The Allies Win
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  • Last edited: Sunday, 9 May 2010, 12:51 PM (47 words) Article 9 in the Japanese constitution stated... a) They couldn't manufacture weapons b) They were allowed to create labor unions c) They were not allowed to make war unless attacked d) All citizens are allowed to vote if they 20, including women the answer is 'C' Moodle Docs for this page
  • What happened to the Nazi leaders who were executed in the Nuremberg Trials? a. the bodies of the leaders executed for their crimes were burned at Dachau concentration camp in the same ovens as as their victims. b. the bodies of the leaders executed for their crimes were  burned at Auschwitz--a fitting end, as Auschwitz was the worst of the camps. c. Rudolf Hess was sentenced to life in prison, Hans Frank, the 'Slayer of the Poles' committed suicide, and Hermann Goring expressed remorse for his crimes. d. the bodies of the leaders executed for their crimes were burned at Dachau concentration camp, among them SS Chief Heinrich Himmler and Chief of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels. The answer is A.
  • What happened to the Nazi leaders who were executed in the Nuremberg Trials? a. the bodies of the leaders executed for their crimes were burned at Dachau concentration camp in the same ovens as as their victims. b. the bodies of the leaders executed for their crimes were  burned at Auschwitz--a fitting end, as Auschwitz was the worst of the camps. c. Rudolf Hess was sentenced to life in prison, Hans Frank, the 'Slayer of the Poles' committed suicide, and Hermann Goring expressed remorse for his crimes. d. the bodies of the leaders executed for their crimes were burned at Dachau concentration camp, among them SS Chief Heinrich Himmler and Chief of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels. The answer is A.
  • What happened to the Nazi leaders who were executed in the Nuremberg Trials? a. the bodies of the leaders executed for their crimes were burned at Dachau concentration camp in the same ovens as as their victims. b. the bodies of the leaders executed for their crimes were  burned at Auschwitz--a fitting end, as Auschwitz was the worst of the camps. c. Rudolf Hess was sentenced to life in prison, Hans Frank, the 'Slayer of the Poles' committed suicide, and Hermann Goring expressed remorse for his crimes. d. the bodies of the leaders executed for their crimes were burned at Dachau concentration camp, among them SS Chief Heinrich Himmler and Chief of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels. The answer is A.
  • Last edited: Monday, 10 May 2010, 12:53 AM (22 words) After the Axis defeat, which political party's membership saw a huge jump after they promised change? Nazi Nationalist Socialist Communist - answer Moodle Docs for this page
  • Last edited: Sunday, 9 May 2010, 09:56 PM (18 words) Which country was most damaged by the Second World War? Paris Brussels Warsaw Rome The answer is Warsaw Moodle Docs for this page
  • Last edited: Sunday, 9 May 2010, 09:03 PM (21 words) How many nations other than the United States signed a formal peace treaty with Japan in September 1951? 25 56 47 34 38 Correct Answer: 47 Moodle Docs for this page
  • Last edited: Sunday, 9 May 2010, 12:51 PM (47 words) Article 9 in the Japanese constitution stated... a) They couldn't manufacture weapons b) They were allowed to create labor unions c) They were not allowed to make war unless attacked d) All citizens are allowed to vote if they 20, including women the answer is 'C' Moodle Docs for this page
  • Last edited: Sunday, 9 May 2010, 10:25 PM (39 words) What was demilitarization? a. the process of creating a government elected by the people b. the process of disbanding the German armed forces c. the process of increasing agriculture d. the process of disbanding the Japanese armed forces **d** Moodle Docs for this page
  • Last edited: Sunday, 9 May 2010, 12:33 PM (39 words) When was the war officially ended? When the US dropped the bomb on Japan. When Germany finally surrendered. When France was reconquered. When 48 nations met to sign the peace treaty on September 1951. The correct answer is 4. Moodle Docs for this page
  • Last edited: Sunday, 9 May 2010, 05:51 PM (23 words) Which country's government was the Japan's new system modeled after? France The United States Great Britain(Correct Answer) The Soviet Union Moodle Docs for this page
  • Last edited: Sunday, 9 May 2010, 11:44 AM (35 words) Why did the Nuremberg Trials take place? There were too many people doubting the German government They were trying Nazi war criminials The Japanese asked for peace The Germans wanted to put Japanese in jail Moodle Docs for this page
  • Last edited: Saturday, 8 May 2010, 07:34 PM (40 words) What was the Diet? A: the new 2-house parliament constituted in Japan B: the new way gov.t regulated food C: the large famine that took place in countries after the war D: the process of demilitarization and demoralization in Japan Answer: A Moodle Docs for this page
  • Last edited: Saturday, 8 May 2010, 04:50 PM (21 words) what was the name of the "Slayer of the Poles"? Hans Frank is correct Rudolf Hess Heinrich Himmler Warner Von Braun Moodle Docs for this page
  • Last edited: Friday, 7 May 2010, 09:49 PM (24 words) During the Nuremberg Trials, the Nazi leaders were accused of war crimes and the murder of how many people? 10 million 6 million 13 million 11 million Moodle Docs for this page
