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Timo Honkela: Introductory lecture of the seminar course on Computational Pragmatics
 

Timo Honkela: Introductory lecture of the seminar course on Computational Pragmatics

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T-61.6020 Computational Pragmatics ...

T-61.6020 Computational Pragmatics
Timo Honkela, Aalto University School of Science
Spring 2012

Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics which studies the ways in
which context contributes to meaning. It studies how the transmission
of meaning depends not only on the linguistic knowledge of the speaker
and listener, but also on the context of the utterance, knowledge
about the status of those involved, the intent of the speaker, etc.

Even though pragmatics is traditionally considered as an area of
linguistics, similar considerations related to meaning in context are
also relevant for information systems design and especially
interactive systems development. An interesting issue within computer
science is the interface between pragmatics and semantics. Ontologies
are used in semantic web to define prototypical meanings but in the
real-world contexts, pragmatics deals with the subjective and
contextual variation around prototypical meanings. In human-to-machine
communication, information systems may have practical uses in new
contexts beyond the ones defined originally by the designer of the
system. In machine-to-machine communication, formal semantics may fall
short in solving interoperability issues and thus issues related to
pragmatics need to be considered. In overall, the focus is in how
understanding takes place, not in how meanings are defined.

During the course, the participants are introduced with the main
linguistic theories related to pragmatics including but not limited to
the theories about the functions of languages, the speech act theory,
and the theory of conversational maxims. The participants will
familiarize themselves with computational models in the area of
pragmatics with specific focus on dynamic and adaptive systems and
statistical machine learning. They will also conduct a small empirical
study related to the subjectivity and contextuality of meaning using
the grounded intersubjective concept analysis (GICA). The collected
data will be analyzed using statistical methods.

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    Timo Honkela: Introductory lecture of the seminar course on Computational Pragmatics Timo Honkela: Introductory lecture of the seminar course on Computational Pragmatics Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Pragmatics Timo Honkela Aalto University School of Science Department of Information and Computer Science Computational Cognitive Systems research group Computational Pragmatics, Spring 2012, 23rd of January, 2012
    • Pragmatics● is a subfield of linguistics which studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning● studies how the transmission of meaning depends not only on ● the linguistic knowledge of the speaker and listener, but also on ● the context of the utterance, ● knowledge about the status of those involved, ● the intent of the speaker, etc.
    • Levels of written language Structure Meaning Syntax Pragmatics “Structure of “Meaning in sentences” context”Morphology Semantics “Structure of “Prototypical words” meaning”
    • On Complexity Structure Meaning Ownership “Marys car” Genitive Relationshipconstruction “Marys husband” “Xs Y” Property “Marys weight” etc.
    • Theories in Pragmatics● Jakobson: Functions of languages● Austin: Speech act theory● Grice: Conversational maxims
    • Roman Jakobsons Functions of Language TARGET FUNCTION EXAMPLE FACTOR Context Referential “This is Jim”Addresser Emotive “Yuck”Addressee Conative “Go there!” Contact Phatic “Hello” Code Metalingual “What does phatic mean?”Message Poetic “Dibba-dabba-doo” http://www.signosemio.com/jakobson/functions-of-language.asp
    • J. L. Austin: How to Do Things with Words /The three Components of Speech Act Theory● Locutionary act, “the act of saying something.”● Illocutionary act, “the performance of an act in saying something as opposed to the performance of an act of saying something.”● Perlocutionary act, for "saying something will often, or even normally, produce certain consequential effects upon the feelings, thoughts, or actions of the audience, of the speaker, or of other persons."
    • Austins Speech Act Theory● A locutionary act has meaning; it produces an understandable utterance.● An illocutionary act has force; it is informed with a certain tone, attitude, feeling, motive, or intention.● A perlocutionary act has consequence; it has an effect upon the addressee. http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/glossary/Speech_act_theory.html
    • Paul Grice: Conversational Maxims● A speaker is assumed to make a contribution that ● is adequately but not overly informative (quantity maxim) ● the speaker does not believe to be false and for which adequate evidence is had (quality maxim) ● is relevant (maxim of relation or relevance), and ● is clear, unambiguous, brief, and orderly (maxim of manner). http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAConversationalMaxim.htm
    • Introductions
    • Suggested themes1. Models of context for natural language processing2. Meaning negotiation3. Game theoretical approaches to meaning4. Dialogue models5. Modeling subjectivity in understanding language6. Miscommunication
    • Preliminary selected themes1. Spoken dialogue systems2. Modeling subjectivity3. Meaning negotiation, (mis)communication, dialogue models4. Dialogue models for robotics5. Human dialogue6. Modeling subjectivity7. Pragmatics and cognitive science