Searching + Navigating = Finding! Timo Kouwenhoven DNV-CIBIT [email_address]
Timo Kouwenhoven <ul><li>Senior consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Knowlegde and Information management practice </li></ul><ul><...
Agenda <ul><li>Project information </li></ul><ul><li>Intricacies of search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Model for searc...
Project information <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining functional requirements for a search interface for multim...
Challenges…  I want it now! Real Time
Challenges…  I want it all! Lots to choose from
Agenda <ul><li>Project information </li></ul><ul><li>Intricacies of search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting Dema...
Intricacies of search and retrieval <ul><li>Diversity of information sources and systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult t...
Intricacies of search and retrieval <ul><li>What do users want? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A known needle in a known haystack  ...
Information access, the good (old) way… Front-end / User Interface Back-end Information architecture
The promising new way…
History repeats… <ul><li>Domain knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jargon, terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of...
Agenda <ul><li>Project information </li></ul><ul><li>Intricacies of search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting Dema...
Connecting supply and demand Supply side Demand side Organize the content  management process
Connecting supply and demand Categorization of Content (metadata) Supply side Demand side
Difficulties with creating content <ul><li>Aiming at target groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documents are often produced from...
Add Metadata <ul><li>Information about information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterizing information (documents, data, pers...
Types of metadata Authorization, Access rights Use metadata access to documents Related subjects Relational metadata relat...
Difficulties with adding metadata <ul><li>Aiming at target groups (searchers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata schemes are o...
The trouble with current information retrieval… the interface <ul><li>Effectiveness of search boxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
The trouble with current information retrieval… the interface
or even worse…
Take into consideration… Browsing <ul><li>Certainly not everybody is searching by querying (on the contrary…) </li></ul><u...
Use metadata to navigate Marti Hearst;  http://bailando.sims.berkeley.edu/flamenco.html
Fuzzy search
Clustering to narrow down results
oil www.Inxight.com
Agenda <ul><li>Project information </li></ul><ul><li>Intricacies of search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Model for searc...
Model for search interface requirements Low High Low High Search Competence HOW Low Medium Medium High Knowlegde of  sourc...
Support the way people search for information Systematic gathering of information about specific topic, following some met...
Agenda <ul><li>Project information </li></ul><ul><li>Intricacies of search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Model for searc...
Customers for iMMix <ul><li>Broadcast professionals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program makers (public organisations) </li></ul>...
Target groups, within main customer group <ul><li>News, Current affair programs, Sports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous p...
Searcher types and their behaviour <ul><li>News Editor or Presentor (trained journalist) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly know...
Searcher types and their behaviour <ul><li>Historic overview program editor or professional researcher for documentary </l...
Searcher types and their information need <ul><li>News Editor or Presentor (trained journalist) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get ...
Searcher types and their information need <ul><li>Historic overview program editor or professional researcher for document...
Searcher types and their information need <ul><li>Quiz Programs (production assistants or editors) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G...
Search modes <ul><li>Topic selecting / Conditioned viewing </li></ul><ul><li>“ I know ‘kind of’ what I need” ( what  = med...
Search modes <ul><li>Browsing / Undirected viewing </li></ul><ul><li>Can I have a look around? ( what, where, how  = low) ...
We also learned that… Free text search Rich descriptions: - What do you see? - What is it about? satisfaction 0% 100% Form...
Agenda <ul><li>Project information </li></ul><ul><li>Intricacies of search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Model for searc...
Added value of a thesaurus <ul><li>Locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zaire </li></ul></ul><...
Homonyms RIVER CONGO
Keyframes Gives an idea of the contents of a 30 minute video in 6 stills: “ Ari Vatanen races uphill on the Pikes Peak (Co...
Find the right Stock-shot facets Finding pictures using a faceted-metadata search Marti Hearst;  http://bailando.sims.berk...