  • Last edited: Friday, 7 May 2010, 01:11 PM (120 words)   What happened to the Nazi leaders who were executed in the Nuremberg Trials? a. the bodies of the leaders executed for their crimes were burned at Dachau concentration camp in the same ovens as as their victims. b. the bodies of the leaders executed for their crimes were  burned at Auschwitz--a fitting end, as Auschwitz was the worst of the camps. c. Rudolf Hess was sentenced to life in prison, Hans Frank, the 'Slayer of the Poles' committed suicide, and Hermann Goring expressed remorse for his crimes. d. the bodies of the leaders executed for their crimes were burned at Dachau concentration camp, among them SS Chief Heinrich Himmler and Chief of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels. The answer is A. Moodle Docs for this page
  • Churchill plans a new front with invasion of French Africa relieve pressure on the Russians French resistance overwhelms Vichy authority hold beaches for Allied landing The  First Battle of El Alamein  (1-27 July 1942) was a battle of the  Western Desert Campaign  of the  Second World War , fought between  Axis forces  (Germany and Italy) commanded by  Erwin Rommel , and  Allied forces  (Britain, British India, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) commanded by  Claude Auchinleck . The battle halted the second (and final) advance by the Axis forces into Egypt, El Alamein being only 66 mi (106 km) from  Alexandria . The  First Battle of El Alamein  (1-27 July 1942) was a battle of the  Western Desert Campaign  of the  Second World War , fought between  Axis forces  (Germany and Italy) commanded by  Erwin Rommel , and  Allied forces  (Britain, British India, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) commanded by  Claude Auchinleck . The battle halted the second (and final) advance by the Axis forces into Egypt, El Alamein being only 66 mi (106 km) from  Alexandria .
  • The battle was a stalemate, but it had halted the Axis advance on  Alexandria  (and then  Cairo  and ultimately the  Suez Canal ). Eighth Army had suffered over 13,000 casualties in July (including 4,000 in the New Zealand Division, 3,000 in the 5th Indian Infantry Division and 2,552 battle casualties in the 9th Australian Division [60] ) but had taken 7,000 prisoners and inflicted heavy damage on Axis men and machines. [1] In early August,  Winston Churchill  and General  Alan Brooke , the British  Chief of the Imperial General Staff  visited Cairo on their way to meet  Joseph Stalin  in Moscow. They decided to replace Auchinleck, appointing XIII Corps commander Lieutenant-General  William Gott  to the Eighth Army command and General Sir  Harold Alexander  as C-in-C  Middle East Command . Persia and Iraq were to be split from Middle East Command as a separate Persia and Iraq Command and Auchinleck offered the post of C-in-C (which he refused). [101]  However, Gott died on the way to take up his command when a  Messerschmitt  intercepted his air transport and its fire shot Gott through the heart. [102]  Lieutenant-General  Bernard Montgomery  was appointed in his place. [1] [nb 5] A second attempt by Rommel to bypass or break the Commonwealth position was repulsed in the  Battle of Alam Halfa  in August, and in October the Eighth Army decisively defeated the Axis forces in the  Second Battle of El Alamein .
  • The  Second Battle of  El Alamein  marked a major turning point in the  Western Desert Campaign  of the  Second World War . The battle lasted from 23 October to 5 November 1942. The  First Battle of El Alamein  had stalled the  Axis  advance. Thereafter, Lieutenant-General   Bernard Montgomery  took command of the British  Eighth Army  from General  Claude Auchinleck  in August 1942. The Allied victory turned the tide in the  North African Campaign . It ended Axis hopes of occupying Egypt, taking control of the Suez Canal , and gaining access to the Middle Eastern oil fields.
  • Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein , KG , GCB , DSO , PC (pronounced /məntˈɡʌmərɪ əv ˈæləmeɪn/ ; 17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), often referred to as "Monty", was a British Army officer. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein , a major turning point in the Western Desert Campaign during World War II , and troops under his command played a major role in the expulsion of Axis forces from North Africa. He was later a prominent commander in Italy and North-West Europe, where he was in command of all Allied ground forces during Operation Overlord until after the Battle of Normandy , and was the principal commander for Operation Market Garden .
  • Eisenhower launches Operation Torch landed in Morocco and Algeria Rommell’s troops crushed in 1943 Operation Torch  (initially called  Operation Gymnast ) was the  British - American  invasion of  French North Africa  in  World War II during the  North African Campaign , started on November 8, 1942. The  Soviet Union  had pressed the U.S. and Britain to start operations in  Europe  and open a second  front  to reduce the pressure of  German  forces on the  Soviet troops . While the American commanders favored  Operation Sledgehammer , landing in Occupied Europe as soon as possible, the British commanders believed that such a course would end in disaster. An attack on French North Africa was proposed instead, which would clear the  Axis Powers  from North Africa, improve naval control of the Mediterranean Sea  and prepare for an invasion of Southern Europe in 1943.  American President   Franklin D. Roosevelt  suspected the African operation would rule out an invasion of Europe in 1943 but agreed to support British Prime Minister  Winston Churchill .
