The early years 1980-1998• NASA: HP41C Calculator flight units first Space Shuttle missions.• Sony 8 mm Camcorder: Nighttime Daytime Orbital Survey of Lightning• Trace Gas Analyzer: Spacelab Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer• Mark Products/Custom Cable: Cable Design Engineer• First optical fiber land seismic cable, harsh environment undersea cables• Litton Resource Systems: Coaxial cable: Cable TV• Western Instruments: Undersea umbilical/neutral tether/video system for Hydra-2500• ROV, first deep diving ROV in search for Oil 100 miles off Cape May, NJ at 2500 m depths• Western Geophysical/Guidance & Controls Liaison Officer: All Optical Towed Array (AOTA)• First all optical marine streamer for geophysical exploration in industry• Successful sea trial of five sensor streamer, 1985• Bendix Oceanics: Expert System for Cable Design, SPICE model, 50,000 lines FORTRAN• McDonnell Douglas : Lab Engineer: Sensors, FOG, Polarization Fading White Paper,• Mast Mounted Site Helicopter Electro-Optic Day/Night Vision System• Commonwealth Edison: Analyzed optical fiber network architecture, developed RFP• for private TBON fiber optic network using ComEd right-of-way, towers, road access,• and legacy electronics-nuclear, fossil and commercial real estate facilities.• Engineered/overbuilt 13 sites, 200 route miles of inside/outside plant engineering.• Consultant: Installed fiber optic networks for East Coast cities, design/lay out architecture using configuration spreadsheets based on vendor specifications.• PTII: Built/debugged working prototype Impedance Test Set for Telco Copper in the Loop, tested subscriber pair verifier replacement due to metallic test unit discontinuance.
The latter years 1998-2013• Boeing: Designed/Installed Delta-4 Optical Fiber Comms on Launch Complexes SLC-37/SLC-6• Environmental Tests FO Tool Kit: OFM1020 OTDR/28VDC Pwr Module/Flight Test Adapters• FO Tool Kit Payload flown on ISS mission 6A (4/19/01) with de-orbit (6/12/01)• Performed thermal analysis DNA Bioreactor as NASA Spinoff, written into NIH paper.• Consultant: Designed orbital hypersonic tether systems for multiple purposes.• Honeywell: Deployed TASS System as Field Engineer-US AOR, Air Bases, Iraq• NG Consultant: Scrubbed cable/connector drawings ASDS mini submarine.• SFO: Analyzed requirements for 300 man space station concept, 2004 Space Congress.• Consultant: Analyzed optical test set LabView, tested passive optical fiber components.• Consultant: Designed Star Tracker for satellite payload using Blackfin DSP.• Wrote chapter in book: Liftport Opening Space to Everyone-Space elevator deployment .• SEB Tech: Developed Test Metrics-active RFID Tag/Reader migration to open standards.• Ultra Electronics ATS: Engineer Microwave Network (L Band, X Band, Ku Band) Bahrain,• verified microwave path, loss budget, antenna radiation patterns, & sub contractor work.• Designed wireless microwave link Oil & Gas customer Northern Canada production site, reverseengineered IED threat, design & test of NASA Ground Station antennas (2x20m, 1x5.5m)• Supported TDRS Ground Station, Blossom Point, MD (2) 20 m SGL (1) 5.5 m EET Antenna.• Analyzed LTE user equipment, determined power distribution, created interference model LTEuser equipment onto GOES/GOES-R GEO/NPOES Polar satellite down links in 1675-1695 MHzband. Analyzed I/N=-10 dB ratios: multiple sites, determined exclusion zone radii.
