Photo: Young Diaz in 1867 Appointed himself president in 1876 in the instability following Juarez’s death Served one term under the no re-election policy, but after the corruption of the next president, Manuel Gonzalez, he was welcomed back into office. He then gave up on the no re-election policy and became the dictator that he had warned against. He bullied citizens and rigged votes to stay elected Neoliberalist Gains: factories, roads, dams, industries, and better farms. Huge influx of foreign capital. US had taken large parts of the land during the Mexican American war and signs of growing US ownership of land disenfranchised many Mexicans, especially the poor farmers who now need legal title to own and work the land. Freedom of the press and other civil liberties suspended. suspended.
Madero didn’t so much want to destroy what Diaz had set up as much as he wanted the power to be shared among the elite. In exile, issued the Plan de San Luis Potosi which promised free suffrgae and no re-election and declared Diaz’ss presidency illegal. Vague promises at land reform helped gain support, but most supported him out of hatred of Diaz. Sparked by the letter (Plan de S.L.P.), rebellions in different parts of the country began springing up (Orozco and Villa on the TX border) and Diaz saw the writing on the wall. Elections were declared and Madero won easily. Weak Pres.: Madero failed to enact land reforms, better working conditions.
Huerta was a general in Madero’s army. Dispatched to put down an uprising, he turned and staged a coup. With Henry Lane Wilson’s support Huerta assumed the presidency, Madero was killed. Woodrow Wilson was not happy. Villa and Zapata didn’t recognize Huerta and continued their struggle for land for the peasant farmers (which had been their cause all along). Huerta fled to Spain. Where he was supported by Germany with hopes of returning to Mexico and undermining the US WWI war effort.
Carranza attempted to appeal to peasants to steal support from Villa and Zapata.
“ The centaur of the North” Huerta had a hit out on him. Attacked New Mexico in hopes of sparking US action against Carranza. Plan backfired big-time, setting off a pursuit by US forces Gen. John (Pershing’s Punitive Expedition) that ended in frustration for the US. Signed a peace treaty with Obregon in 1920, killed when gunfire showered his car in 1923
Called, “The Attila (alternately Tiger) of the South” Drew his support from peasant farmers, including women who assisted his revolutionary efforts. His name is used today by the EZLN – Zapatista Army of National Liberation
Mexican Revolution - Who's Who
Porfirio Diaz• Appointed himself president in1876• The Porfiriato - “No re-election” policy - Pan o Palo•Progess at the expense of thepeople = positivism
Francisco Madero• From an elite family, he wanted the spoils of power to be shared.• Jailed and taken out of the 1910 presidential race by Diaz.• Exile in Texas. Plan de San Luis Potosi.• A weak president, revolutionaries quickly turned on him.
Victoriano Huerta• Betrayed Madero and staged coup d’etat.• Encouraged by US ambassador Henry Lane Wilson - “Do whatever is best for Mexico”• Huerta imprisoned US sailors outside of Veracruz. US President Wilson was not happy.• In the chaos, forces of Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata and Venustiano Carranza occupied Mexico city.
Henry Lane Wilson• US Ambassador to Mexico• Dislike Madero’s leftist policies• To Hueta, do “whateveri s best for Mexico” = Madero executed
Venustiano Carranza• Villa and Carranza fought for supremacy in Mexico city.• 1915 Carranza declared himself president.• Carranza’s Minister of War and Nazy, Alvaro Obregon.• Battle of Celaya: Villa was defeated in what has been called the bloodiest war battle in Mexican history
Alvaro Obregon• General under Carranza• Defeated Villa at the Battle of Celaya• President from 1920-1924
Francisco “Pancho” Villa• A caudillo with farming roots from the Northern state of Durango.• Attacked Columbus, New Mexico.• The Punitive Expedition
Emiliano Zapata• Illiterate Mestizo from the state of Morelos.• "Tierra y Libertad" (Land and Liberty)• Killed in 1919 by a general of Carranza• Namesake of today’s EZLN
Soldaderas• Support roles• Military roles, Soldaderas• Support revolutionary causes and spoke against Diaz from the US.
The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)• Party in power 1929-2000• Emphasis on Institutional, not revolutionary
Mexican Revolution: Who’s Who1. I fought for the rights of farmers.2. I led an army in the North.3. I controlled Mexico through force.4. I staged a coup and took power from Madero.5. I led an army in Southern Mexico.6. I was the less radical revolutionary who took power after Huerta.7. I authorized the assassination of my former friend.8. I wrote articles condemning Diaz.9. I promised a no re-election policy.10. I rigged elections to maintain power.11. I attacked the United States