Robert Bakewell (1725–1795) was a British agriculturalist, now recognized as one of the most important figures in the British Agricultural Revolution. In addition to work in agronomy, Bakewell is particularly notable as the first to implement systematic selective breeding of livestock. His advancements not only led to specific improvements in sheep, cattle and horses, but contributed to general knowledge of artificial selection.
Enclosure or inclosure is the process which ends traditional rights such as mowing meadows for hay, or grazing livestock on common land. Once enclosed, these uses of the land become restricted to the owner, and it ceases to be common land. In England and Wales the term is also used for the process that ended the ancient system of arable farming in open fields. Under enclosure, such land is fenced (enclosed) and deeded or entitled to one or more owners. By the 19th century, unenclosed commons had become largely restricted to rough pasture in mountainous areas and to relatively small parts of the lowlands."Enclosure" is the modern spelling, while "inclosure" is an older spelling still used in the United Kingdom in legal documents and place names.The process of enclosure has sometimes been accompanied by force, resistance, and bloodshed, and remains among the most controversial areas of agricultural andeconomic history in England. Marxist and neo-Marxist historians argue that rich landowners used their control of state processes to appropriate public land for their private benefit. This created a landless working class that provided the labour required in the new industries developing in the north of England. For example: "In agriculture the years between 1760 and 1820 are the years of wholesale enclosure in which, in village after village, common rights are lost". "Enclosure (when all the sophistications are allowed for) was a plain enough case of class robbery". W. A. Armstrong argued that this is perhaps an oversimplification, that the better-off members of the European peasantry encouraged and participated actively in enclosure, seeking to end the perpetual poverty of subsistence farming. "We should be careful not to ascribe to (enclosure) developments that were the consequence of a much broader and more complex process of historical change". "...[T]he impact of eighteenth and nineteenth century enclosure has been grossly exaggerated[...]". A wide variety of opinions are quoted, with references, in the online Oxford University Press article 
Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons.Crop rotation confers various benefits to the soil. A traditional element of crop rotation is the replenishment of nitrogenthrough the use of green manure in sequence with cereals and other crops. Crop rotation also mitigates the build-up ofpathogens and pests that often occurs when one species is continuously cropped, and can also improve soil structure andfertility by alternating deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants.Crop rotation is one component of polyculture.
Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure
In economics, factors of production means inputs and finished goods means output. Input determines the quantity of output i.e. output depends upon input. Input is the starting point and output is the end point of production process and such input-output relationship is called a production function. All factors of production like land, labour, capital and entrepreneur are required in combination at a time to produce a commodity. In economics, production means creation or an addition of utility.factors of production (or productive inputs or resources) are any commodities or services used to produce goods and services. 'Factors of production' may also refer specifically to the primary factors, which are stocks including land, labor (the ability to work), and capital goods applied to production. The primary factors facilitate production but neither become part of the product (as with raw materials) nor become significantly transformed by the production process (as with fuel used to power machinery). 'Land' includes not only the site of production but natural resources above or below the soil. Recent usage has distinguished human capital (the stock of knowledge in the labor force) from labor. Entrepreneurship is also sometimes considered a factor of production. Sometimes the overall state of technology is described as a factor of production. The number and definition of factors varies, depending on theoretical purpose, empirical emphasis, or school of economics.
Robert Fulton (November 14, 1765 – February 24, 1815) was an American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing the first commercially successful steamboat. In 1800 he was commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte to design the Nautilus, which was the first practical submarine in history.Fulton became interested in steamboats in 1777 when he visited William Henry of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, who had earlier learned about James Watt's steam engine on a visit to England. Robert Fulton died from exposure in 1815.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is a term originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory inGreenwich, London. It is arguably the same as Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and when this is viewed as a time zone the name Greenwich Mean Time is especially used by bodies connected with the United Kingdom, such as theBBC World Service, the Royal Navy, the Met Office and others.Before the introduction of UTC on 1 January 1972 Greenwich Mean Time (also known as Zulu time) was the same as Universal Time (UT) which is a standard astronomical concept used in many technical fields. Astronomers no longer use the term "Greenwich Mean Time".In the United Kingdom, GMT is the official time only during winter; during summer British Summer Time is used. GMT is the same as Western European Time.Noon Greenwich Mean Time is not necessarily the moment when the noon sun crosses the Greenwich meridian (and reaches its highest point in the sky at Greenwich) because of Earth's uneven speed in its elliptic orbit and its axial tilt. This event may be up to 16 minutes away from noon GMT (a discrepancy known as the equation of time). The fictitious mean sun is the annual average of this nonuniform motion of the true Sun, necessitating the inclusion ofmean in Greenwich Mean Time.Historically the term GMT has been used with two different conventions, sometimes numbering hours starting at midnight and sometimes starting at noon. The more specific terms UT and UTC do not share this ambiguity, always referring to midnight as zero hours.
