In 1988 Canada and the United States signed the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement after the US Congress approved implementing legislation. The American government then entered into negotiations with the Mexican government for a similar treaty, and Canada asked to join the negotiations in order to preserve its perceived gains under the 1988 deal. The international climate at the time favoured expanding trade blocs, and the Maastricht Treaty which created the European Union was signed in 1992.
A maquiladora or maquila is a factory that imports materials and equipment on a duty-free and tariff-free basis for assembly or manufacturing and then re-exports the assembled product, usually back to the originating country. A maquila is also referred to as a &quot;twin plant&quot;, or &quot;in-bond&quot; industry. Currently about 1.3 million Mexicans are employed in maquiladoras. The term &quot;maquiladora&quot;, in the Spanish language, refers to the practice of millers charging a &quot;maquila&quot;, or &quot;miller&apos;s portion&quot; for processing other people&apos;s grain.
85 % children attend schools
Forced labor Disease Then Africans came
1889 Cuban Ind 1902 self governing 1962 Jamaica
Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez (Spanish pronunciation: [ɡaˈβɾjel ɣarˈsia ˈmarkes]) (born March 6, 1927) is a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter andjournalist. García Márquez, affectionately known as &quot;Gabo&quot; throughout Latin America, is considered one of the most significant authors of the 20th century. In 1982, he was awarded theNobel Prize in Literature. He pursued a self-directed education that resulted in his leaving law school for a career in journalism. From early on, he showed no inhibitions in his criticism of Colombian and foreign politics. In 1958, he married Mercedes Barcha; they have two sons, Rodrigo and Gonzalo. He started as a journalist, and has written many acclaimed non-fiction works and short stories, but is best-known for his novels, such as One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967) and Love in the Time of Cholera (1985). His works have achieved significant critical acclaim and widespread commercial success, most notably for popularizing a literary style labeled as magical realism, which uses magical elements and events in otherwise ordinary and realistic situations. Some of his works are set in a fictional village called Macondo, and most of them express the theme of solitude.
A favela (Brazilian Portuguese for slum) is the generally used term for a shanty town in Brazil. In the late 19th century, the first settlements were calledbairros africanos (African neighborhoods), and they were the place where former slaves with no land ownership and no options for work lived. Over the years, many freed black slaves moved in. However, before the first settlement called &quot;favela&quot; came into being, poor blacks were pushed away from downtown into the far suburbs. Most modern favelas appeared in the 1970s, due to rural exodus, when many people left rural areas of Brazil and moved to cities. Without finding a place to live, many people ended up in a favela.
The Amazon rainforest (Brazilian Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Spanish: Selva Amazónica or Amazonia), also known as Amazonia, or the Amazon jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest that covers most of the Amazon Basin of South America. This basin encompasses seven million square kilometers (1.7 billion acres), of which five and a half million square kilometers (1.4 billion acres) are covered by the rainforest. This region includes territory belonging to nine nations. The majority of the forest is contained within Brazil, with 60% of the rainforest, followed by Peru with 13%, and with minor amounts in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. States or departments in four nations bear the name Amazonas after it. The Amazon represents over half of the planet&apos;s remaining rainforests, and it comprises the largest and most species-rich tract oftropical rainforest in the world. The Amazon rainforest was short-listed in 2008 as a candidate to one of the New7Wonders of Nature by the New Seven Wonders of the World Foundation. As of February 2009 the Amazon was ranking first in Group E, the category for forests, national parks and nature reserves.
