Progressive Era ReformsThe Jungle: A View of Industrial America: http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=3CF8E02B-9429-45BD-AD35-716373B2EA6F&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US
Labor RightsGAINS•8 hour workday•¾ of all states ban childlabor•Minimum wage•Workers compensationSETBACKS•Muller v. Oregon
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle….they bought up all the old rancid butter left over in the grocery stores of a continent, and"oxidized" it by a forced-air process, to take away the odor, rechurned it with skim milk, and soldit in bricks in the cities! . . .…There were those who made the tins for the canned meat, and their hands, too, were a maze ofcuts, and each cut represented a chance for blood poisoning….…as for the other men, who worked in tank rooms full of steam, and in some of which there wereopen vats near the level of the floor, their peculiar trouble was that they fell into the vats; andwhen they were fished out, there was never enough of them left to be worth exhibiting—sometimes they would be overlooked for days, till all but the bones of them had gone out to theworld as Durhams Pure Leaf Lard! . . .…there would come all the way back from Europe old sausage that had been rejected, and thatwas mouldy and white—it would be dosed with borax and glycerine, and dumped into thehoppers, and made over again for home consumption….….There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms; and the water from leaky roofs would dripover it, and thousands of rats would race about on it. It was too dark in these storage places tosee well, but a man could run his hand over these piles of meat and sweep off handfuls of thedried dung of rats. These rats were nuisances, and the packers would put poisoned bread out forthem, they would die, and then rats, bread, and meat would go into the hoppers together…..….in the barrels would be dirt and rust and old nails and stale water—and cart load after cartload of it would be taken up and dumped into the hoppers with fresh meat, and sent out to thepublics breakfast…..
Consumer Protection1906 – Pure Food and Drug Act • Federal meat inspections
Political Reforms Tammany Hall, NYC•Secret ballot, direct primary, recall•Initiative – new laws• Referendum – strike down laws• 17th Amendment – direct election of senators• 19th Amendment – Women’s Suffrage
President Teddy Roosevelt• The Square Deal = regulating big business, protecting workers and consumers.• The “Trust Buster”
Environmental Regulation• 140 million acres designated asnational forest = Great Britainand France combined• 5 new national parks • Crater Lake, OR • Glacier, MT
Regulation of Industry•1890 Sherman Anti-trust Act > 1914Clayton Act• Government could sue corporationsinvolved in monopolies.
Redistribution of Wealth16th Amendment • Income tax“The Congress shall have power to layand collect taxes on incomes, fromwhatever source derived, withoutapportionment among the severalStates, and without regard to anycensus or enumeration.”Income Tax Debate
Temperance (Prohibition)• The Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WTCU)• 18th Amendment - 1919
ANSWER in YOUR NOTEBOOK:1. Today, what areas of our society are in need of reform? Why?2. What is the role of government in society?3. How much influence should the government have over business? Why?4. How much influence should business have over government? Explain.