  • 1942 The turning point in the war Germans stall Hitler wants Russian oil Stalingrad a Russian industrial center Germans would hold most of the city, but the people were told to hold their ground Feb 1943 Germans face a counterattack and must surrender The  Battle of Stalingrad  was a major battle of  World War II  in which  Nazi Germany  and its allies fought the  Soviet Union  for control of the city of  Stalingrad  (now  Volgograd ) in southwestern Russia. The battle took place between 23 August 1942 and 2 February 1943 [9]  and was among the largest on the Eastern Front, and was marked by its brutality and disregard for military and civilian casualties . It was amongst the  bloodiest battles in the history of warfare  with the higher estimates of combined casualties amounting to nearly two million deaths. In the defeat, the crippling losses suffered by Germany's military proved to be insurmountable for the war. The battle was a turning point in the war, [10] [11]  making a German victory in the East impossible. [12] The German offensive to capture Stalingrad commenced in late summer 1942, supported by intensive  Luftwaffe  bombing which reduced much of the city to rubble. The German offensive eventually bogged down in house-to-house fighting and despite controlling over 90% of the city at times, the  Wehrmacht  was unable to dislodge the last Soviet defenders clinging tenaciously to the west bank of the  Volga River . In November 1942, the  Red Army  launched  Operation Uranus ; a two-pronged attack specifically targeted at the inferior Romanian and Italian forces protecting the German 6th Army flanks. The success of these attacks caused the weakly held flanks to collapse and the 6th Army to be  cut off and surrounded  inside Stalingrad. As the Russian winter set in, the 6th Army weakened rapidly from cold, starvation and ongoing Soviet attacks. Command ambiguity coupled with Adolf Hitler's resolute belief in the "power of the will" and the value of "standing fast" further compounded the German predicament. Eventually, the failure to break the encirclement by relieving German forces, coupled with the failure of re-supply by air, caused the final collapse. By early February 1943, German resistance in Stalingrad had ceased and the remaining elements of the surrounded 6th Army had either surrendered or had been destroyed. [13]
  • Allies invade Sicily King Victorio Emmanuel fires Mussolini as leader Germans seize Northern Italy, Mussolini escapes Mussolini would be captured as he retreated in the Italian Alps Mussolini and his  mistress   Clara Petacci  were stopped by communist partisans Valerio and Bellini and identified by the  Political Commissar  of the partisans' 52nd  Garibaldi  Brigade,  Urbano Lazzaro , on 27 April 1945, near the village of  Dongo  ( Lake Como ), as they headed for Switzerland to board a plane to escape to Spain. During this time Claretta's brother even posed as a Spanish consul. [120] [ page needed ] Mussolini had been traveling with retreating German forces and was apprehended while attempting to escape recognition by wearing a German military uniform. [ citation needed ]  After several unsuccessful attempts to take them to  Como  they were brought to  Mezzegra . They spent their last night in the house of the De Maria family. The next day, Mussolini and Petacci were both summarily executed, along with most of the members of their 15-man train, primarily ministers and officials of the Italian Social Republic. The shootings took place in the small village of  Giulino di Mezzegra . According to the official version of events, the shootings were conducted by  Colonnello Valerio , whose real name was  Walter Audisio . Audisio was the communist partisan commander who was reportedly given the order to kill Mussolini by the National Liberation Committee. When Audisio entered the room where Mussolini and the other fascists were being held, he reportedly announced, "I have come to rescue you!... Do you have any weapons?" He then had them loaded into transports and driven a short distance. Audisio ordered, "Get down"; Petacci hugged Mussolini and refused to move away from him when they were taken to an empty space. Shots were fired and Petacci fell down. Just then Mussolini opened his jacket and screamed, "Shoot me in the chest!" Audisio shot him in the chest. Mussolini fell but did not die and was breathing heavily. Audisio went near and he shot one more bullet in his chest. Mussolini's face looked as if he had significant pain. Audisio said to his driver, "Look at his face, the emotions on his face don't suit him." The other members of Mussolini's entourage were also executed before a firing squad later that same day towards nightfall. [121]
  • 6/6/44 Allies capture Paris in august A month later 1 million troops added Operation Overlord The  Normandy landings  were the  landing operations  of the  Allied   invasion of Normandy , also known as  Operation Overlord  and Operation Neptune , during  World War II . The landings commenced on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 ( D-Day ), beginning at 6:30 AM British Double Summer Time  (GMT+2). In planning,  D-Day  was the term used for the day of actual landing, which was dependent on final approval. The assault was conducted in two phases: an  airborne assault  landing of 24,000  British ,  American ,  Canadian  and  Free French airborne troops  shortly after midnight, and an  amphibious landing  of Allied infantry and armoured  divisions  on the coast of France commencing at 6:30 AM. There were also decoy operations mounted under the codenames  Operation Glimmer  and  Operation Taxable  to distract the German forces from the real landing areas. [4] The operation was the largest amphibious invasion in world history, with over 160,000 [5]  troops landing on 6 June 1944. 195,700 [6] Allied naval and  merchant navy  personnel in over 5,000 [5]  ships were involved. The invasion required the transport of soldiers and material from the United Kingdom by troop-laden aircraft and ships, the assault landings,  air support , naval interdiction of the English Channel  and naval  fire-support . The landings took place along a 50-mile (80 km) stretch of the  Normandy  coast divided into five sectors:  Utah ,  Omaha ,  Gold ,  Juno  and  Sword .