Environmentalists are concerned about the loss of biodiversity which will result from destruction of the forest, and also about the release of the carbon contained within the vegetation, which could accelerate global warming. Amazonian evergreen forests account for about 10% of the world&apos;s terrestrial primary productivity and 10% of the carbon stores in ecosystems—of the order of 1.1 × 1011 metric tonnes of carbon. Amazonian forests are estimated to have accumulated 0.62 ± 0.37 tons of carbon per hectare per year between 1975 and 1996. One computer model of future climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions shows that the Amazon rainforest could become unsustainable under conditions of severely reduced rainfall and increased temperatures, leading to an almost complete loss of rainforest cover in the basin by 2100. However, simulations of Amazon basin climate change across many different models are not consistent in their estimation of any rainfall response, ranging from weak increases to strong decreases. The result indicates that the rainforest could be threatened though the 21st century by climate change in addition to deforestation. In 1989, environmentalist C.M. Peters and two colleagues stated there is economic as well as biological incentive to protecting the rainforest. One hectare in the Peruvian Amazon has been calculated to have a value of $6820 if intact forest is sustainably harvested for fruits, latex, and timber; $1000 if clear-cut for commercial timber (not sustainably harvested); or $148 if used as cattle pasture. As indigenous territories continue to be destroyed by deforestation and ecocide, such as in the Peruvian Amazon indigenous peoples&apos; rainforest communities continue to disappear, while others, like the Urarina continue to struggle to fight for their cultural survival and the fate of their forested territories. Meanwhile, the relationship between nonhuman primates in the subsistence and symbolism of indigenous lowland South American peoples has gained increased attention, as has ethno-biology and community-based conservation efforts. From 2002 to 2006, the conserved land in the Amazon Rainforest has almost tripled and deforestation rates have dropped up to 60%. About 1,000,000 square kilometres (250,000,000 acres) have been put onto some sort of conservation, which adds up to a current amount of 1,730,000 square kilometres (430,000,000 acres).
Debt-for-nature swaps are financial transactions in which a portion of a developing nation&apos;s foreign debt is forgiven in exchange for local investments in conservation measures. The concept of debt-for-nature swaps was first conceived by Thomas Lovejoy of the World Wildlife Fund in 1984 as an opportunity to deal with the problems of developing-nation indebtedness and its consequent deleterious effect on the environment. In the wake of the Latin American debt crisis that resulted in steep reductions to the environmental conservation ability of highly-indebted nations, Lovejoy suggested that ameliorating debt and promoting conservation could be done at the same time. A commercial debt-for-nature swap involves a non-governmental organization that purchases debt titles from commercial banks on the secondary market. The NGO transfers the debt title to the debtor country, and in exchange the country agrees to either enact certain environmental policies or endow a government bond in the name of a conservation organization, with the aim of funding conservation programs. Bilateral debt-for-nature swaps take place between two governments when one country forgives a portion of the public bilateral debt of a debtor nation in exchange for environmental commitments from that country. Examples of bilateral swaps would include the swaps executed by the USA under the Enterprise for the Americas Initiative and the Tropical Forest Conservation Act. Under the Enterprise for the Americas Initiative, the US Government forgave a portion of PL 480 debt and USAID debt and allowed the payments on the balance to go into national funds that financed environmental conservation. The Environmental Foundation of Jamaica was the first fund established under the EAI.
favelas Problem Moral- catholic church argued it is an issue of social justice Economic issue- poor have little education, rich have little in govt rules Political issue- disparity of rich and poor will only result in rebellion Solution Democracy Education Fill the gaps
Caudillos sometimes directed elected by the people Government of the few Censored Govt Limited freedoms
24 July 1857 - 17 December 1935 nearly full-blooded Native American barely literate cattle herder During his rule, most of the country&apos;s wealth ended up in the hands of Gómez, his henchmen, and Wall Street
Juan Domingo Perón (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈxwan ðoˈmiŋgo peɾˈon] October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine general and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina, after serving in several government positions, including the Secretary of Labor and the Vice Presidency. He was overthrown in a military coup in 1955. He returned to power in 1973 and served for nine months, until his death in 1974 when he was succeeded by his third wife, Isabel Martínez. Perón and his second wife, Eva, were immensely popular amongst many of the Argentine people, and to this day they are still considered icons by the Peronist Party. The Peróns&apos; followers praised their efforts to eliminate poverty and to dignify labor, while their detractors considered themdemagogues and dictators. The Peróns gave their name to the political movement known as peronismo, which in present-day Argentina is represented mainly by the Justicialist Party.
National Reorganization Process ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1983 known simply as la última junta militar (the last military junta) or la última dictadura (the last dictatorship), because several of them existed throughout its history. seized political power during the March 1976 coup, amid violent factional conflicts between supporters of recently deceased President Juan Domingo Perón. The junta continued the Dirty War. After losing the Falklands War to the United Kingdom in 1982, mounting public opposition to the junta led to its voluntarily relinquishing power in 1983.
