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Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
Open source: can you ignore it?
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Open source: can you ignore it?

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Tim Menzies

Tim Menzies

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  • 1. Open source: can you ignore it? <ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lane Department of Computer Science & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feb 5, 2007 </li></ul></ul>
  • 2. Roadmap <ul><li>What is open source? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where did it come from? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why can't you ignore it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropologically: has been with us for centuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics: too powerful to ignore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legally: no future without it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical: unavoidable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So what social institutions will be adopted to handle it? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 3. What isn't open source <ul><li>The cathedral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>typical closed development: source code is usually not provided (e.g. M'soft) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or, source code is available: between releases development is restricted to exclusive group (e.g. GNU Emacs, GCC) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Bazaar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop code over Internet, in public view. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploits Linus's law: &quot;given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Everybody Loves Eric Raymond
  • 5. Roadmap <ul><li>What is open source? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where did it come from? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why can't you ignore it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropologically: has been with us for centuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics: too powerful to ignore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legally: no future without it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical: unavoidable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So what social institutions will be adopted to handle it? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 6. Where did it come from? <ul><li>It was an accident </li></ul><ul><li>It was a time after </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AT&T had built a national communications grid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It was a time (1965) when </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov. regs stopped AT&T building & selling computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So AT&T lost control of how their wires were used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>While customers wanted their computers to connect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software uncopyable (or, nowhere to copy it too) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everything only runs on 3 Burroughs 91a computers in the world </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 7. Where did it come from? (2) <ul><li>Packet switching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No centralized control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hippy-ness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do anything, rush round and tell everyone about it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIT lab : time-sharing, file-sharing, everything sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California home brew computer club </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wild experimentation, insane successes </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Where did it come from? (3) <ul><li>AT&T research rose to the challenge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ken Thompson & Dennis Ritchie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Build a platform independent operating system (UNIX). Convinced AT&T to give it away for free </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIX source widely used at universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read like Shakespeare </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This was before... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Gates or Steve Jobs: no one had made $$$ from software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov. Regs relaxed on AT&T- who tried to take back control of their product </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Ownership of ideas: the MIT experience <ul><li>LISP machine technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in an open, sharing environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercialized by two companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LISP machines Inc. (sharing caring guys) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolics (who got very serious about intellectual property, I.P. restrictions, locking it up, selling it) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One MIT hacker, Richard Stallman, rebelled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In all-night marathons, would reverse engineer the Symbolics updates and give them away to LISP machine Inc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually, he gave up (workload) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But it taught him the power (danger) of standard licenses. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 10. Stallman's printer and the birth of the Free Software Foundation <ul><li>Later on, working on UNIX distributions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stallman wanted to fix a printer driver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Told that the source code was proprietary – no access for Stallman </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“Oh no”, thinks Stallman, “not again.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“UNIX going the way of LISP machines!” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Set out to build his own UNIX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stamped with the “GNU public license” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to share source, forever onwards written into the code </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Stallman never released a LINUX <ul><li>Starting with portable C compiler (GCC), </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built a large set of free tools (e.g. EMACS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But building the core the operating system (the kernel) defeated the FSF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enter Linus Torvalds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote a kernel from scratch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the simplest design possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Released it on the net, asked for contributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herded a large community updating it </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 12. Everybody Loves Eric Raymond
  • 13. What do we get? <ul><li>Databases and file systems </li></ul><ul><li>Application servers </li></ul><ul><li>Portal servers </li></ul><ul><li>Programming languages </li></ul><ul><li>Frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Components for application development </li></ul><ul><li>Development and test environments </li></ul><ul><li>Business process and workflow management </li></ul><ul><li>Web services </li></ul><ul><li>Middleware and enterprise integration </li></ul><ul><li>SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Rules engines </li></ul><ul><li>ETL, data management and transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Search machines </li></ul>