  • Germans try last attempt Capture Antwerp Defeated Soviets on pre-war German borders The  Battle of the Bulge  (also known as the  Ardennes Offensive  and the  Von Rundstedt Offensive ) (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was a major German offensive ( die Ardennenoffensive ), launched toward the end of World War II through the densely forested  Ardennes Mountains region  of  Wallonia  in Belgium, hence its  French  name ( Bataille des Ardennes ), and France and Luxembourg on the  Western Front . The  Wehrmacht 's code name for the offensive was  Unternehmen  Wacht am Rhein  ("Operation  Watch on the Rhine "), after the German patriotic hymn  Die Wacht am Rhein . This German offensive was officially named the  Ardennes-Alsace campaign [3]  by the  U.S. Army , [16]  but it is known to the English-speaking general public simply as the Battle of the Bulge, the " bulge " being the initial incursion the Germans put into the Allies' line of advance, as seen in maps presented in contemporary newspapers. The German offensive was supported by several subordinate operations known as  Unternehmen Bodenplatte ,  Greif ,  and Währung . Germany's goal for these operations was to split the British and American  Allied  line in half, capturing  Antwerp , Belgium, and then proceed to  encircle and destroy  four Allied armies, forcing the  Western Allies  to negotiate a  peace treaty  in the  Axis Powers ' favor. [17]  Once accomplished, Hitler could fully concentrate on the  eastern theatre of war . The offensive was planned with the utmost secrecy, minimizing radio traffic and moving troops and equipment under cover of darkness. Although  ULTRA  suggested a possible attack and the  Third U.S. Army 's intelligence staff predicted a major German offensive, the Allies were still caught by surprise. This was achieved by a combination of Allied overconfidence, preoccupation with their own offensive plans, and poor  aerial reconnaissance . Near-complete surprise against a weakly defended section of the Allied line was achieved during heavy overcast weather, which grounded the Allies' overwhelmingly superior air forces. Fierce resistance, particularly around the key town of  Bastogne , and terrain favoring the defenders threw the German timetable behind schedule. Allied reinforcements, including General  George Patton 's Third Army, and improving weather conditions, which permitted air attacks on German forces and supply lines, sealed the failure of the offensive. In the wake of the defeat, many experienced German units were left severely depleted of men and equipment as survivors retreated to the defenses of the  Siegfried Line . For the Americans, with about 500,000 to 840,000 men [1]  committed and some 70,000 to 89,000 casualties, including 19,000 killed, [7] [10]  the Battle of the Bulge was the largest and bloodiest battle that they fought in World War II. [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23]
  • Germans try last attempt Capture Antwerp Defeated Soviets on pre-war German borders
  • The  Bombing of  Dresden  was a military bombing by the British  Royal Air Force  (RAF) and the  United States Army Air Force  (USAAF) as part of the  allied forces  between 13 February and 15 February 1945 in the  Second World War . In four raids, altogether 3,600 planes, of which 1,300 were  heavy bombers , dropped as many as 650,000 incendiaries, together with 8,000 lb. high-explosive bombs and hundreds of 4,000-pounders. [1]  In all more than 3,900 tons of  high-explosive   bombs  and  incendiary devices  were dropped on the city, the  Baroque capital of the  German  state of  Saxony . The resulting  firestorm  destroyed 15 square miles (39 square kilometres) of the city centre. [2] A 1953  United States Air Force  report written by Joseph W. Angell defended the operation as the justified bombing of a military and industrial target, which was a major rail transportation and communication centre, housing 110 factories and 50,000 workers in support of the  Nazi  war effort. [3]  However, several researchers have discovered that not all of the communications infrastructure, such as the bridges, were in fact targeted, nor were the extensive industrial areas outside the city centre. [4]  It is argued that Dresden was a cultural landmark of little or no military significance, a " Florence  on the  Elbe " ( Elbflorenz ), as it was known, and the attacks were indiscriminate  area bombing  and not  proportionate  to the commensurate  military gains . [5] [6] In the first few decades after the war, some death toll estimates were as high as 250,000, which are now considered unreasonable. [7] [8] [9] An independent investigation commissioned by the city council in 2010 reported a minimum of 22,700 victims with a maximum total number of fatalities of 25,000. [10] Dresden was not the only city destroyed by the allies. The  bombing of the larger city of Hamburg  in 1943 created one of the greatest firestorms raised by the RAF and United States Army Air Force, [11]  killing roughly 50,000 civilians in Hamburg and practically destroying the entire city. The Allies also  bombed the smaller city of Pforzheim  in 1945, killing roughly 18,000 civilians, [12] , suggesting that the bombing raids over Dresden were actually not the most severe of World War II. However, they continue to be recognized as one of the many examples of civilian suffering caused by allied  strategic bombing , and have become exposed among the moral  causes célèbres  of the Second World War. [13]  Post-war discussion, popular legends,  historical revisionism  and  Cold War  propaganda of the bombing includes debate by commentators, officials and historians as to whether or not the bombing was justified, and whether its outcome constituted a  war crime .