The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo (Spanish: Asociación Madres de Plaza de Mayo) is an association of Argentine mothers whose children &quot;disappeared&quot; during the Dirty War, the military dictatorship between 1976 and 1983. human rights activists in order to achieve a common goal. For over three decades, the Mothers have fought for the right to re-unite with their abducted children. wear white head scarves with their children&apos;s names embroidered, to symbolize the blankets of the lost children. The name of the organization comes from the Plaza de Mayo in central Buenos Aires, where the bereaved mothers and grandmothers first gathered. They gather every Thursday afternoon for a half hour walk around the plaza. The Mothers&apos; association was formed by women who had met each other in the course of trying to find their missing sons and daughters, who were abducted by agents of the Argentine government during the years known as the Dirty War (1976–1983), many of whom were then tortured and killed. The 14 founders of the association, Azucena Villaflor de De Vincenti, Berta Braverman, Haydée García Buelas, María Adela Gard de Antokoletz, Julia Gard, María Mercedes Gard and Cándida Gard (4 sisters), Delicia González, Pepa Noia, Mirta Baravalle, Kety Neuhaus, Raquel Arcushin, Sra. De Caimi, started the demonstrations on the Plaza de Mayo, in front of the Casa Rosada presidential palace, on 30 April 1977. Villaflor had been searching for one of her sons and her daughter-in-law for six months. She was taken to the ESMA concentration camp on 10 December 1978. The military has admitted that over 9,000 of those kidnapped are still unaccounted for, but the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo say that the number is closer to 30,000, 500 of those given to military related families and the remaining number dead. The numbers are hard to determine due to the secrecy surrounding the abductions. Three of the founders of the mothers of the Plaza de Mayo have also &quot;disappeared&quot;. After the fall of the military regime, a civilian government commission put the number of disappeared at close to 11,000. In January 2005, the body of French nun Leonie Duquet, a supporter of the organization, was exhumed, without an established identity. Duquet&apos;s disappearance had caused international outrage towards the Argentine military government. DNA tests concluded, on August 30 of that year, that the body exhumed in January was that of Duquet. Azucena Villaflor&apos;s remains, together with those of two other pioneer Mothers, Esther Careaga and María Eugenia Bianco, were also identified by a forensics team in mid-2005. Villaflor&apos;s ashes were buried at the foot of the May Pyramid in the Plaza on 8 December 2005. The Mothers&apos; association seek to keep the memory and spirit of their disappeared children alive, through the creation of an independent university, bookstore, library and cultural center. Through these projects, subsidised and free education, health and other facilities are offered to the public and students, promoting the revolutionary ideals of many of their children. This has made their headquarters an important focal point for progressive leaders visiting Buenos Aires, including Hugo Chavez, Tabare Vazquez, and Brazil&apos;s Lula.
Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín (March 12, 1927 – March 31, 2009) Argentine lawyer, politician and statesman President of Argentina from December 10, 1983, to July 8, 1989. was the first democratically-elected president of Argentina following the military government known as the National Reorganization Process. awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation in 1985, among numerous other such recognitions.
Goivernor of province of la rioja Campaigning as a maverick within his own party defeated longtime Peronist leader Antonio Cafiero elected President on May 14, 1989, succeeding Raúl Alfonsín. His campaign was centered on vague promises of a &quot;productive revolution&quot; and a &quot;salariazo&quot; (jargon for big salary increases), aimed at the working class, the traditional constituents of the Peronist Party. Jacques de Mahieu, a French ideologue of the Peronist movement (and former Vichy Collaborationist), was photographed campaigning for Menem. Under Menem significant economic revovery
The mothers with President Néstor Kirchner.
Néstor Kirchner forfeited the 2007 campaign in favor of his wife Senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner. Winning by a landslide that October, she became the first woman elected President of Argentina and in a disputed result, Fabiana Ríos, a center-left (ARI) candidate in Tierra del Fuego Province became the first woman in Argentine history to be elected governor.
Marta Teresa Smith de Vasconcelos Suplicy March 18, 1945) Brazilian politician and psychologist. She was Mayor of São Paulo, 2001–2004, as a member of the Brazilian Workers&apos; Party (PT). She served as the Brazilian Minister of Tourism between March 14, 2007 and June 4, 2008, when she resigned to run for mayor of São Paulo.