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An Introduction to Scrum<br />Tim McOwan<br />KashFlow Software<br />
Overview<br />Case study & theory<br />Scrum principles<br />Roles, ceremonies & artifacts<br />Planning<br />Where next?<...
Presentation Framework from <br />Except:<br /> Motivation theory slides<br /> Salesforce.com<br /> Exercises<br /> Story ...
“The… ‘relay race’ approach to product development…may conflict with the goals of maximum speed and flexibility. Instead a...
Scrum in 100 words<br /><ul><li>Scrum is an agile process that allows us to focus on delivering the highest business value...
It allows us to rapidly and repeatedly inspect actual working software (every two weeks to one month).
The business sets the priorities. Teams self-organize to determine the best way to deliver the highest priority features.
Every two weeks to a month anyone can see real working software and decide to release it as is or continue to enhance it f...
Initial scrums at Easel Corp in 1993
IDX and 500+ people doing Scrum
Ken Schwaber
ADM
Scrum presented at OOPSLA 96 with Sutherland
Author of three books on Scrum
Mike Beedle
Scrum patterns in PLOPD4
Ken Schwaber and Mike Cohn
Co-founded Scrum Alliance in 2002, initiallywithin the Agile Alliance</li></li></ul><li>Scrum has been used by:<br /><ul><...
 Yahoo
 Google
 Electronic Arts
 High Moon Studios
 Lockheed Martin
 Philips
 Siemens
 Nokia
 Capital One
 BBC
 Intuit
 Nielsen Media
 First American Real Estate
 BMC Software
Ipswitch
 John Deere
 Lexis Nexis
Sabre
 Salesforce.com
 Time Warner
 Turner Broadcasting
Oce
KashFlow Software</li></li></ul><li>Case Study:Salesforce.com<br />Started 2001<br />3 people in R & D<br />4 releases per...
Days between Major Releases <br />Features Delivered per Team <br />2000          2001          2002          2003        ...
Big Bang Scrum Application<br />1 late release  4 on time releases in 1 year<br />+94% feature requests delivered (+38% p...
Transformation Results<br />Days between Major Releases <br />Features Delivered per Team <br />2000        2001        20...
Salesforce Tips<br />Focus on principles over mechanics<br />Focus on automation<br />Provide transparency<br />When the h...
86<br />%<br />of respondents are having the “best time” or a “good time” at Salesforce<br />* Improved from 40% 15 months...
Motivation Theory – Job Design<br />
Motivation Theory – Psychological Contract<br />
Scrum has been used for:<br /><ul><li>Video game development
FDA-approved, life-critical systems
Satellite-control software
Websites
Handheld software
Mobile phones
Network switching applications
ISV applications
Some of the largest applications in use
Commercial software
In-house development
Contract development
Fixed-price projects
Financial applications
ISO 9001-certified applications
Embedded systems
24x7 systems with 99.999% uptime requirements
the Joint Strike Fighter</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics<br /><ul><li>Self-organizing teams
Product progresses in a series of month-long “sprints”
Requirements are captured as items in a list of “product backlog”
No specific engineering practices prescribed
One of the “agile processes”</li></li></ul><li>Process and tools<br />Individuals and interactions<br />Following a plan<b...
Project noise level<br />Far from<br />Agreement<br />Anarchy<br />Complex<br />Requirements<br />Complicated<br />Source:...
Sometimes<br />Rarely<br />16%<br />19%<br />Never<br />Often<br />45%<br />13%<br />Always<br />7%<br />Wasted Effort<br ...
Exercise<br />Possible benefits (negatives) of Scrum to Our organisation<br />Post-Its, 5 minutes<br />
The Sprint Cycle<br />Sprint goal<br />24 hours<br />Cancel<br />Gift wrap<br />Return<br />Coupons<br />Gift wrap<br />Co...
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Introduction to Scrum

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  1. 1. An Introduction to Scrum<br />Tim McOwan<br />KashFlow Software<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Case study & theory<br />Scrum principles<br />Roles, ceremonies & artifacts<br />Planning<br />Where next?<br />
  3. 3. Presentation Framework from <br />Except:<br /> Motivation theory slides<br /> Salesforce.com<br /> Exercises<br /> Story Point estimating<br /> Lean software development principles<br /> Miscellaneous other slides<br />
  4. 4. “The… ‘relay race’ approach to product development…may conflict with the goals of maximum speed and flexibility. Instead a holistic or ‘rugby’ approach—where a team tries to go the distance as a unit, passing the ball back and forth—may better serve today’s competitive requirements.”<br />Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka, “The New New Product Development Game”, Harvard Business Review,January 1986.<br />We’re losing the relay race<br />
  5. 5. Scrum in 100 words<br /><ul><li>Scrum is an agile process that allows us to focus on delivering the highest business value in the shortest time.
