Enemies of the State

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The following is an abbreviated version of my lecture on non-Jewish victims of the Holocaust. It was built for the Virginia Social Studies convention 2009.

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  • Courtesy http://www.eugenicsarchive.org/
  • Courtesy CHGS
  • Courtesy of Pierre Grande Guerre
  • Courtesy FCIT
  • Enemies of the State

    1. 1. “Non-Jewish Victims of the Holocaust”<br />Enemies of the State<br />Timothy Hensley<br />Research Librarian<br />Virginia Holocaust Museum<br />
    2. 2. Question: How many people died during the Holocaust?<br />
    3. 3. Answer: Between 11 million and 17 million*<br />* We use 13 million<br />
    4. 4. Question: Who were the victims?<br />
    5. 5. Jews (6 million)<br />Roma & Sinti (250,000)<br />Handicapped (80,000)<br />Soviets (3 million)<br />Poles (3 million)<br />Serbians (700,000)<br />Political opponents (80,000)<br />Homosexuals (12,000)<br />Jehovah’s Witnesses (2500)<br />Answer:<br />Source: Holocaust Chronicle<br />
    6. 6. Victim Rosette <br />
    7. 7. Race<br />
    8. 8. Ideology<br />
    9. 9. Nation<br />
    10. 10. “Race Science”<br />The pseudo-science of 20th Century Eugenics<br />
    11. 11. Father of modern eugenics<br />Francis Galton<br />
    12. 12. The Nazi’s used “junk science” to target certain groups. <br />“Race Hygiene”<br />“Bad genes enter a village”<br />
    13. 13. Hair samples<br />Profiling<br />Facial measurements<br />
    14. 14. Result of Nazi “racial science”<br />
    15. 15. “Racial Enemies”<br />Handicapped, Roma & Sinti (Gypsies), Afro-Germans<br />
    16. 16. The handicapped were promoted as a drain on federal dollars.<br />Sterilization Law (1933)<br />
    17. 17. Eugenic sterilization programs were found throughout the US in the 1930s.<br />U.S. Eugenics<br />
    18. 18. The handicapped were murdered by lethal injection and eventually gas chambers.<br />Operation T4 (1939)<br />
    19. 19. <ul><li>“Work shy”
    20. 20. Nationless
    21. 21. Drain on the State</li></ul>Roma & Sinti<br />
    22. 22. <ul><li>Gypsy clean-up week
    23. 23. Deportation
    24. 24. Concentration
    25. 25. Extermination</li></ul>Nazi Policy toward “Gypsies”<br />
    26. 26. <ul><li>20,000
    27. 27. French-African troops
    28. 28. Treaty of Versailles
    29. 29. Rhineland</li></ul>Afro-Germans<br />
    30. 30. “[Hitler] was highly annoyed by the series of triumphs by the marvelous colored American runner, Jesse Owens. People whose antecedents came from the jungle were primitive, Hitler said with a shrug; their physiques were stronger than those of civilized whites and hence should be excluded from future games.”<br />--Albert Speer<br />Berlin Olympics1936<br />
    31. 31. Afro-Germans were frequently used in Nazi propaganda posters.<br />“Insult to the German nation”<br />“Racial pride fades”<br />
    32. 32. Jazz music was attacked as being the product of a “lesser race.”<br />Degenerate Music<br />
    33. 33. According to one liberator&apos;s testimony there were approximately 8000 Afro-German or mixed-race Germans in Dachau.<br />8000 in Dachau?<br />
    34. 34. “Ideological Enemies”<br />Political Dissidents, Homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses<br />
    35. 35. <ul><li> Communism as scapegoat
    36. 36. Backlash against the “bourgeoisie”
    37. 37. Were the first sent to concentration camps</li></ul>Political opponents<br />
    38. 38. Spent six years in Buchenwald as a political prisoner<br />Eugene Kogon<br />
    39. 39. § 175 Lewdness between men<br />“…punishment of up to ten years in the penitentiary, and even with mitigating circumstances no less than three months imprisonment.”<br />Remained active until 1969<br /><ul><li> Focused on the Aryan birthrate
    40. 40. Imprisoned initially then sent to camps
    41. 41. Were treated harshly by fellow prisoners</li></ul>Homosexuals<br />
    42. 42. Were denied Nazi victim status until relatively recently <br />Post War<br />
    43. 43. <ul><li> Considered Un-German
    44. 44. Headquartered in the United States
    45. 45. Banned in 1935
    46. 46. Deported to camps</li></ul>Jehovah’s Witnesses<br />
    47. 47. Were given the option to sign a renouncement in order to be freed from the camp system (no one took this option).<br />Renouncement<br />
    48. 48. “National Enemies”<br />Poles, Soviets, Serbians<br />
    49. 49. While grabbing lebensraum was their ultimate goal, the Nazis attempted to displace populations throughout the east and obliterate their culture.<br />Cultural Assault<br />Grunwald monument in Krakow<br />
    50. 50. <ul><li>Prevent potential revolution
    51. 51. Squash oppositional press
    52. 52. Subdue resistance movements</li></ul>Intelligentsia<br />
    53. 53. Russian troops were sent to concentration camps and used for slave labor.<br />5.7 million POWs<br />
    54. 54. <ul><li> Many died of starvation/disease
    55. 55. Others were murdered in open air killings</li></ul>3 million perished<br />Hemer POW camp<br />
    56. 56. Questions?<br />thensley@va-holocaust.com<br />

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