PyotrIlyich Tchaikovsky[a 1] (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893)[a 2] was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. His wide ranging output includes symphonies, operas, ballets, instrumental andchamber music and songs. He wrote some of the most popular concert and theatrical music in the classical repertoire, including the ballets Swan Lake, The Sleeping Beauty and The Nutcracker, the 1812 Overture, his First Piano Concerto, his last three numbered symphonies, and the operaEugeneOnegin.Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky[1] (17 June [O.S. 5 June] 1882 – 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born, naturalised French, later naturalised American composer, pianist, and conductor.He is widely acknowledged as one of the most important and influential composers of 20th century music.[2][3][4] He was a quintessentially cosmopolitan Russian who was named byTime magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the century.[5] He became a naturalised French citizen in 1934 and a naturalized US citizen in 1945. In addition to the recognition he received for his compositions, he also achieved fame as a pianist and a conductor, often at the premieres of his works.Stravinsky's compositional career was notable for its stylistic diversity. He first achieved international fame with three ballets commissioned by the impresario Sergei Diaghilev and performed by Diaghilev's Ballets Russes (Russian Ballets): The Firebird (1910), Petrushka(1911/1947), and The Rite of Spring (1913). The Rite, whose premiere provoked a riot, transformed the way in which subsequent composers thought about rhythmic structure, and was largely responsible for Stravinsky's enduring reputation as a musical revolutionary, pushing the boundaries of musical design.After this first Russian phase Stravinsky turned to neoclassicism in the 1920s. The works from this period tended to make use of traditional musical forms (concerto grosso, fugue,symphony), frequently concealed a vein of intense emotion beneath a surface appearance of detachment or austerity, and often paid tribute to the music of earlier masters, for example J.S. Bach and Tchaikovsky.
  • Dacha is a Russian word for seasonal or year-round second homes often located in the exurbs of Soviet and Russian cities. In some cases, they are occupied for part of the year by their owners and rented out to urban residents as summer retreats. Dachas are very common in Russia, and are also widespread in some other former republics of the Soviet Union.As the size and type of dacha buildings was severely restricted during the Soviet time, some permitted features, such as attics and glazed verandas, which became extremely widespread and often oversized. During the 1963–1985 period, these limitations were especially strict; in fact, the construction of single-family dwellings in cities and exurbs was banned in the Soviet Union altogether, and only single-story summer houses without permanent heating and with living areas less than 25 m² were allowed as dachas (though older dachas that didn't meet these requirements continued to exist). Since 1990, all such limitations have been eliminated. It is estimated that about a quarter of families living in large cities have dachas.[1]Banya in Russian can refer to any kind of steam bath, but usually refers to the Russian type of sauna. In Bulgarian, banya (баня) usually refers to a bath and bathing. In Serbian, banja is used exclusively for a mineral water spa, as, for example, in spa resort names such as VrnjačkaBanja, Sokobanja.
  • Dacha is a Russian word for seasonal or year-round second homes often located in the exurbs of Soviet and Russian cities. In some cases, they are occupied for part of the year by their owners and rented out to urban residents as summer retreats. Dachas are very common in Russia, and are also widespread in some other former republics of the Soviet Union.As the size and type of dacha buildings was severely restricted during the Soviet time, some permitted features, such as attics and glazed verandas, which became extremely widespread and often oversized. During the 1963–1985 period, these limitations were especially strict; in fact, the construction of single-family dwellings in cities and exurbs was banned in the Soviet Union altogether, and only single-story summer houses without permanent heating and with living areas less than 25 m² were allowed as dachas (though older dachas that didn't meet these requirements continued to exist). Since 1990, all such limitations have been eliminated. It is estimated that about a quarter of families living in large cities have dachas.[1]Banya in Russian can refer to any kind of steam bath, but usually refers to the Russian type of sauna. In Bulgarian, banya (баня) usually refers to a bath and bathing. In Serbian, banja is used exclusively for a mineral water spa, as, for example, in spa resort names such as VrnjačkaBanja, Sokobanja.