  6. 6. It allows us to rapidly and repeatedly inspect actual working software (every two weeks to one month).
  7. 7. The business sets the priorities. Teams self-organize to determine the best way to deliver the highest priority features.
  8. 8. Every two weeks to a month anyone can see real working software and decide to release it as is or continue to enhance it for another sprint.</li></li></ul><li>Scrum origins<br /><ul><li>Jeff Sutherland
  9. 9. Initial scrums at Easel Corp in 1993
  10. 10. IDX and 500+ people doing Scrum
  11. 11. Ken Schwaber
  12. 12. ADM
  13. 13. Scrum presented at OOPSLA 96 with Sutherland
  14. 14. Author of three books on Scrum
  15. 15. Mike Beedle
  16. 16. Scrum patterns in PLOPD4
  17. 17. Ken Schwaber and Mike Cohn
  18. 18. Co-founded Scrum Alliance in 2002, initiallywithin the Agile Alliance</li></li></ul><li>Scrum has been used by:<br /><ul><li> Microsoft
  19. 19. Yahoo
  20. 20. Google
  21. 21. Electronic Arts
  22. 22. High Moon Studios
  23. 23. Lockheed Martin
  24. 24. Philips
  25. 25. Siemens
  26. 26. Nokia
  27. 27. Capital One
  28. 28. BBC
  29. 29. Intuit
  30. 30. Nielsen Media
  31. 31. First American Real Estate
  32. 32. BMC Software
  33. 33. Ipswitch
  34. 34. John Deere
  35. 35. Lexis Nexis
  36. 36. Sabre
  37. 37. Salesforce.com
  38. 38. Time Warner
  39. 39. Turner Broadcasting
  40. 40. Oce
  41. 41. KashFlow Software</li></li></ul><li>Case Study:Salesforce.com<br />Started 2001<br />3 people in R & D<br />4 releases per year<br />2006<br />200+ in R & D<br />1 release per year – late!<br />
  42. 42. Days between Major Releases <br />Features Delivered per Team <br />2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 <br />
  43. 43. Big Bang Scrum Application<br />1 late release  4 on time releases in 1 year<br />+94% feature requests delivered (+38% pro rata)<br />+ 61%reduction in mean time to release<br />91% of customers believe quality has improved / remained the same<br />
  44. 44. Transformation Results<br />Days between Major Releases <br />Features Delivered per Team <br />2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007<br />
  45. 45. Salesforce Tips<br />Focus on principles over mechanics<br />Focus on automation<br />Provide transparency<br />When the heat is on stick to your guns<br />Experiment, be patient and expect to make mistakes<br />
  46. 46. 86<br />%<br />of respondents are having the “best time” or a “good time” at Salesforce<br />* Improved from 40% 15 months ago<br />
  47. 47. Motivation Theory – Job Design<br />
  48. 48. Motivation Theory – Psychological Contract<br />
  49. 49. Scrum has been used for:<br /><ul><li>Video game development
  50. 50. FDA-approved, life-critical systems
  51. 51. Satellite-control software
  52. 52. Websites
  53. 53. Handheld software
  54. 54. Mobile phones
  55. 55. Network switching applications
  56. 56. ISV applications
  57. 57. Some of the largest applications in use
  58. 58. Commercial software
  59. 59. In-house development
  60. 60. Contract development
  61. 61. Fixed-price projects
  62. 62. Financial applications
  63. 63. ISO 9001-certified applications
  64. 64. Embedded systems
  65. 65. 24x7 systems with 99.999% uptime requirements
  66. 66. the Joint Strike Fighter</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics<br /><ul><li>Self-organizing teams
  67. 67. Product progresses in a series of month-long “sprints”
  68. 68. Requirements are captured as items in a list of “product backlog”
  69. 69. No specific engineering practices prescribed
  70. 70. One of the “agile processes”</li></li></ul><li>Process and tools<br />Individuals and interactions<br />Following a plan<br />Responding to change<br />Comprehensive documentation<br />Working software<br />Contract negotiation<br />Customer collaboration<br />over<br />over<br />over<br />over<br />The Agile Manifesto – a statement of values<br />Source: http://agilemanifesto.org<br />