  • On March 28 , in a memo sent by telegram to General Ismay for the British Chiefs of Staff and the Chief of the Air Staff he wrote: "It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed. Otherwise we shall come into control of an utterly ruined land … The destruction of Dresden remains a serious query against the conduct of Allied bombing. I am of the opinion that military objectives must henceforward be more strictly studied in our own interests than that of the enemy. The Foreign Secretary has spoken to me on this subject, and I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives such as oil and communications behind the immediate battle-zone, rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction, however impressive." [
  • April 12, 1945
  • April 12, 1945
  • 4 30 45
  • Lowering_the_flag_on_Zuikaku.jpg The  Battle of Leyte Gulf , also called the "Battles for Leyte Gulf", and formerly known as the "Second Battle of the Philippine Sea", is generally considered to be the largest naval battle of  World War II  and, by some criteria, possibly the  largest naval battle in history . [2] It was fought in waters near the  Philippine  islands of  Leyte ,  Samar  from 23-26 October 1944, between combined American and Australian forces and the  Imperial Japanese Navy . On 20 October, United States troops  invaded the island of Leyte  as part of a strategy aimed at isolating Japan from the countries it had occupied in  South East Asia , and in particular depriving its forces and industry of vital  oil  supplies. The  Imperial Japanese Navy  ( IJN ) mobilized nearly all of its remaining major naval vessels in an attempt to defeat the Allied invasion, but was repulsed by the  U.S. Navy 's  3rd  and  7th Fleets . The IJN failed to achieve its objective, suffered very heavy losses, and never afterwards sailed to battle in comparable force. The majority of its surviving heavy ships, deprived of fuel, remained in their bases for the rest of the Pacific War. [3] [4] The Battle of Leyte Gulf included four major naval battles: the  Battle of the Sibuyan Sea , the  Battle of Surigao Strait , the  Battle off Cape Engaño  and the  Battle off Samar , as well as other actions. The Battle of Leyte Gulf is also notable as the first battle in which Japanese aircraft carried out organized  kamikaze attacks. [3] [4]  Also worth noting is the fact that Japan at this battle had fewer aircraft than the Allied Forces had sea vessels, a clear demonstration of the difference in power of the two sides at this point of the war. [5]
  • In July 1944, President Roosevelt summoned MacArthur to meet with him in Hawaii "to determine the phase of action against Japan." Nimitz and MacArthur agreed that the next step should be to advance on the southern and central Philippines. MacArthur emphasized the moral and political issues involved in a decision to liberate or bypass Luzon. He also spoke briefly of his plan to use the Australian Army to liberate Indonesia. Although the issue was not settled, both Roosevelt and Leahy were convinced of the soundness of MacArthur's plan. [175]  In September, Halsey's carriers made a series of air strikes on the Philippines. Opposition was feeble and Halsey concluded that Leyte was "wide open" and possibly undefended, and recommended that projected operations be skipped in favor of an assault on Leyte. [176] On October 20, 1944, troops of Krueger's Sixth Army  landed on Leyte , while MacArthur watched from  USS  Nashville . That afternoon he arrived off the beach. The advance had not progressed far; snipers were still active and the area was under sporadic mortar fire. When his whaleboat grounded in knee-deep water, MacArthur requested a landing craft, but the beachmaster was too busy to grant his request. MacArthur was compelled to wade ashore. [177]  In his prepared speech he said: People of the Philippines: I have returned. By the grace of Almighty God our forces stand again on Philippine soil — soil consecrated in the blood of our two peoples. We have come dedicated and committed to the task of destroying every vestige of enemy control over your daily lives, and of restoring upon a foundation of indestructible strength, the liberties of your people. [178] Since Leyte was out of range of Kenney's land-based aircraft, MacArthur was entirely dependent on carrier aircraft for cover. [179]  Japanese air activity soon increased, with raids on  Tacloban , where MacArthur decided to establish his headquarters, and on the fleet offshore. MacArthur enjoyed staying on  Nashville 's bridge during air raids, although several bombs landed close by, and two nearby cruisers were hit. [180]  Over the next few days, the  Imperial Japanese Navy  staged a major counterattack in the  Battle of Leyte Gulf . MacArthur attributed the near-disaster to command being divided between himself and Nimitz. [181]  Nor did the campaign ashore proceed smoothly. The timing of the assault so late in the year forced the combat troops, pilots, and the supporting logistical units to contend with heavy monsoonal rains that disrupted the airbase construction program. Adverse weather and valiant Japanese resistance slowed the American advance ashore. MacArthur was forced to ask Nimitz to recall the carriers to support the Sixth Army but they proved to be no substitute for land-based aircraft, and the lack of air cover permitted the Japanese Army to pour troops into Leyte. [182] [183]  By the end of December, Krueger's headquarters estimated that 5,000 Japanese remained on Leyte, and on December 26 MacArthur issued a communiqué announcing that "the campaign can now be regarded as closed except for minor mopping up." Yet Eichelberger's Eighth Army  would kill more than 27,000 Japanese on Leyte between then and the end of the campaign in May 1945. [184]  On December 18, 1944, MacArthur was promoted to the new  five star rank  of General of the Army — one day before Nimitz was promoted to  Fleet Admiral , also a five star rank. [185]  MacArthur had a Filipino silversmith make the rank badges from American, Australian, Dutch and Filipino coins. [186]
