Politics became a quest for personal benefits of office. P. 120 Economic liberalism was the emphasis, NOT social. LA looked much more like the US South than a society attempting equality. Because of the hegemony established during hundreds of years colonial rule, acceptance of liberalism was difficult. Religion and traditional values permeated the hierarchy, even the poor were accustomed to patriarchal life, submissive to the church. The United States, by contrast had developed with more independence for individuals, without a heavy British presence.
Countries wracked by war and in debt, top-heavy with military had an impossible time dismantling. Property owners sided with the military leadership. Weak liberal governments turned over quickly, establishing a precedent of inept leadership. Things gravitated away from change to what they knew – powerful oligarchy and dictatorship.
Power had little to do with liberal ideals. Instead it came down to who you knew = patronage. Loyalty is what counted. *Draw a pyramid. Favors passed down the chain, then were expected to be returned during elections, etc. The highest patron was the Caudillo. Caudillos were often post-military, large landholders. Through patronage, Caudillos gained the support of their followers, they were both lberal and conservative, it didn’t matter. ROSAS = Argentina Put his picture on church alters, forced people to wear red ribbons showing support at the risk of being beaten. Like George Bush and other politicians was able to form an image as a person of the people. SANTA ANNA = Mexico Liberal or Conservative at will. Had his leg amputated and buried with full military honors. Santa Anna famously used a cork leg; during the Mexican-American War , it was captured and kept by American troops. The false leg is displayed at a military museum in Illinois. The Mexican government has repeatedly asked for its return
United Provinces of Central America = Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Greater Columbia = Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela
Pedro toyed with the idea of liberalism. The powerful Brazilian army was loyal to Pedro. After Joao VI died, Pedro renounced the Portuguese throne, putting his daughter in charge. Fearing recolonization, the elites pressured Pedro leave, but he left his 5 year son behind as ruler of Brazil. A sort of nativism. Since Pedro II was so young, regents were left to run the country. The country fell into chaos, with frequent rebellion. Even liberals supported a strong military and the monarchy as an answer to the instability.