The Next Giant Leap For Mankind
Propulsion and Habitats for Mars
Remco Timmermans
Talk at Mars mini-symposium Universiteit...
Agenda
• Getting to Mars is hard
• Why one way is easier than two way
• A little rocket science – propulsion
• Your home o...
Getting to Mars is Hard
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 3
So why is Mars harder than the Moon?
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 4
Mars is Very Far Away
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 5
55 – 103 million km
400 million km
Distance to the Moon: 384,4...
Radiation along the way
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 6
From Difficult to Very Difficult
• Flyby, unmanned (e.g. Mariner 4, 1964)
• One way, unmanned, orbit (e.g. ESA Mars Expres...
Why is it so difficult?
∆𝑣 = 𝑣 𝑒𝑥ℎ𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑡 ln
𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙
𝑚 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 8
∆v = acceleration OR dece...
Rocket Equation
∆𝑣 = 𝑣 𝑒𝑥ℎ𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑡 ln
𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙
𝑚 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙
Variables:
• Final mass, or spacecraft useful mass
• Required ∆v (desti...
Gravity on Mars
Earth gravity: 9.8 m/s2
Moon gravity: 1.6 m/s2
Mars gravity: 3.7 m/s2
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 ...
Escape velocity (∆v) per planet
Earth: 11.2 km/s
Moon: 2.4 km/s
Mars: 5.0 km/s
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 11
Principles of rocketry
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 12
Rocket
Energy
Mass
Thrust
Types of rockets
• Thermodynamic – heat and pressure
– Chemical propulsion (solid, liquid, hybrid)
• Electrodynamic – char...
1 - Chemical propulsion
• Fuel and oxidizer combine in combustion
chamber to produce heat and by-products
• Solid (solid f...
Solid fuel rocket motor
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 15@Arianespace
Effect of grain geometry on thrust-time
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 16
Hybrid rockets
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 17@virgingalactic
Liquid rocket motor
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 18
First used by Robert Goddard Success by Wernher von Braun
Principle of liquid rocket motor
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 19
Snecma Vulcain-2 on Ariane 5
Classic liquid rocket examples
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 20
Modern liquid rocket examples
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 21
Soyuz Atlas V Falcon 9
SpaceX Falcon 9
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 22@SpaceX
Monopropellant liquid rocket
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 23@MarsCuriosity
2 – Electric Propulsion
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 24
Electrothermal thruster
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 25
SSTL Resistojet
(solar, nuclear)
@SurreySat
Electrostatic thruster
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 26
Electromagnetic thruster
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 27@AdAstraRocket
3. Nuclear propulsion
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 28
MTV = Mars Transfer Vehicle
Thermo Nuclear Rocket Engine
Future: Solar Sail
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 29
In 2010 the Japanese IKAROS Solar Sail demonstrator flew to Venu...
Part II - Living on Mars
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 30@MarsOneProject
Welcome to Mars
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 31
Challenges after arrival
• Radiation
• Temperature
• Low oxygen
• Lack of food
• Lack of water
• Lack of fuel
• Atmospheri...
Water of Life
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 33
• Drinking water
• Fuel (H2)
• Oxygen (O2)
• Radiation Shield
Water of Life
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 34
Terraforming
Surviving The First Decades
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 35
Mars Habitat Constraints
• Leightweight
• Deployable
• Radiation shielding
• Life support
• Climate-proof
• Durable
• Mult...