Electro-Optic Umbilical Cable Hydra-2500 ROV Optical Fiber Video Camera, neutral tether plus umbilical optical cables to surface ship Discoverer Seven Seas control shack
Optical Fiber Sensor Visibility Equation 7 as function (temperature,pressure)
Polarization Fading Analysis Optical Fiber Tow Cable: McDonnellDouglas
RF Test Station for Mast Mounted Site Electro-OpticSensor
Commonwealth Edison (Chicago, IL) Telecommunications Backbone OpticalNetwork(TBON) Dual OC-12 Ring with OC-3 Shelf DS1 Drop/Inserts:1992-1995Designed/Installed outside plant, inside plant, and SONET OC-3/OC-12 ADM’s,TM’s, CSU/DSU, OLIU cards, 1/0 DACS, and ICB for a SONET OC-12 network.Configured plug-in cards for channel banks, CSU/DSU, and DACS equipment.Familiar with DS0, DS1, and DS3 test set, telephone butt set, and break-out boxto certify DS0 and DS1 circuits for operation on the network through loop-back,continuity, BER, and optical testing (bi-directional OTDR and insertion loss).Provisioned voice switches for cross connect DACS onto a dual SONET ring.Provisioned legacy PBX phone switches down to the punch block, verified wiringPin-outs using the Fireberd 6000 BERT circuit analyzer.
DDM-2000 OC-3 ShelfDual Inner/Outer OC-12 Ring Interconnect Telco Systems Route-24 ICB I/F to DDM-2000 OC-3 Shelf
Commonwealth Edison (Exelon, Chicago, IL) Telecommunications BackboneOptical Network (TBON) Eleven Analog/Digital/Voice Circuit Test Methods wereexecuted using Fireberd 4000 Bit Error Rate Test Sets, Hand Held TIMS, ButtSets, RJ11, RJ45, V.24 cables, ABAM DS1 cables, and cross-connect panelinterfaces.The circuits were a mix of half-duplex/full-duplex, legacy analog data, digital data,and voice. Some circuits were tested one direction ONLY, while other circuits weretested in BOTH directions. The requirement for a second DS0 Test Set and asecond TIMS Test Set drove the tests, so we did not need to Loop the circuit backon itself at Far End “B” and test with a single Fireberd 6000 BER test set from end“A” only. This proved the SONET Network circuit paths end-to-end but did NOTaccommodate latency concerns. The tests were written in one day, and executedover a period of several weeks for several hundred mixed analog/digital circuitswith circuit test slides available in back-up section.
MFS East Coast Optical Fiber Network Builds: White Plains, Albany,Buffalo,Boston, NYC, Newark, Philadelphia, Washington DCICG Optical Fiber Network Builds: Nashville, Birmingham, Charlotte
PT Industries International: Advanced Pair Test System TestHeadCopper in the Loop Central Office Impedance Test Set
I designed the HASTOL Orbital Hypersonic Tether for Dr. RobertForward
Boeing Delta-4 Delta Operations Center (DOC) and SLC-37 LaunchComplex
144 Count Single Mode Optical Fiber Cable Cross-SectionI installed this cable between DOC and SLC-37 CSB (9,000+ Ft)
144 Count Single-Mode Fiber (SMF) Cable route: Delta Operations Center to SLC-37 Common Support Building (CSB)I installed optical fiber termination racks in DOC and SLC-37 CSB
Common Support Building (CSB) CommunicationsRoom,Location of Optical Fiber Cable Terminations
Space Launch Complex-6, Vandenberg AFB Delta-4 Launch ComplexTwo 72 Count Single Mode Optical Fiber Cables were installed into existingroadbed between DOC and SLC-6 according to my recommendationsusing a diamond saw to defer disturbance of Native AmericanHallowed Ground