Thank you [email_address]
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Presentation Timo Kouwenhoven FIATIFTA

  1. 1. Searching + Navigating = Finding! Timo Kouwenhoven DNV-CIBIT [email_address]
  2. 2. Timo Kouwenhoven <ul><li>Senior consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Knowlegde and Information management practice </li></ul><ul><li>Consulting areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Management (selection, organisational embedding, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Retrieval (metadata schemes, taxonomies, thesauri, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search Engines (selection, benchmarking, fine-tuning, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface Design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current customer base: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SKF Engineering Research Centre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministry of Transportation, Public Works & Water Management </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Project information </li></ul><ul><li>Intricacies of search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Model for search interface requirements </li></ul><ul><li>… Results so far </li></ul><ul><li>Looking forward… </li></ul>
  4. 4. Project information <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining functional requirements for a search interface for multimedia archive called iMMix and its target groups. Given the possibility of showing audio/visual material, combined with metadata while searching. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>various target groups, audio-visual archive, different needs for a/v-material, large corpus of essence+metadata, lots of technology push, … </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Challenges… I want it now! Real Time
  6. 6. Challenges… I want it all! Lots to choose from
  7. 7. Agenda <ul><li>Project information </li></ul><ul><li>Intricacies of search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting Demand and Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Model for search interface requirements </li></ul><ul><li>… Results so far </li></ul><ul><li>Looking forward… </li></ul>
  8. 8. Intricacies of search and retrieval <ul><li>Diversity of information sources and systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to get a complete view of all relevant information sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to find out which system contains what information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different terms and jargon used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide variety in search interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality of search results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too many or to few results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching produces wrong results </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Intricacies of search and retrieval <ul><li>What do users want? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A known needle in a known haystack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A known needle in an unknown haystack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An unknown needle in an unknown haystack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any needle in a haystack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sharpest needle in a haystack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the sharpest needles in a haystack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All the needles in a haystack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmation of no needles in the haystack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Things like needles in any haystack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let me know whenever a new needle shows up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are the haystacks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needles, haystacks -- whatever. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Information access, the good (old) way… Front-end / User Interface Back-end Information architecture
  11. 11. The promising new way…
  12. 12. History repeats… <ul><li>Domain knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jargon, terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proper user interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understands questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has an overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects people </li></ul></ul>90’s Now
  13. 13. Agenda <ul><li>Project information </li></ul><ul><li>Intricacies of search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting Demand and Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Model for search interface requirements </li></ul><ul><li>… Results so far </li></ul><ul><li>Looking forward… </li></ul>
  14. 14. Connecting supply and demand Supply side Demand side Organize the content management process
  15. 15. Connecting supply and demand Categorization of Content (metadata) Supply side Demand side
  16. 16. Difficulties with creating content <ul><li>Aiming at target groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documents are often produced from the author’s perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producing only one document to fulfill the needs of a range of users (with various expertise levels) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Putting content at the right place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New tasks, projects or departments lead to , yet again new databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is stored with only the current situation in mind (e.g project folders) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Add Metadata <ul><li>Information about information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterizing information (documents, data, person, video clip, …) by a limited number of keywords </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Types of metadata Authorization, Access rights Use metadata access to documents Related subjects Relational metadata relations between documents Keyword Subjects Subject metadata what’s the document about Author, Date, Location, Type, language, … Asset metadata typology of the document Elements Metadata type
  19. 19. Difficulties with adding metadata <ul><li>Aiming at target groups (searchers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata schemes are often produced from the librarian perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searcher’s mental model tends to be different from a librarian’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to incorporate the searcher’s perspective too, next to the future-proof librarian perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Putting content in context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refraining from adding information about related content or people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure this is added </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The trouble with current information retrieval… the interface <ul><li>Effectiveness of search boxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search the web: 80% uses 1 keyword (average 1.3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced search = made for query specialists? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of navigation… </li></ul><ul><li>Searching and navigating combined… </li></ul>
  21. 21. The trouble with current information retrieval… the interface
  22. 22. or even worse…
  23. 23. Take into consideration… Browsing <ul><li>Certainly not everybody is searching by querying (on the contrary…) </li></ul><ul><li>Browsing is a way of providing context </li></ul><ul><li>Other schemes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Browse, then Search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search, then Browse </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Use metadata to navigate Marti Hearst; http://bailando.sims.berkeley.edu/flamenco.html
  25. 25. Fuzzy search
  26. 26. Clustering to narrow down results
  27. 27. oil www.Inxight.com
  28. 28. Agenda <ul><li>Project information </li></ul><ul><li>Intricacies of search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Model for search interface requirements </li></ul><ul><li>… Results so far </li></ul><ul><li>Looking forward… </li></ul>
  29. 29. Model for search interface requirements Low High Low High Search Competence HOW Low Medium Medium High Knowlegde of sources WHERE Uses unprecise jargon, Formulates queries with 1 or 2 words Has difficulties with domain jargon, can formulate complex queries Uses domain jargon , mostly not query language ( lack of competence ) Uses domain jargon and query language Query formul ation Needs detailed results to choose the relevant ones Needs precisely ranked resultlists with extensive descriptions to choose the relevant ones Can recognise relevant results, even from brief summaries Cannot miss anything (high recall) Requirements for result-list Low ‘ the mass es ’ Low Informati on Specialists High Topic Specialists High Analysts Knowledge of context WHAT Target groups