Mars Analogue Missions
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 37Photo: Mars Society@MDRSupdates
Mars Habitat Research
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 38Photo: Mars Society@MDRSupdates
Mars Habitat Research
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 39Photo: Dr. Ryan Kobrick@MDRSupdates
ÖWF Dachstein Caves 2012
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 40Photo: ÖWF | Katja Zanella-Kux@OEWF
ÖWF Mars 2013 Morocco
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 41
Photo:ÖWF|KatjaZanella-Kux
@OEWF
@OEWF
ÖWF Mars 2013 Morocco
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 42
Photo:ÖWF|KatjaZanella-Kux
@OEWF
HI-SEAS Hawaii Analog
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 43Photo: University of Hawaii | HI-SEAS@HI_SEAS
Growing Food on Mars
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 44
Photo: Mars Society
Photo: Wiki Commons
Mars 500 (days!) Experiment
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 45
Mars 500 “Landing”
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 46@Mars500project
Photo: ESA
ESA Caves
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 47@ESA_CAVES
Photos: ESA
NASA Desert Rats
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 48Photo: NASA@DESERT_RATS
Bigelow Aerospace
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 4949Photo: Bigelow@BigelowSpace
Life support systems
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 50Photo: ESA@ISS_Research
Mars, we are on our way…
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 51Image: Mars Artists Community
Wordt onderdeel van de space community!
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 52
NVR – Netherlands Space Society
• Free stud...
Thank You!
@timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 53
Please follow me at:
@timmermansr
@TravelsInOrbit
@WorldSpaceWeek
@NVR_R...
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The Next Giant Leap - Propulsion and Habitats for Mars

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Presentation about principles of rocket propulsion, habitat design and simulation missions for Mars exploration. Talk at Universiteit Twente, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, 15 May 2014

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The Next Giant Leap - Propulsion and Habitats for Mars

  1. 1. The Next Giant Leap For Mankind Propulsion and Habitats for Mars Remco Timmermans Talk at Mars mini-symposium Universiteit Twente, 15 May 2014
  2. 2. Agenda • Getting to Mars is hard • Why one way is easier than two way • A little rocket science – propulsion • Your home on Mars – habitats @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 2
  3. 3. Getting to Mars is Hard @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 3
  4. 4. So why is Mars harder than the Moon? @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 4
  5. 5. Mars is Very Far Away @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 5 55 – 103 million km 400 million km Distance to the Moon: 384,400 km Average travel time: 5 months
  6. 6. Radiation along the way @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 6
  7. 7. From Difficult to Very Difficult • Flyby, unmanned (e.g. Mariner 4, 1964) • One way, unmanned, orbit (e.g. ESA Mars Express) • One way, unmanned, landing (e.g. Viking, MSL Curiosity) • Flyby, manned (e.g. Inspiration Mars, 2021) • Two way, unmanned, landing, sample return • One way, manned, landing (e.g. Mars One) • Two way, manned, operate rover from orbit • Two way, manned, landing, people return @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 7
  8. 8. Why is it so difficult? ∆𝑣 = 𝑣 𝑒𝑥ℎ𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑡 ln 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑚 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 8 ∆v = acceleration OR deceleration
  9. 9. Rocket Equation ∆𝑣 = 𝑣 𝑒𝑥ℎ𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑡 ln 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑚 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 Variables: • Final mass, or spacecraft useful mass • Required ∆v (destination and route) • Propellant mass • Exhaust velocity @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 9
  10. 10. Gravity on Mars Earth gravity: 9.8 m/s2 Moon gravity: 1.6 m/s2 Mars gravity: 3.7 m/s2 @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 10
  11. 11. Escape velocity (∆v) per planet Earth: 11.2 km/s Moon: 2.4 km/s Mars: 5.0 km/s @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 11
  12. 12. Principles of rocketry @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 12 Rocket Energy Mass Thrust
  13. 13. Types of rockets • Thermodynamic – heat and pressure – Chemical propulsion (solid, liquid, hybrid) • Electrodynamic – charged particles in fields – Electrothermal (electrically produced heat) – Electrostatic (electric fields) – Electromagnetic (electro + magnetic fields) • Nuclear propulsion – nuclear power for heat @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 13
  14. 14. 1 - Chemical propulsion • Fuel and oxidizer combine in combustion chamber to produce heat and by-products • Solid (solid fuel and solid oxidizer) • Hybrid (solid fuel and liquid oxidizer) • Liquid (liquid fuel and liquid oxidizer) @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 14