  71. 71. Project noise level<br />Far from<br />Agreement<br />Anarchy<br />Complex<br />Requirements<br />Complicated<br />Source: Strategic Management and Organizational Dynamics by Ralph Stacey in Agile Software Development with Scrum by Ken Schwaber and Mike Beedle.<br />Simple<br />Close to<br />Agreement<br />Technology<br />Close to<br />Certainty<br />Far from<br />Certainty<br />
  72. 72. Sometimes<br />Rarely<br />16%<br />19%<br />Never<br />Often<br />45%<br />13%<br />Always<br />7%<br />Wasted Effort<br />Features and Functions Used in a Typical System<br />Often or Always<br /> Used: 20%<br />Rarely or Never<br /> Used: 64%<br />Standish Group Study Reported at XP2002 by Jim Johnson, Chairman<br />
  73. 73. Exercise<br />Possible benefits (negatives) of Scrum to Our organisation<br />Post-Its, 5 minutes<br />
  74. 74. The Sprint Cycle<br />Sprint goal<br />24 hours<br />Cancel<br />Gift wrap<br />Return<br />Coupons<br />Gift wrap<br />Coupons<br />Cancel<br />Sprint backlog<br />Sprint<br />2-4 weeks<br />Return<br />Potentially shippable<br />product increment<br />Scrum<br />Product<br />backlog<br />
  75. 75. Putting it all together<br />
  76. 76. Sprints<br /><ul><li>Scrum projects make progress in a series of “sprints”
  77. 77. Typical duration is 2–4 weeks or a calendar month at most
  78. 78. A constant duration leads to a better rhythm
  79. 79. Product is designed, coded, and tested during the sprint</li></li></ul><li>And….<br />Regular “of value” releases<br />Does it really need to be done? What is the value? <br />Knowing the context<br />So, knowing the trade-offs<br />Collaborative<br />Communication<br />
  80. 80. Communication (Typical Model)<br />Send<br />
  81. 81. Communication (Shannon et al)<br />
  82. 82. Sequential vs. overlapping development<br />Requirements<br />Design<br />Code<br />Test<br />Rather than doing all of one thing at a time...<br />...Scrum teams do a little of everything all the time<br />Source: “The New New Product Development Game” by Takeuchi and Nonaka. Harvard Business Review, January 1986.<br />
  83. 83. No changes during a sprint<br />Change<br /><ul><li>Plan sprint durations around how long you can commit to keeping change out of the sprint</li></li></ul><li>Scrum framework<br />Roles<br />Artifacts<br /><ul><li>Product owner
  84. 84. ScrumMaster
  85. 85. Team
  86. 86. Product backlog
  87. 87. Sprint backlog
  88. 88. Burndown charts</li></ul>Ceremonies<br /><ul><li>Sprint planning
  89. 89. Sprint review
  90. 90. Sprint retrospective
  91. 91. Daily scrum meeting</li></li></ul><li>Scrum framework<br />Roles<br /><ul><li>Product owner
  92. 92. ScrumMaster
  93. 93. Team</li></ul>Ceremonies<br /><ul><li>Sprint planning
  94. 94. Sprint review
  95. 95. Sprint retrospective
  96. 96. Daily scrum meeting</li></ul>Artifacts<br /><ul><li>Product backlog
  97. 97. Sprint backlog
  98. 98. Burndown charts</li></li></ul><li>Product owner<br /><ul><li>Define the features of the product
  99. 99. Decide on release date and content
  100. 100. Be responsible for the profitability of the product (ROI)
  101. 101. Prioritize features according to market value
  102. 102. Adjust features and priority every iteration, as needed 
  103. 103. Accept or reject work results</li></li></ul><li>Product Owner<br />What are their responsibilities?<br />Post Its, 5 minutes<br />
  104. 104. The ScrumMaster<br /><ul><li>Represents management to the project
  105. 105. Responsible for enacting Scrum values and practices
  106. 106. Removes impediments
  107. 107. Ensure that the team is fully functional and productive
  108. 108. Enable close cooperation across all roles and functions
  109. 109. Shield the team from external interference</li></li></ul><li>Scrum Master<br />What are their responsibilities?<br />Post Its, 5 minutes<br />
  110. 110. The team<br /><ul><li>Typically 5-9 people
  111. 111. Cross-functional:
  112. 112. Programmers, testers, user experience designers, etc.
