Catherine’s palace. Summer residence of the Romanovs
Nikolai Yezhov, the young man walking with Stalin in the top photo from the 1930s, was shot in 1940. Following his death, Yezhov was edited out by Soviet censors. Such retouching was a common occurrence during Stalin's rule.
Russian Revolution Vocabulary
The Russian Revolution Vocabulary
Volga Barge Haulers, Ilya Pepin (1873)1. Describe this painting. Who are these people?What must their life be like?
2. Describe this photo. Who are these people? What musttheir life be like? Tsar Nicholas and his wife Alexandra also had five children: Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Alexei, and Anastasia.
Identify these people. How do they relate to the Russian Revolution?
Creation of the Soviet Union Tsar abdicates Duma Start of WWI February Revolution Bloody Sunday Provisional Government Russo-Japanese WarRevolution of 1905 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk October Revolution Start of Civil War
Russian Revolution Timeline1. Russo-Japanese War - 19042. Bloody Sunday - January 19053. Revolution of 19054. Creation of the Duma – 19065. Start of WWI – 19146. February Revolution – 19177. Tsar Abdicates – March 19178. Provisional Government – March 19179. October Revolution – 191710. Civil War – 1917 to 192211. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk – March 191812. Creation of the Soviet Union – December 1922
Tsar Nicholas II The last ruler of Russia. After more than 300 years, Nicholas was the last of the Romanov royal family to rule.Karl MarxGerman philosopher who developed the theory ofcommunism. Communism is a theory that imagines aclassless, egalitarian society.
Provisional Government The temporary government that led Russia after the Tsar abdicated. The provisional government was short- lived, lasting only eight months until it was taken over by the Bolsheviks.Treaty of Brest-LitovskThe Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peacetreaty signed on March 3, 1918, betweenRussia and the Central Powers, leading toRussias exit from World War I.While the treaty was practically obsolete beforethe end of the year, it gave some break toBolsheviks waging the civil war in all directionsand contributed to the independence ofFinland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.
ProletariatThe working class.The class of wage earners, especially thosewho earn their living by manual labor.BourgeoisieThe wealthy, upper classes.
Vladimir LeninRussian founder of the Bolshevik Party(communists), leader of the Russian Revolution(1917), and first head of the USSR (1917-1924).BolsheviksThe Russian communist party.The Bolsheviks took control of Russia, renamingit The Soviet Union. The Bolsheviks believed ingive power and control to the peasants andworkers (i.e., the “Proletariat”). Lenincampaigned for the Bolsheviks with the slogan,“peace, land, and bread.”
Leon TrotskyA leader of the Bolshevik Revolution (1917),he was later expelled from the CommunistParty (1927) and banished (1929) for hisopposition to Stalin and his emphasis onworld revolution.Joseph StalinLeader of the Soviet Union following Lenin’sdeath (1924–53).Stalin is responsible for the deaths ofmillions of Russians. Through starvation,executions, imprisonment, anddisappearances.
NKVD > KGBThe secret police of the Soviet Union.The secret police went after “enemies ofthe state”, real or perceived, creating apolice state based on terror.GulagsForced labor camps.“Enemies of the state” were sent toGulags were they worked as slavelaborers building dams, canals, roads, andother infrastructure.
The three colors purportedly came from the coatof arms of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, whichdepict Saint George wearing white (silver) armor,riding a white horse, wearing a blue cape andholding a blue shield, on a red field.According to another version, these three colorswere associated with the robes of the VirginMary, the holy protectress of Russia.Yet another interpretation of the three colors isthe order that they are placed reflected theRussian social system while under the monarchy:white represents God, blue represents the Tsarand red represents the peasants.A different interpretation associates white withthe bright future (where the color itself isassociated with brightness, while its placementat the top - with future); blue with cloudedpresent, and red with bloody past.
The newly adopted official flag of the Soviet Union consisted of a plain red flag, with a hammer crossed with asickle and a red star in the upper hoist. The hammer symbolized the nations industrial workers, while the sicklesymbolized the nations agricultural workers. The red star represented the rule of the Communist Party.