The Crystal Palace was a cast-iron and glass building originally erected in Hyde Park, London, England, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. More than 14,000 exhibitors from around the world gathered in the Palace's 990,000 square feet (92,000 m2) of exhibition space to display examples of the latest technology developed in the Industrial Revolution. Designed by Joseph Paxton, the Great Exhibition building was 1,851 feet (564 m) long, with an interior height of 128 feet (39 m).After the exhibition, the building was moved to a new park in Penge Common next to an affluent area of London called Sydenham Hill, a well-heeled suburb full of large villas. The Crystal Palace was enlarged and stood in the area from 1854 to 1936, when it was destroyed by fire. It attracted many thousands of visitors from all levels of society. The name Crystal Palace (the satirical magazine Punch usually gets the credit for coining the phrase) was later used to denote this area of south London and the park that surrounds the site, home of the Crystal Palace National Sports Centre.
Child Labor Age of workers in cotton mills in Lancashire in 1833 Age Males Females under 11 246 155 11 - 16 1,169 1,123 17 - 21 736 1,240 22 - 26 612 780 27 - 31 355 295 32 - 36 215 100 37 - 41 168 81 42 - 46 98 38 47 - 51 88 23 52 - 56 41 4 57 - 61 28 3
Child Labor Averag Averag e height e height of of Age males Age females in in Factorie Factorie s s 3ft. 9 9 4ft. 0in. 11in. 10 4ft. 2in. 10 4ft. 1in. 11 4ft. 2in. 11 4ft. 2in. 12 4ft. 4in. 12 4ft. 4in. 13 4ft. 6in. 13 4ft. 7in. 14 4ft. 8in. 14 4ft. 9in. 4ft. 4ft. 15 15 10in. 10in. 4ft. 16 5ft. 0in. 16 11in.
ScavengersFrances Trollope, wrote about thiswork in her novel, Michael Armstrong:Factory Boy (1840): "A little girl aboutseven years old, who job asscavenger, was to collect incessantlyfrom the factory floor, the flyingfragments of cotton that might impedethe work... while the hissing machinerypassed over her, and when this isskillfully done, and the head, body, andthe outstretched limbs carefully gluedto the floor, the steady moving, butthreatening mass, may pass andrepass over the dizzy head andtrembling body without touching it. Butaccidents frequently occur; and manyare the flaxen locks, rudely torn frominfant heads, in the process."
Factory AccidentsJohn Brown, A Memoir of Robert Blincoe (1828)A girl named Mary Richards, who was thought remarkablyhandsome when she left the workhouse, and, who wasnot quite ten years of age, attended a drawingframe, below which, and about a foot from the floor, was ahorizontal shaft, by which the frames above were turned.It happened one evening, when her apron was caught bythe shaft. In an instant the poor girl was drawn by anirresistible force and dashed on the floor. She uttered themost heart-rending shrieks! Blincoe ran towards her, anagonized and helpless beholder of a scene of horror. Hesaw her whirled round and round with the shaft - he heardthe bones of her arms, legs, thighs, etc. successivelysnap asunder, crushed, seemingly, to atoms, as themachinery whirled her round, and drew tighter and tighterher body within the works, her blood was scattered overthe frame and streamed upon the floor, her headappeared dashed to pieces - at last, her mangled bodywas jammed in so fast, between the shafts and thefloor, that the water being low and the wheels off the
Child Labor• John Allett reported: "I have known more accidents at the beginning of the day than at the later part. I was an eye-witness of one. A child was working wool, that is, to prepare the wool for the machine; but the strap caught him, as he was hardly awake, and it carried him into the machinery; and we found one limb in one place, one in another, and he was cut to bits; his whole body went in, and was mangled." In 1842 a German visitor noted that he had seen so many people in the streets of Manchester without arms and legs that it was like "living in the midst of the army just returned from a campaign."