  • 14. Roadmap <ul><li>What is open source? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where did it come from? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why can't you ignore it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropologically: has been with us for centuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics: too powerful to ignore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legally: no future without it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical: unavoidable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So what social institutions will be adopted to handle it? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 15. O.S & Anthroplogy <ul><li>OSS is inexplicable... or is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the gift economy? Very old </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organ donors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing of food in a hunter-gatherer society, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>safeguard against failure of any individual's daily foraging. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politician gives patronage and favors in exchange for support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacific Northwest Native American potlatch ritual, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>leaders give large amounts of goods to followers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By sacrifici ng accumulated wealth, leaders gain honor. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 16. Roadmap <ul><li>What is open source? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where did it come from? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why can't you ignore it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropologically: has been with us for centuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics: too powerful to ignore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legally: no future without it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical: unavoidable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So what social institutions will be adopted to handle it? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 17. OSS is very useful (says the Europearns) <ul><li>Information economy is (around) 10% of the GDP and >50% of economic growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What can we do to best boost that 10%? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who writes software? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>65% by individuals (often, working for a company) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15% by software firms (e.g. Microsoft) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% by other institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Existing OSS base would cost Euro 12B to reproduce. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This code base is doubling every 18-24 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves industry 36% in software R&D </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europe: Euro 1.2B in OSS development + support (560,000+ jobs), </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euro 263B in revenue / year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More OSS = more innovation = more jobs = more $$$ for everyone </li></ul>
  • 18. Need New Business Paradigms <ul><li>Build a playground where others can play </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the playground useful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charge small levies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make it easier for others to join and change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Than leave and start their own </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E.g. Redhat business model : $328M in the bank </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give away the operating system (LINUX-based) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell training, 24/7 support service in seven languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E.g. IBM, $250M spend on open source research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives them an “in” to previously closed markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can lever that to sell other products </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Mozilla Foundation: $72M profit in 2006 <ul><li>From kick-backs from click-throughs </li></ul><ul><li>Shocking idea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build tools people actually want to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And you'll be rewarded </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Second Life <ul><li>Multi-user virtual reality </li></ul><ul><li>Members by “real estate” where they can build.. anything </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$1,765 for 16 acres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$295/month maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Members buy “linden dollars” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>which can be exchanged for $US </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shops are built, goods are displayed and sold </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linden charges transaction fees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rock stars do performances there </li></ul><ul><li>Corporations build heaquarters there </li></ul>
  • 21. Oh yeah, and you can fly <ul><li>Levering the OSS advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Life viewer recently made open source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mods being built for (e.g.) disabled access to Second Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development cost=$0 </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. Chumby: the “anti-iPod” <ul><li>Open source software on a PDA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless,handheld LINUX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open and hackable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt as you like </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware harder to imitate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why bother? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why not instead create some fee-for-use product on the CHUMBY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster time to market </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. “OSS is economically dangerous” <ul><li>http://www.groklaw.net/articlebasic.php </li></ul><ul><li>Out and out lie perpetuated by closed-source companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who see their market share eroded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Every serious thinker in the field discusses how to evolve the concept of ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to abandon it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An end to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perpetual copyright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the patent system to stifle innovation </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. Roadmap <ul><li>What is open source? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where did it come from? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why can't you ignore it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropologically: has been with us for centuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics: too powerful to ignore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legally: no future without it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical: unavoidable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So what social institutions will be adopted to handle it? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 25. O.S. & Legal <ul><li>We need to change our legal and patent system. </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to 1975 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not everything got patented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not everything got copyrighted, in perpetuity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patents weren't used as weapons in the FUD wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright was judged by humans, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not controlled by software written by the producers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 26. Why do we need new laws? <ul><li>We need freedom to change. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pablo Picasso: &quot;To finish a work? To finish a picture? What nonsense! To finish it means to be through with it, to kill it, to rid it of its soul, to give it its final blow the coup de grace for the painter as well as for the picture.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stallman's four freedoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0 The freedom to run the program, for any purpose. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits. Access to the source code is a precondition for this. </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. What would those laws mean? <ul><li>Free to use, free to give, free to get back improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Stallman - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Your software must be equally usable in an abortion clinic, or by an anti-abortion organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“These political arguments belong on the floor of Congress, not in software licenses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Some people find this lack of discrimination extremely offensive!&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  • 28. The threat <ul><li>The Internet's very design built a neutral platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>upon which the widest range of creators could experiment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Powerful conglomerates are swiftly using both law and technology to &quot;tame&quot; the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stifling the creatitvity that created it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transforming it from an open forum for ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>into nothing more than cable television on speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovation, stifled, directed from the top down, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increasingly controlled by owners of the networks, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>holders of the largest patent portfolios, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and, most invidiously, hoarders of copyrights. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 29. Paradise Lost? <ul><li>But surely the Internet is more that just a massive mall where we can only buy-buy-buy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Albeit with trivial customization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More things in heaven and earth than are dreamt of in your philosophy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Range of options offered on the web much less than range of possible options </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which of these narrowly defined options will I force you to buy? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>My SCION could have come in many colors. But can my new car... </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fly? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mate with other cars I like to auto-construct new ones? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where do we practice unfettered imagination? </li></ul></ul>