  • US in air and naval striking distance of Japan’s main island The invasion of Iwo Jima began on February 19, 1945, and continued to March 26, 1945. The battle was a major initiative of the  Pacific Campaign  of World War II. The Marine invasion, known as  Operation Detachment , was charged with the mission of capturing the  airfields  on the island which up until that time had harried U.S. bombing missions to Tokyo. Once the bases were secured, they could then be of use in the impending invasion of the Japanese mainland. US postage stamp, 1945 issue, commemorating Battle of Iwo Jima. The battle was marked by some of the fiercest fighting of the War. The  Imperial Japanese Army  positions on the island were heavily  fortified , with vast bunkers , hidden  artillery , and 18 kilometres (11 mi) of tunnels. [8] [9]  The battle was the first U.S. attack on the Japanese  Home Islands  and the Imperial soldiers defended their positions tenaciously. Of the 21,000 Japanese soldiers present at the beginning of the battle, over 20,000 were killed and only 1,083 taken  prisoner . [10] One of the first objectives after landing on the beachhead was the taking of Mount Suribachi. At the second raising of a flag on the peak,  Joe Rosenthal photographed six  Marines :  Ira Hayes ,  Mike Strank ,  Rene Gagnon ,  Harlon Block ,  Franklin Sousley , and  U.S. Navy   corpsman   John Bradley   raising the U.S. flag  on the fourth day of the battle (February 23). The photograph was extremely popular, being reprinted in thousands of publications. It won the Pulitzer Prize for Photography  that same year, and ultimately came to be regarded as one of the most significant and recognizable images of the war, and possibly the most reproduced photograph of all time. [1] Within the next month of fighting, three of the Marines raising the flag were killed: Strank, Block and Sousley. After the fall of Mt. Suribachi in the south, the Japanese still held a strong position throughout the island. General  Tadamichi Kuribayashi  still had the equivalent of eight infantry battalions, a tank regiment, two artillery and three heavy mortar battalions, plus the 5,000 gunners and naval infantry. With the landing area secure, more troops and heavy equipment came ashore and the invasion proceeded north to capture the airfields and the remainder of the island. Most Japanese soldiers fought to the death. On the night of March 25, a 300-man Japanese force launched a final counterattack. The Marines suffered heavy casualties; more than 100 were killed and another 200 Americans were wounded. The island was officially declared "secured" the following day. The number of American casualties was greater than the total Allied casualties at  Battle of Normandy  on  D-Day . After Iwo Jima was declared secured, about three thousand Japanese soldiers were left alive in the island's warren of caves and tunnels. Those who could not bring themselves to commit suicide hid in the caves during the day and came out at night to prowl for provisions. Some did eventually surrender and were surprised that the Americans often received them with compassion - offering them water, cigarettes, or coffee. [11]  The last of these stragglers, two of Lieutenant Toshihiko Ohno's (whose body was never found) men,  Yamakage Kufuku and Matsudo Linsoki , lasted six years, surrendering in 1951 [12]  (another source gives the date of surrender as January 6, 1949). [13] The U.S. military  occupied  Iwo Jima until 1968, when it was returned to Japan. It has been reported that many of the Japanese remains in Iwo Jima are missing their skulls. [14]  It is possible that the souvenir collection of body remains continued also in the immediate post-war period. [14]  (See  American mutilation of Japanese war dead )
  • The last major battle of the war The  Battle of Okinawa , codenamed  Operation Iceberg , [3]  was fought on the  Ryukyu Islands  of  Okinawa  and was the largest amphibious assault  in the  Pacific War . [4] [5]  The 82-day-long battle lasted from early April until mid-June 1945. After a long campaign of  island hopping , the Allies were approaching  Japan , and planned to use Okinawa, a large island only 340 mi (550 km) away from mainland Japan, as a  base for air operations  on the planned invasion of Japanese mainland (coded  Operation Downfall ). Five divisions of the  U.S. Tenth Army , the  7th ,  27th ,  77th ,  81st , and  96th , and two Marine Divisions, the  1st  and  6th , fought on the island while the  2nd Marine Division  remained as an amphibious reserve and was never brought ashore. The invasion was supported by naval, amphibious, and tactical air forces. The battle has been referred to as the " Typhoon of Steel " in English, and  tetsu no ame  ("rain of steel") or  tetsu no bōfū  ("violent wind of steel") in Japanese. The nicknames refer to the ferocity of the fighting, the intensity of  kamikaze  suicide attacks  from the Japanese defenders, and to the sheer numbers of  Allied  ships and armored vehicles that assaulted the island. The battle resulted in the highest number of casualties in the Pacific Theater during World War II. Japan lost over 100,000 troops killed or captured, and the Allies suffered more than 50,000 casualties of all kinds. Simultaneously, tens of thousands of local civilians were killed, wounded, or committed  suicide . The  atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  caused  Japan to surrender  just weeks after the end of the fighting at Okinawa.