  30. 30. Support the way people search for information Systematic gathering of information about specific topic, following some method or procedure . Search focussed on topic, but a good-enough solution is satisfactory . Browse pre-selected sources on pre-specified topics . Scan broadly a diversity of sources; take what is easily accessible . Search Behaviour Able to specify targets and formulate queries. I need just that one. Formal search “Locating / Shortcutting” Able to formulate queries . Able to identify domains. Informal search “Querying” Recognising topics of interest . Browsing with a need. Conditioned viewing “Topic selecting” General areas of interest . Information tourism. Undirected viewing “Browsing / Wandering” Information Need Modes
  31. 31. Agenda <ul><li>Project information </li></ul><ul><li>Intricacies of search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Model for search interface requirements </li></ul><ul><li>… Results so far </li></ul><ul><li>Looking forward… </li></ul>
  32. 32. Customers for iMMix <ul><li>Broadcast professionals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program makers (public organisations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial program makers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Educational websites </li></ul><ul><li>Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Organisations and foundations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Red Cross </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientists and Researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Private individuals </li></ul>Main customer group
  33. 33. Target groups, within main customer group <ul><li>News, Current affair programs, Sports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous production processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed is key </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Programs, Historical overviews, Documentaries, Quizes/game shows, Human interest, Life style magazines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More production time, more time to search and collect material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In depth! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current affair programs often have a format in which one part is ‘news’ and the other part is similar to 2. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Searcher types and their behaviour <ul><li>News Editor or Presentor (trained journalist) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly know what they need and where to look for it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly look in news archives, sometimes private archives like from the Government Information Service (RVD) or Polygoon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to locate the material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on descriptions of the material, no time to view it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key frames would add value, to ensure swiftly if they have the correct material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good is good enough, skim the top of the search results ( querying ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most material searched for is no older than 2 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>>10 questions a day, >100 a week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>99% of questions solved within 15 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1% leads to real search tasks </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Searcher types and their behaviour <ul><li>Historic overview program editor or professional researcher for documentary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the topic and related concepts ( topic selecting ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the domain in which they need to search, scan through result lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often view all the material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for emotion, atmosphere, ambiance (general noise can be important) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quiz Programs (production assistants or editors) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for stock-shots (to illustrate a question) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like to be inspired by the collection (serendipity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associative searches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Want to browse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can have difficult, wide ranging and surprising questions </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Searcher types and their information need <ul><li>News Editor or Presentor (trained journalist) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get me a recent 10s sequence of “ Ayman al-Zawahiri ” within the next 10 minutes…we’re going live </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get me a stock-shot of cows in a green field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get me the sequence of last evening on RTL-4 in which Gerrit Zalm (finance) said that the tax-concept is basically stupid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do we have any material on recent problems with UN Military people in Afganistan? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do we have any material on the first woman joining the police? </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Searcher types and their information need <ul><li>Historic overview program editor or professional researcher for documentary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do we have any material that can be used to illustrate 1970’s interior design, preferably with knowledgable people talking about it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’m making a program about a woman that was a member of the “Davidian”-group in Waco, Texas, that escaped just before the FBI fell in. Do we have material showing the bus in front of the building, before and after the fire? </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Searcher types and their information need <ul><li>Quiz Programs (production assistants or editors) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get me a shot of children looking into a shop, faces or hands at the glass, dreaming of cookies, in the 1950’s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We need several quite different views on the daily life of George W. Bush </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Search modes <ul><li>Topic selecting / Conditioned viewing </li></ul><ul><li>“ I know ‘kind of’ what I need” ( what = medium) </li></ul><ul><li>“ I know it when I see it” ( result list needs images) </li></ul><ul><li>Recognising is easier than remembering </li></ul><ul><li>Show me some material so I can recognise and choose ( how = low) </li></ul><ul><li>Locating / Formal search </li></ul><ul><li>I know exactly what I need, just need to locate it ( what, where = high) </li></ul><ul><li>I can even formulate a precise query ( how = high) </li></ul><ul><li>Call Customer Services </li></ul><ul><li>I know exactly what I need (what = high) </li></ul><ul><li>Could ask it to someone, though cannot formulate a query myself ( how = low) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Search modes <ul><li>Browsing / Undirected viewing </li></ul><ul><li>Can I have a look around? ( what, where, how = low) </li></ul><ul><li>Querying / Informal search </li></ul><ul><li>I need something in the area of… ( where = medium) </li></ul><ul><li>Could you guide me to that area, so I can browse? ( how = medium) </li></ul>
  41. 41. We also learned that… Free text search Rich descriptions: - What do you see? - What is it about? satisfaction 0% 100% Formal metadata Keyframes, Stockshots, A/V- material directly available
  42. 42. Agenda <ul><li>Project information </li></ul><ul><li>Intricacies of search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Model for search interface requirements </li></ul><ul><li>… Results so far </li></ul><ul><li>Looking forward… </li></ul>
  43. 43. Added value of a thesaurus <ul><li>Locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belgian Congo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congo-Kinshasa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congo-Brazzaville </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gorbatshov </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gorbatshev </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chevardnadze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S jevernadse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organisations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IFTA (International Family Therapy Organisation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IFTA ( International Federation of Technical Analysts ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IFTA ( International Fuel Tax Agreement ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IFTA (International Federation of Television Archives) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keywords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time (the concept) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time (the publisher) </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Homonyms RIVER CONGO
  45. 45. Keyframes Gives an idea of the contents of a 30 minute video in 6 stills: “ Ari Vatanen races uphill on the Pikes Peak (Colorado) with a Peugeot”
  46. 46. Find the right Stock-shot facets Finding pictures using a faceted-metadata search Marti Hearst; http://bailando.sims.berkeley.edu/flamenco.html
  47. 47. Thank you [email_address]

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