  113. 113. Members should be full-time
  114. 114. May be exceptions (e.g. database administrator)
  115. 115. Teams are self-organizing
  116. 116. Ideally, no titles but rarely a possibility
  117. 117. Membership should change only between sprints</li></li></ul><li>Scrum framework<br />Roles<br />Artifacts<br /><ul><li>Product owner
  118. 118. ScrumMaster
  119. 119. Team
  120. 120. Product backlog
  121. 121. Sprint backlog
  122. 122. Burndown charts</li></ul>Ceremonies<br /><ul><li>Sprint planning
  123. 123. Sprint review
  124. 124. Sprint retrospective
  125. 125. Daily scrum meeting</li></li></ul><li>Sprint<br />goal<br />Sprint<br />backlog<br />Sprint planning meeting<br />Team capacity<br />Sprint prioritization<br />Product backlog<br /><ul><li>Analyze and evaluate product backlog
  126. 126. Select sprint goal</li></ul>Business conditions<br />Sprint planning<br /><ul><li>Decide how to achieve sprint goal (design)
  127. 127. Create sprint backlog (tasks) from product backlog items (user stories / features)
  128. 128. Estimate sprint backlog in hours</li></ul>Current product<br />Technology<br />
  129. 129. Sprint planning<br />Code the middle tier (8 hours)<br />Code the user interface (4)<br />Write test fixtures (4)<br />Code the foo class (6)<br />Update performance tests (4)<br /><ul><li>Team selects items from the product backlog they can commit to completing
  130. 130. Sprint backlog is created
  131. 131. Tasks are identified and each is estimated (1-16 hours)
  132. 132. Collaboratively, not done alone by the ScrumMaster
  133. 133. High-level design is considered</li></ul>As a vacation planner, I want to see photos of the hotels.<br />
  134. 134. Sprint Planning<br />Who has what responsibilities?<br />Post Its, 10 minutes<br />
  135. 135. Sprint planning<br />Talk : join in<br />What is done?<br />Ownership of estimates<br />Learning opportunity of context<br />
  136. 136. The daily scrum<br /><ul><li>Parameters
  137. 137. Daily
  138. 138. 15-minutes
  139. 139. Stand-up
  140. 140. Not for problem solving
  141. 141. Whole world is invited
  142. 142. Only team members, ScrumMaster, product owner, can talk
  143. 143. Helps avoid other unnecessary meetings</li></li></ul><li>Everyone answers 3 questions<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />What did you do yesterday?<br />What will you do today?<br />Is anything in your way?<br /><ul><li>These are not status for the ScrumMaster
  144. 144. They are commitments in front of peers</li></li></ul><li>Work the board<br />Update with real estimates<br />Highlight issues<br />Own the estimate if task taken<br />Whose board?<br />
  145. 145. Daily Scrum<br />What are your responsibilities?<br />Post Its, 10 minutes<br />
  146. 146. The sprint review<br /><ul><li>Team presents what it accomplished during the sprint
  147. 147. Typically takes the form of a demo of new features or underlying architecture
  148. 148. Informal
  149. 149. 2-hour prep time rule
  150. 150. No slides
  151. 151. Whole team participates
  152. 152. Invite the world</li></li></ul><li>Sprint retrospective<br /><ul><li>Periodically take a look at what is and is not working
  153. 153. Typically 15–30 minutes
  154. 154. Done after every sprint
  155. 155. Whole team participates
  156. 156. ScrumMaster
  157. 157. Product owner
  158. 158. Team
  159. 159. Possibly customers and others</li></li></ul><li>Start / Stop / Continue<br />This is just one of many ways to do a sprint retrospective.<br /><ul><li>Whole team gathers and discusses what they’d like to:</li></ul>Start doing<br />Stop doing<br />Continue doing<br />
  160. 160. Retrospectives<br />What are your responsibilities?<br />Post Its, 5 minutes<br />
  161. 161. Scrum framework<br />Roles<br />Artifacts<br /><ul><li>Product owner
  162. 162. ScrumMaster
  163. 163. Team
  164. 164. Product backlog
  165. 165. Sprint backlog
  166. 166. Burndown charts</li></ul>Ceremonies<br /><ul><li>Sprint planning
  167. 167. Sprint review
  168. 168. Sprint retrospective
  169. 169. Daily scrum meeting</li></li></ul><li>Product backlog<br /><ul><li>The requirements
  170. 170. A list of all desired work on the project
  171. 171. Ideally expressed such that each item has value to the users or customers of the product
  172. 172. Prioritized by the product owner
  173. 173. Reprioritized at the start of each sprint</li></ul>This is the product backlog<br />
  174. 174. A sample product backlog<br />