  • The last major battle of the war
  • With Japanese troops pushing to the southern island of Kyushu US knew they were facing an army that would die to the last man
  • With Japanese troops pushing to the southern island of Kyushu US knew they were facing an army that would die to the last man The  Manhattan Project  was the effort, led by the  United States  with participation from the  United Kingdom  and  Canada , which resulted in the development of the first  atomic bomb  during  World War II . From 1942 to 1946 the project was under the command of  Major General   Leslie R. Groves Jr.  of the  US Army Corps of Engineers . The Army component of the project was designated the  Manhattan District  or  Manhattan Engineer District  (MED), but "Manhattan" gradually superseded the official codename for the project. The project had its roots in the  Einstein–Szilárd letter , which warned that  Nazi Germany might develop nuclear weapons . The letter was written by prominent physicists, signed by  Albert Einstein , and delivered to  President   Franklin D. Roosevelt  in October 1939. The Manhattan Project, which began as a small research program that year, eventually employed more than 130,000 people at a cost of nearly  US$ 2  billion . Research and production took place at more than 30 sites, some secret, including universities across the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada. The three primary research and production sites of the project were the  plutonium -production facility at the  Hanford Site  in eastern  Washington state , the  uranium enrichment  facilities at  Oak Ridge, Tennessee , and the weapons research and design laboratory at  Los Alamos, New Mexico . Two types of atomic bombs were developed during the war. A  gun-type fission weapon  was made from  uranium-235 , an  isotope  of uranium that makes up only 0.7 percent of natural uranium. This isotope proved difficult to separate from the main isotope, uranium-238, since it was chemically identical and almost the same weight. Three methods were employed for  isotope separation :  electromagnetic ,  gaseous  and thermal. Most of this work was performed at Oak Ridge. This design proved impractical to use with  plutonium  so an  implosion-type nuclear weapon  was developed through a concerted design and construction effort at Los Alamos. An implosion bomb was the first nuclear device ever detonated, at the  Trinity test  on 16 July 1945. A gun-type weapon,  Little Boy , was  dropped at Hiroshima  on 6 August 1945, while a more complex  plutonium-core weapon,  Fat Man , was dropped at  Nagasaki  three days later. The Manhattan Project was also charged with gathering intelligence on the German nuclear energy project. Through  Operation Alsos , Manhattan Project personnel served in Europe, sometimes behind enemy lines, where they gathered nuclear materials and rounded up German scientists. The MED maintained control over American atomic weapons production until the formation of the  United States Atomic Energy Commission  in January 1947.
  • United Nations War Crimes Commission The  Nuremberg Trials  were a series of military  tribunals , held by the main victorious  Allied forces  of  World War II , most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of the defeated  Nazi Germany . The trials were held in the city of  Nuremberg , Bavaria ,  Germany , in 1945-46, at the  Palace of Justice . The first and best known of these trials was the  Trial of the Major War Criminals  before the International Military Tribunal ( IMT ), which tried 24 of the most important captured leaders of Nazi Germany, though several key architects of the war (such as  Adolf Hitler ,  Heinrich Himmler , and  Joseph Goebbels ) had committed suicide before the trials began. The initial trials were held from November 20, 1945 to October 1, 1946. The second set of trials of lesser war criminals was conducted under Control Council Law No. 10 at the US Nuremberg Military Tribunals  (NMT); among them included the  Doctors' Trial  and the  Judges' Trial . This article primarily deals with the IMT; see the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials  for details on those trials.
  • The Constitution of Japan was largely drafted by US lawyers in the occupation authority. This image is of a secret memo written by members of the authority on the subject of the new constitution. Pacifist constitutional monarchyThe wording of the Potsdam Declaration—"The Japanese Government shall remove all obstacles..."—and the initial postsurrender measures taken by  Douglas MacArthur , the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP), suggest that neither he nor his superiors in Washington intended to impose a new political system on Japan unilaterally. Instead, they wished to encourage Japan's new leaders to initiate democratic reforms on their own. But by early 1946, MacArthur's staff and Japanese officials were at odds over the most fundamental issue, the writing of a new constitution.  Emperor Showa  (known to the West as  Hirohito ),  Prime Minister   Shidehara Kijuro  and most of the cabinet members were extremely reluctant to take the drastic step of replacing the 1889 Meiji Constitution with a more liberal document. [1]  In late 1945, Shidehara appointed  Joji Matsumoto , state minister without portfolio, head of a blue-ribbon committee of constitutional scholars to suggest revisions. The Matsumoto Commission 's recommendations, made public in February 1946, were quite conservative (described by one Japanese scholar in the late 1980s [ who? ]  as "no more than a touching-up of the Meiji Constitution"). MacArthur rejected them outright and ordered his staff to draft a completely new document. Much of it was drafted by two senior army officers with law degrees:  Milo Rowell  and  Courtney Whitney , though others chosen by MacArthur also had a large say in the document. The articles about equality between men and women are reported to be written by  Beate Sirota . Although the document's authors were non-Japanese, they took into account the Meiji Constitution, the demands of Japanese lawyers, and the opinions of pacifist political leaders such as Shidehara and  Yoshida Shigeru . MacArthur gave the authors less than a week to complete the draft, which was presented to surprised Japanese officials on 13 February 1946. On 6 March 1946 the government publicly disclosed an outline of the pending constitution. On 10 April elections were held to the House of Representatives of the Ninetieth Imperial Diet, which would consider the proposed constitution. The election law having been changed, this was the first  general election  in Japan in which women were permitted to vote. The MacArthur draft, which proposed a  unicameral  legislature, was changed at the insistence of the Japanese to allow a  bicameral  legislature, both houses being elected. In most other important respects, however, the ideas embodied in the 13 February document were adopted by the government in its own draft proposal of 6 March. These included the constitution's most distinctive features: the symbolic role of the  Emperor , the prominence of guarantees of civil and human rights, and the renunciation of war.