  • Dacha is a Russian word for seasonal or year-round second homes often located in the exurbs of Soviet and Russian cities. In some cases, they are occupied for part of the year by their owners and rented out to urban residents as summer retreats. Dachas are very common in Russia, and are also widespread in some other former republics of the Soviet Union.As the size and type of dacha buildings was severely restricted during the Soviet time, some permitted features, such as attics and glazed verandas, which became extremely widespread and often oversized. During the 1963–1985 period, these limitations were especially strict; in fact, the construction of single-family dwellings in cities and exurbs was banned in the Soviet Union altogether, and only single-story summer houses without permanent heating and with living areas less than 25 m² were allowed as dachas (though older dachas that didn't meet these requirements continued to exist). Since 1990, all such limitations have been eliminated. It is estimated that about a quarter of families living in large cities have dachas.[1]Banya in Russian can refer to any kind of steam bath, but usually refers to the Russian type of sauna. In Bulgarian, banya (баня) usually refers to a bath and bathing. In Serbian, banja is used exclusively for a mineral water spa, as, for example, in spa resort names such as VrnjačkaBanja, Sokobanja.
  • Mountain of language because it sat on the silk roadOrigin on Indo European language Both Chrisatians (Armenia)and Muslims (Azerbijan)Tiridates I was King of Armenia beginning in AD 53In an agreement to resolve the Roman-Parthian conflict in and over Armenia, Tiridates was crowned king of Armenia by the Roman emperor Nero in AD 66
  • Azerbiganand Armenia fight over-Nagorno-Karabakh is a landlocked region in the South Caucasusmostly mountainous and forestedMost of the region is governed by the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, an unrecognized, de facto independent state established on the basis of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast within the Azerbaijan SSR of the Soviet Union.The territory is internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan, which has not exercised power over most of the region since 1991. Since the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994, representatives of the governments of Armenia and Azerbaijan have been holding peace talks mediated by the OSCE Minsk Group on the region's status.
  • The Chechen Republic population was 1,267,740Chechen-Ingush ASSR was split into two: the Republic of Ingushetia and Republic of Chechnya.Chechensought independence. Following the First Chechen War with Russia, Chechnya gained de facto independence as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.Russian federal control was restored during theSecond Chechen War. Since then there has been a systematic reconstruction and rebuilding process, though sporadic fighting continues in the mountains and southern regions of the republic.
  • In 1728 Peter the Great annexed Georgia1828 Russia takes AzerbaijanAfter Russian rev- these places were briefly independent but the Red Army invaded and reclaimedGeorgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.population is 4.3 million.one of the first countries to adopt Christianity in the 4th century19th century, Georgia was annexed by the Russian Empire.brief period of independence following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Georgia was invaded by Bolshevik armies in 1921 and incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1922.The independence of Georgia was restored in 1991. Like many post-communist countries, Georgia suffered from the economic crisis and civil unrest during the 1990s. After the Rose Revolution, the new political leadership introduced democratic reforms[8] but the foreign investment and economic growth which followed initially have slackened substantially since.Georgia is a representative democracy, organized as a unitary, semi-presidentialrepublic. It is currently a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, the Community of Democratic Choice, and GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development. The country aspires to join NATO and the European Union.[9]In August 2008, Georgia engaged in an armed conflict with Russia and separatist groups from South Ossetia and Abkhazia. In the aftermath of the conflict, Russia recognized South Ossetia and Abkhazia as independent states, but at present only Nauru, Nicaragua, the de facto independent republic of Transnistria, and Venezuela have followed suit.[10][11] On August 28, 2008, the Parliament of Georgia passed a resolution declaring Abkhazia and South Ossetia "Russian-occupied territories".[12][13]
  • Little industry before USSRAzerbaijan is oil rich
  • 99 literacySupra- means table clothLong meals with even longer speeches a tradition
  • Samarkand is on the silk road- wealth from tradeEnded with the discovery of sea routesUK and Russia will vie for control- the Great Game
  • The Great Gamestrategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.from the Russo-Persian Treaty of 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907.less intensive phase followed the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 .attributed to Arthur Conolly (1807–1842), an intelligence officer of the British East India Company's Sixth Bengal Light Cavalry.[1] It was introduced into mainstream consciousness by BritishnovelistRudyard Kipling in his novel Kim (1901).