Remote Launch Control Center (RLCC) Building 8510 North VAFB toSLC-6 Delta-4 Launch Complex South VAFB. Two 72 Count SMF Cableswere cut and placed into existing road bed route using diamond saw(T Cash recommendation)
ISS FO Tool Kit OTDR Primary Fault Isolation OTDR Signature: FO I/F Flight Test Adapters Terminated Flight Links OTDR/Reel Patch Cable Crew Bench Review 3/20/01 KSC T Cash present in photo
Tactical Automated Security SystemTASS System installed by T Cash at US AOR on Air Bases in Iraq
Advanced SEAL Delivery System Submarine US NavyScrub of cable/connector pinouts for production drawings
Movement Tracking System Embedded RFID in MTS System Interoperability MTS RF-ITV-I Hub Server XML-based Feed • Position Reports • Text Messages • RFID Tag Reads• Provides automatic detection of RFID Tags on board MTS trucks• Low-powered RF interrogator integrated into MTS transceiver• Read data will be provided to RF-ITV-I Server
Savi ANSI-256 Active RFID Tags 673654 TagTag 656-I Tag Engine Container ISO 675-I Sensor Tag Container Tag Tag ISO Container Tag Portable with sensors Deployment Kit 650 Reader SMR 650- 210 Intermec 751G/A With 650P Docking station with 654 adapter sleeveT Cash was SME for PM J-AIT RFID-II ContractProducts
Bahrain Microwave Network: Seven Sites Across Island T Cash Microwave Network Consultant MW Network Path Loss Analysis MW Antenna Pattern Analysis Access (Voice/Data) Channelization NERA MW Radio: Multiple Sites (7) MW Test Requirements Analysis PTP Links Verified status and quality of microwave sub contractor workMW Tower, each site progressvaries
Typical Bahrain Microwave Network Free Space Path Loss Calculation Enter your System Information in Blue Boxes Only, do not change formula in Red Boxes. INPUT DATA Site Name Transmitter Receiver Antenna Gain (dBi) 36.8 36.8 Frequency (MHz) 15000 Losses (Misc,Conn,TX,RX) 6.8 6.8 Path Length, PL (km) 5 Loss/100 ft. 1.137 1.137 Path Length, PL (miles) 3 Cable Length (ft) 147.64 288.71 Cable Loss 1.6786668 3.2826327 Antenna Height (Meters) 35 47.5 ModulationReceiver Sensitivity (dBm) -76.5 Transmit Power (milliwatts) 2000 DBPSK 9.6kb/s -85.5 Transmit Power (dBm) 22 DQPSK 19.2kb/s -82.5 Effective Radiated Power (dBm) 50.3 8PSK 28.8kb/s -79.5 Receive Threshold Criteria 1X10-8 16QAM 38.4kb/s -76.5 Calculation Free Space Path Loss = 36.575 + 20Log (D) + 20 Log (F) System Gain (dB) 156.8 Availability = 100%*(1-C * T * F* D3 * 10-f/10 * 10-4) Free Space Path Loss (dB) 130.33 Maximum Radio Distance = 4*(Tx^0.5 + Rx^0.5) Fade Margin 26.49 dB Where: Climate Factor (0.1 to 0.5) 0.30 D is Distance in between the antennas in miles Topology Factor (0.25 to 4.0) 0.25 F is Frequency in MHz C is Climatic Factor ranging from 0.1 (mild & dry) to 0.5 (severe, Availability (%) 99.999133% humid) T is Topology Factor (ranging from 0.25 (mountainous) to 4.0 (flat land) The Maximum Radio Distance Tx is Transmitter Height in Meters (MRD) between two sites based 51.23 km Rx is Receiver Height in meters upon the above data is: How to use Path Calc Chart Enter the INPUT DATA - antenna gain, cable loss, cable length - etc, Enter the required Path Length (distance) into Cell F7 NB: The above figures are guidelines only Review Fade Margin (Cell C20) below 20 dB is unacceptable ArWest cannot be held responsible for accuracy Increase/Decrease PL until Fade Margin is acceptable Compare PL with MRD (Cell C26) Increase/Decrease Antenna Heights until MRD > PL