Transcript

  • 1. The Allies Win
  • 2. pptPlex Section Divider Preview Questions The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.
  • 3. How did Japan respond to the US nuclear threat?
    • Kamikaze pilots increased.
    • They sent diplomats to the US
    • Troop build-up on the Ryuku islands
    • They did not respond
  • 4. The German general at the battle of El Alamein was______.
    • Eisenhower
    • Goerring
    • Himmler
    • Rommel
  • 5. Rommel and the Afrika Corp lost when General _____ pushed them back from El Alamein.
    • Montgomery
    • Patton
    • Eisenhower
    • Bradley
  • 6. General ____ landed in Morocco, thereby surrounding Rommel.
    • Eisenhower
    • Patton
    • Bradley
    • Nimitz
  • 7. Why did the Germans lose the Battle of Stalingrad?
    • Because Hitler told them to not withdraw.
    • Because they were surrounded and cut off
    • Because of the cold and hard Russian winter.
    • All the above
    • None of the above
  • 8. Where did D-Day takes place?
    • France
    • Italy
    • Belgium
    • Germany
  • 9. What did Hitler hope to achieve with the Battle of the Bulge?
    • Prevent the US from landing at Normandy
    • Fight on two fronts to weaken both enemies
    • Split the British and US troops negotiate peace.
    • Split the Russian front and force Russian surrender
  • 10. What is the proper sequence of battles in the Pacific?
    • Leyte, Iwo Jima, Okinawa
    • Okinawa ,Leyte, Iwo Jima,
    • Leyte , Okinawa, , Iwo Jima
    • Iwo Jima ,Leyte , Okinawa
  • 11. What is demilitarization?
    • the process of recreating a military after defeat
    • the process of disbanding a military
    • the process of increasing military might
    • the process of demoting all military officers
  • 12. When did World War II officially end?
    • When the US dropped the bomb on Japan.
    • When Germany finally surrendered after Hitler’s suicide.
    • When Japan surrendered on the SS Missouri.
    • When a number of nations met to sign the peace treaty on September 1951.
  • 13. Which country's government was the Japan's new system modeled after?
    • France
    • The United States
    • Great Britain
    • The Soviet Union
  • 14. What took place at Nuremberg?
    • Hitler committed suicide.
    • Nazis were tried for crimes against humanity.
    • Germany surrendered.
    • The Soviets and the U.S. met.
  • 15. What is the Diet?
    • the two house parliament constituted in Japan.
    • The title of Prime Minister of Japan.
    • The Emperor’s honorary title after the War.
    • None of the above
  • 16. What was the name of the "Slayer of the Poles"?
    • Hans Frank
    • Rudolf Hess
    • Heinrich Himmler
    • Werner Von Braun
  • 17. During the Nuremberg Trials, the Nazi leaders were accused of war crimes and the murder of how many people?
    • 10 million
    • 6 million
    • 13 million
    • 11 million
  • 18.   What happened to the Nazi leaders who were tried at Nuremberg?
    • the bodies of the leaders executed for their crimes were burned at Dachau concentration camp in the same ovens as their victims.
    • Most were sentenced to a life in Spandau Prison
    • Over half were acquitted for insufficient evidence
    • None of the above
  • 19. pptPlex Section Divider Africa The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.
  • 20. Erwin Rommel
  • 21. Erwin Rommel
  • 22. Erwin Rommel
  • 23. Bernard Montgomery
  • 24. Dwight D Eisenhower
  • 25. pptPlex Section Divider Russia The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.
  • 26. Battle of Stalingrad
  • 27. Mussolini
  • 28. pptPlex Section Divider Western Europe The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.
  • 29. D-Day
  • 30. Battle of the Bulge
  • 31. Battle of the Bulge
  • 32. Dresden
  • 33. Dresden
  • 34. Roosevelt dies
  • 35. Roosevelt dies
  • 36. Hitler commits suicide
  • 37. pptPlex Section Divider The Pacific The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.
  • 38. Leyte Gulf
  • 39. Macarthur returns
  • 40. Iwo Jima
  • 41. Okinawa
  • 42. Okinawa
  • 43. The Manhattan Project
  • 44. The Manhattan Project
  • 45. A warning from above
  • 46. Hiroshima
  • 47. pptPlex Section Divider After the War The slides after this divider will be grouped into a section and given the label you type above. Feel free to move this slide to any position in the deck.
  • 48. Japan surrenders
  • 49. Nuremberg
  • 50. Japanese Constitution
  • 51.  
  • 52. The Cost