  15. 15. Solid fuel rocket motor @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 15@Arianespace
  16. 16. Effect of grain geometry on thrust-time @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 16
  17. 17. Hybrid rockets @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 17@virgingalactic
  18. 18. Liquid rocket motor @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 18 First used by Robert Goddard Success by Wernher von Braun
  19. 19. Principle of liquid rocket motor @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 19 Snecma Vulcain-2 on Ariane 5
  20. 20. Classic liquid rocket examples @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 20
  21. 21. Modern liquid rocket examples @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 21 Soyuz Atlas V Falcon 9
  22. 22. SpaceX Falcon 9 @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 22@SpaceX
  23. 23. Monopropellant liquid rocket @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 23@MarsCuriosity
  24. 24. 2 – Electric Propulsion @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 24
  25. 25. Electrothermal thruster @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 25 SSTL Resistojet (solar, nuclear) @SurreySat
  26. 26. Electrostatic thruster @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 26
  27. 27. Electromagnetic thruster @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 27@AdAstraRocket
  28. 28. 3. Nuclear propulsion @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 28 MTV = Mars Transfer Vehicle Thermo Nuclear Rocket Engine
  29. 29. Future: Solar Sail @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 29 In 2010 the Japanese IKAROS Solar Sail demonstrator flew to Venus @JAXA_EN
  30. 30. Part II - Living on Mars @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 30@MarsOneProject
  31. 31. Welcome to Mars @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 31
  32. 32. Challenges after arrival • Radiation • Temperature • Low oxygen • Lack of food • Lack of water • Lack of fuel • Atmospheric pressure • Communication time delay • Shelter @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 32
  33. 33. Water of Life @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 33 • Drinking water • Fuel (H2) • Oxygen (O2) • Radiation Shield
  34. 34. Water of Life @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 34 Terraforming
  35. 35. Surviving The First Decades @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 35
  36. 36. Mars Habitat Constraints • Leightweight • Deployable • Radiation shielding • Life support • Climate-proof • Durable • Multi-purpose • Self supporting • Expandable @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 36@ISUnet
  37. 37. Mars Analogue Missions @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 37Photo: Mars Society@MDRSupdates
  38. 38. Mars Habitat Research @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 38Photo: Mars Society@MDRSupdates
  39. 39. Mars Habitat Research @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 39Photo: Dr. Ryan Kobrick@MDRSupdates
  40. 40. ÖWF Dachstein Caves 2012 @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 40Photo: ÖWF | Katja Zanella-Kux@OEWF
  41. 41. ÖWF Mars 2013 Morocco @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 41 Photo:ÖWF|KatjaZanella-Kux @OEWF @OEWF
  42. 42. ÖWF Mars 2013 Morocco @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 42 Photo:ÖWF|KatjaZanella-Kux @OEWF
  43. 43. HI-SEAS Hawaii Analog @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 43Photo: University of Hawaii | HI-SEAS@HI_SEAS
  44. 44. Growing Food on Mars @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 44 Photo: Mars Society Photo: Wiki Commons
  45. 45. Mars 500 (days!) Experiment @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 45
  46. 46. Mars 500 “Landing” @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 46@Mars500project Photo: ESA
  47. 47. ESA Caves @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 47@ESA_CAVES Photos: ESA
  48. 48. NASA Desert Rats @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 48Photo: NASA@DESERT_RATS
  49. 49. Bigelow Aerospace @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 4949Photo: Bigelow@BigelowSpace
  50. 50. Life support systems @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 50Photo: ESA@ISS_Research
  51. 51. Mars, we are on our way… @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 51Image: Mars Artists Community
  52. 52. Wordt onderdeel van de space community! @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 52 NVR – Netherlands Space Society • Free student membership • Acccess to companies and space organizations • Networking events with the Dutch space sector • Only space ‘glossy’ in the Netherlands • @NVR_Ruimtevaart | www.ruimtevaart-nvr.nl SGAC - Space Generation Advisory Council • Free membership • Represent young space professionals in United Nations • Meet the global leaders in space • Very cool events and scholarships • @SGAC | @SCACNL | www.spacegeneration.org
  53. 53. Thank You! @timmermansr | UTwente | 15-05-2014 53 Please follow me at: @timmermansr @TravelsInOrbit @WorldSpaceWeek @NVR_Ruimtevaart
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