Typical Bahrain Microwave Network Antenna Pattern Calculation Parabolic Antenna Analysis Bold Frequency = 1500.0 MHz; 20.0 cm Reflector Diameter = 2.44 meters = 8.0 ft Reflector Depth = 2.64 meters = 8.7 ft Focal length = 0.14 meters = 0.5 ft; F/D0.06 = Feed Illumination Angle = -0.91 radian = -52 degrees Illumination Efficiency = 50 % Computed Antenna Gain = 7.3E+02 Ap = 28.7 dBi Antenna Half Power Beamwidth = 8.4E-02 radian = 4.84 degrees Minimum Drift Scan time = 1.9E+01 min = 1160.6 sec JOC Height (m) Link Antenna Model Gain (dBi) f (MHz) Depth (m) Kay Height (m) Aperture (m) KAY-JOC SP8-1.3NS (TR) 29.2 27.0 57.0 2.4 1500.0 2.6
NASA TDRS Ground Station, Blossom Point, MD(2) 20 mtr SGL, (1) 5.5 mtr EET Antennas SCNS Contract Principal Engineer (Orbital) RF Design, Test, Installation Factory Acceptance Test Site Acceptance Test Site Construction and engineering support Assured quality of RF engineering work
NASA TDRS Ground Station, Blossom Point, MD(Assembly of 20 meter SGL Reflector Antenna
NASA TDRS Ground Station, Blossom Point, MDSGL 20 meter S-Band Feed
NASA TDRS Ground Station, Blossom Point, MDSGL 20 meter Ku-Band Feed
NASA TDRS Ground Station, Blossom Point, MDSGL 20 meter Subreflector
Determined LTE user equipment transmission power distribution.NOAA GEO/Polar Sat D/L Interference Analysis from LTE Cellular U/L
Wallops Island Half-Annulus Exclusion Zone: 5 Km, I/N=-10 dBNOAA GOES-R Sat D/L @Wallops Island, VA Interference from LTE Cellular U/L I/N=-10 dB
NOAA Site Exclusion Zones for GOES-R Down Links
NOAA Site Mitigation Zones for POES Polar Down Links: Site Distance to mitigate Distance to mitigate for I/N = -10 dB (km) for I/N = -20 dB (km) Wallops Is., VA 288 375 Fairbanks, AK* 47 56 Suitland, MD 300 325 Miami, FL 360 374 Monterey, CA 84 100 Hawaii 23 96 Barrow, AK 300 308 Boulder, CO* 120 125 * No ducting (reverted to P.452 V12)Mitigation distances extend from 23 to 300 Km due to coincidenceof beam pattern between LTE cellular U/L antenna and PolarGround Station D/L Antenna.Potential mitigation: Use of selective filters and remoteNOAA site locations for Down Link.
Sanity Check #1:Re-ran Miami analysis using:P%=50, I/N threshold=-10 dBResult: Distance to mitigate=44 Km (Alion)Assumption P%=50:NTIA distance to mitigate=46 KmIndustry distance to mitigate=39 KmThis shows the models are in agreement whenwe make similar assumptions.
Sanity Check #2:Study effects of P% using RFI from a single UEAssumptions: UE Ant Ht=1.5 m, NOAA Earth StationAnt Ht=12 m AGLPlot P% vs Distance to mitigate (Km)
Plot Path Loss (dB) vs distance to mitigate (Km)as P% is varied:
Propagation model comparison Longley-Rice Reliability & Confidence, or P.452 p% 0.01 0.1 5 50%Distancekm 10 8.4 9.2 4.6 -5.1dB 50 -2.6 -3.9 -10.2 -23.5dB 100 -3.2 -2.8 -4.8 -4.6dB 200 -11.2 -16.6 -5.3 -2.9dB 300 -21.8 -22.1 -3.2 -4.3dB 400 -21.2 -8.7 2.2 -5.3dB 500 -11.5 -5.2 2 -5.7dB 600 -6.1 0.9 1.5 -5.9dB Average delta -8.7 -6.2 -1.7 -7.2dB Overall average delta -5.9 dBNote: Data based on Visualyse built in propagation models, no terrain used(elevation = 0 for all points).