  • The Polygon
  • Former Soviet Empire forms nations
  • Unit 5 russia and eastern europe

    1. 1. Russia<br />
    2. 2. Landforms and Resources<br />pptPlex Section Divider<br />The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.<br />
    3. 3. Physical Geography<br />Northern European Plain<br />Chernozem<br />Moscow<br />Saint Petersburg<br />Kiev<br />Ural Mountains<br />
    4. 4. Political Geography<br />
    5. 5. Eurasia<br />Central Siberian Plateau<br />Russian Far East<br />Transcaucasia<br />
    6. 6. Central Asia<br />The Stans<br />
    7. 7. Turan Plain<br />Kara Kum<br />KyzylKum<br />
    8. 8. Amu DaryaSyr Darya<br />
    9. 9. Vegetation<br />
    10. 10. Resources<br />Timber<br />Hydroelectric power<br />Siberia<br />Thermal pollution<br />
    11. 11. Climate<br />Continentality<br />Permafrost<br />Tundra<br />Forest<br />Steppe<br />Desert<br />
    12. 12. Taiga<br />
    13. 13. Human Environment Interaction<br />pptPlex Section Divider<br />The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.<br />
    14. 14. Human Environment Interaction<br />Disappearing Lake<br />Amu Darya and the Syr Darya<br />Runoff<br />Siberian winters<br />General Winter<br />
    15. 15. Trans Siberian Railroad<br />
    16. 16. Chernobyl<br />
    17. 17. Russian History<br />pptPlex Section Divider<br />The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.<br />
    18. 18. Vikings<br />
    19. 19. The Mongols<br />
    20. 20. Ivan The terrible<br />
    21. 21. Peter the Great<br />
    22. 22. St. Petersburg<br />The Window to the West<br />
    23. 23. The Russian Revolution<br />
    24. 24. The Soviet Union<br />U.S.S.R.<br />
    25. 25. V.I. Lenin<br />
    26. 26. Josef Stalin<br />
    27. 27. The Cold War<br />
    28. 28. The Cold War<br />
    29. 29. The Duma<br />
    30. 30. The Economy<br />Command economy<br />Collective farms<br />
    31. 31. Effects of the command economy<br />
    32. 32. Culture<br />pptPlex Section Divider<br />The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.<br />
    33. 33. Culture<br />Ethnicity<br />Religion<br />
    34. 34. Culture<br />Ethnicity<br />Religion<br />
    35. 35. Notable figures<br />Baryshnikov<br />
    36. 36. Notable figures<br />Tchaikovsky<br />
    37. 37. Notable figures<br />Stravinsky<br />
    38. 38. Notable figures<br />Pushkin<br />Dostoyevsky<br />
    39. 39. Tradition<br />Kasha<br />Vodka<br />
    40. 40. Tradition<br />Dacha<br />Banya<br />
    41. 41. Tradition<br />Banya<br />
    42. 42. Transcaucasia<br />pptPlex Section Divider<br />The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.<br />
    43. 43. Transcaucasia<br />“Jabal al Alsun”<br />Mountain of Language<br />
    44. 44. Nagorno-Karabakh<br />
    45. 45. Chechnya<br />
    46. 46. Georgia<br />
    47. 47. Economic Potential of Transcaucasia<br />Grapes<br />Tea<br />Fruits<br />Oil<br />“The Land of Flames Azerbaijan<br />The Caspian Divide<br />
    48. 48. Culture<br />Educated<br />Hospitable<br />supra<br />
    49. 49. Central Asia<br />The Silk Road<br />Samarkand<br />
    50. 50. Central Asia<br />pptPlex Section Divider<br />The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.<br />
    51. 51. The Great Game<br />
    52. 52. Economics in the Region<br />Nuclear testing<br />Semey<br />Petro and prosperity<br />
    53. 53. Cultures divided<br />
    54. 54. Regional Conflict<br />The Caucuses<br />Chechnya<br />Georgia<br />Armenia Azerbaijan<br />Nagorno-Karabakh<br />
    55. 55. Tradition<br />Nomads<br />Lake Son-Kol<br />Yurts<br />
    56. 56. Economic Reform<br />Privatization<br />Distance decay<br />Putin<br />The Federal Districts of Russia<br />Organized crime<br />

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