Reconstruction Final


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Reconstruction Final

  1. 1. What is the difference between figurative and literal? What is an example of someone misusing the word literal?
  2. 2. Reconstruction
  3. 3. Context • Lincoln assassination • Andrew Johnson becomes president
  4. 4. Andrew Johnson vs. Radical Republicans
  5. 5. Land Radical Republicans – Thaddeus Stevens General Sherman and Special Field Order 15 • 40 Acres and a mule “You say that you have emancipated us. You have and I thank you for it. But what is your emancipation? When you turned us loose, you gave us no acres. You turned us loose to the sky, to the storm, to the whirlwind, and worst of all, you turned us loose to the wrath of our infuriated masters.” Frederick Douglas
  6. 6. Cotton Tenant Farming and Sharecropping = Debt Peonage
  7. 7. Punishment and Reparations
  8. 8. Admittance to the Union Lincoln’s Plan: • 10% oath • Adopt 13th Amendment Johnson’s Plan: • New state constitution • Repeal war debt • Ratify 13th amendment
  9. 9. Protection of Rights “Reconstruction Amendments” • 13th = End to slavery • 14th = Equal protection • 15th = Voting rights Reconstruction Acts (laws) - 1867-68 •Military districts •Congressional approval for new state constitution •States must ratify the 14th Amendment Freedman’s Bureau Enforcement Acts – 1870-71
  10. 10. Voting 15th Amendment = Voting rights Denial of Voting Rights • Literacy Tests • Grandfather clause • Poll Tax
  11. 11. Outcomes Black Codes and Jim Crow Laws Black Response • Migration • Community Building Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) • “Separate but equal” Run N******* Run
  12. 12. On the KKK: “The plan: reduce blacks to political impotence. How? By the boldest and most ruthless political operation in American history. By stealth and murder, by economic intimidation and political assassinations, by the political use of terror, by [clubbing] the baby in it’s mother arms, the slaying of the husband at his wife’s feet, the raping of the wife before the husband’s eyes. By fear.” Lerone Bennett, Before the Mayflower
  13. 13. The following example of “Black Codes” come from laws passed in Opelousas, Louisiana immediately after the Civil War. "No negro or freedmen shall be allowed to come within the limits of the town of Opelousas without special permission from his employers. . . . Whoever shall violate this provision shall suffer imprisonment and two days work on the public streets, or pay a fine of five dollars. No negro or freedman shall be permitted to rent or keep a house within the limits of the town under any circumstances. . . . No negro or freedman shall reside within the limits of the town . . . who is not in the regular service of some white person or former owner . . . No public meetings or congregations of negroes or freedmen shall be allowed within the limits of the town. . . . No freedman ... shall be allowed to carry firearms, or any kind of weapons.... No freedman shall sell, barter, or exchange any article of merchandise within the limits of Opelousas without permission in writing from his employer.”
  14. 14. Myths About Reconstruction • The North imposed harsh military rule • Northerners and Blacks conspired to exploit the South after the war • The KKK was made up of fringe elements of society • Confederate dead were martyrs for the cause • Everyone in the South were happier before the war
  15. 15. Critical Thinking Questions: What did the Civil War accomplish? What was restored? What was left un-restored? How did Southerners react to their loss? Examples? What in the South needed rebuilding? What unfinished business remained?