  • 30. Free access to Resources? Dangerous? <ul><li>A mature society has institutions that protects and secures dangerous resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guns have gun cabinets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forests have conservation laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plutonium and anthrax viruses are locked away (we hope) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The same mature society allows free access to other resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephones, roadways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication of scientific theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An open press where ideas are discussed </li></ul></ul>
  • 31. Free access to Resources? Useful! <ul><li>Do we want centralized control of all resources? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single point of failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 2005: national power grid crashed by one tree on one power line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soft resources are unique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>using them does not exhaust them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>information can be shared without being halved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the more we work on ideas, the more ideas we have. </li></ul></ul>
  • 32. Why OSS teaches the rest of us <ul><li>Creativity always builds on the past </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We build, not anew, but on top: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes tearing at roots, often not </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free resource are crucial to innovation and creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared language, press, roads, power, phones, published scientific theories.... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Packet switching networks: no central controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>just connect and go, all packets treated equally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a neutrality that opens access to all </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We are building more (digital) artifacts now than at any time in the past. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How can we assure that the future can access the now? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 33. Lawrence Lessig & the Creative Commons <ul><li>Lessig lobbies against current copyright law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But not against copyright law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>False dicohotomy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patents/protection vs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open source/no control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the current copyright law too restrictive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write new licenses </li></ul></ul>
  • 34. Choosing a license <ul><li>Simple interface </li></ul><ul><li>Two versions of license </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human (short) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legalese (v.long) </li></ul></ul>
  • 35. Roadmap <ul><li>What is open source? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where did it come from? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why can't you ignore it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropologically: has been with us for centuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics: too powerful to ignore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legally: no future without it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical: unavoidable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So what social institutions will be adopted to handle it? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 36. Technical <ul><li>Can you make a resource available? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yet keep it private at the same time? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technically, maybe not </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stallman's empty passwords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Koza, data miners, electrical circuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bunny's hack of the X-box </li></ul></ul>
  • 37. Stallman's empty password <ul><li>Stallman hacked the password control of one system to tell users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I see you chose the password “starfish”.” I suggest that you switch to the password “carriage return”. It's much easier to type and also it stands up to the principle that there should be no passwords. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At most, a fifth of the users on these machines switched to empty string passwords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including Stallman </li></ul></ul>
  • 38. Koza's patent learner <ul><li>Repeated for 21 previously duplicated patents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take a circuit design with a known I/O function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire off a genetic algorithm to reproduce the I/O, but using different circuitry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So, by describing something, you make it possible to break the patent. </li></ul></ul>
  • 39. Hacking the X-box <ul><li>Andrew “bunnie” Huang </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse engineering intellectual property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inducing business-model busting modifications to hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g turn an X-box into a cheap powerful x86 LINUX PC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>And what is he doing now? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting an experiment on making $$$ from open source business models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded Chumby Industries </li></ul></ul>
  • 40. Tension between privacy & availability <ul><li>If “it” is accessible, then “it” can be pried open </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By Stallman, Koza, bunny, etc etc etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surprising advantages to making it open and available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More developers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More profit! </li></ul></ul>
  • 41. So what about the sharp sticky things? <ul><li>Sure, some things must be secured: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guns need guns cabinets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We need social institutions to punish inappropriate access or abuse of digital resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But it's wrong to treat most ideas like anthrax </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the digital material being locked away is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not radioactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not infectious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not explosive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Companies need to realize </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They have a choice how they use their scare intellectual resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ineffectal complex methods to lock up I.P.? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or building new resources that attack larger markets? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 42. So, can you ignore Open Source? <ul><li>Anthropologically: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has been with us for centuries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>too powerful to ignore </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legally: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no future without it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unavoidable, for shared resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So what social institutions will be adopted to handle it? </li></ul></ul>
  • 43.  

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