  175. 175. The sprint goal<br /><ul><li>A short statement of what the work will be focused on during the sprint</li></ul>Life Sciences<br />Support features necessary for population genetics studies.<br />Database Application<br />Make the application run on SQL Server in addition to Oracle.<br />Financial services<br />Support more technical indicators than company ABC with real-time, streaming data.<br />
  176. 176. Managing the sprint backlog<br /><ul><li>Individuals sign up for work of their own choosing
  177. 177. Work is never assigned
  178. 178. Estimated work remaining is updated daily
  179. 179. Any team member can add, delete or change the sprint backlog
  180. 180. Work for the sprint emerges
  181. 181. If work is unclear, define a sprint backlog item with a larger amount of time and break it down later
  182. 182. Update work remaining as more becomes known</li></li></ul><li>A sprint backlog<br />8<br />4<br />8<br />16<br />12<br />4<br />10<br />8<br />16<br />11<br />8<br />16<br />12<br />8<br />8<br />8<br />8<br />8<br />4<br />Add error logging<br />8<br />Tasks<br />Mon<br />Tues<br />Wed<br />Thur<br />Fri<br />Code the user interface<br />Code the middle tier<br />Test the middle tier<br />Write online help<br />Write the foo class<br />
  183. 183. A sprint burndown chart<br />Hours<br />
  184. 184. 4<br />8<br />12<br />7<br />10<br />16<br />11<br />16<br />8<br />Tasks<br />Mon<br />Tues<br />Wed<br />Thur<br />Fri<br />Code the user interface<br />8<br />Code the middle tier<br />16<br />Test the middle tier<br />8<br />Write online help<br />12<br />50<br />40<br />30<br />Hours<br />20<br />10<br />0<br />Mon<br />Tue<br />Wed<br />Thu<br />Fri<br />
  185. 185. Does Scrum do everything?<br />What should we be doing in any event?<br />5 minutes, Post Its.<br />
  186. 186. Lean Software Development<br />Mary and Tom Poppendieck<br />Waiting<br />Queuing theory, steady state of arrival<br />Task switching<br />Partially done or ‘stored’ completed work<br />Speed of fixing defects<br />Options<br />Create many<br />Decide at last responsible moment<br />Trade offs<br />
  187. 187. Scalability<br /><ul><li>Typical individual team is 7 ± 2 people
  188. 188. Scalability comes from teams of teams
  189. 189. Factors in scaling
  190. 190. Type of application
  191. 191. Team size
  192. 192. Team dispersion
  193. 193. Project duration
  194. 194. Scrum has been used on multiple 500+ person projects</li></li></ul><li>Planning<br />Estimating<br />Road map!<br />
  195. 195. User Stories<br />Epics: A milestone (?) with many stories<br />User Story<br />Conversations<br />Acceptance Criteria<br />
  196. 196. Epics<br />Think of a recent Epic…<br />Good:<br />5 minutes, write some stories<br />Choose a Story<br />Write the conversations<br />Write the acceptance criteria<br />
  197. 197. Estimating using Story Points<br />Relative complexity<br />How long will story x take compared to story y?<br />Still an estimate<br />More thorough than other methods<br />Takes into account productivity / efficiency of the team<br />
  198. 198. Relative complexity – the Bridge metaphor<br />1 SP<br />8 SP<br />5 SP<br />3 SP<br />2 SP<br />20 SP<br />13 SP<br />?<br />100 SP<br />40 SP<br />
  199. 199. Simple Velocity<br />3 simple wooden bridges in 1 sprint<br />Velocity = 3 story points<br />Alternatively:<br />1 simple wooden bridge and 1 basic concrete bridge<br />1 covered wooden bridge<br />Team velocity increases and decreases<br />New team members, change in environment etc.<br />
  200. 200. Scrum Estimating<br />Poker cards<br />Deliberately increases exponentially to take into account:<br />More uncertainty with bigger tasks<br />Debate and discuss<br />No back log item > 20<br />Sufficient estimating<br />
  201. 201. Scrum is not Magic<br />It is simple...<br />...but hard work...<br />...and sometimes painful!<br />
  202. 202. Dilbert’s World<br />
  203. 203. The art of the possible<br />Unless you are Tom Cruise .. and we aren’t, although we are all taller than him!<br />The impossible is… <br /> Still impossible<br />
  204. 204. The art of the possible<br />We do what we can<br />Not what we cannot<br />We cannot do xyz<br />OK, What can we do?<br />
  205. 205. Where to go next<br /><ul><li>www.mountaingoatsoftware.com/scrum
  206. 206. www.scrumalliance.org
  207. 207. www.controlchaos.com
  208. 208. scrumdevelopment@yahoogroups.com</li></li></ul><li>A Scrum reading list<br /><ul><li>Agile and Iterative Development: A Manager’s Guide by Craig Larman
  209. 209. Agile Estimating and Planning by Mike Cohn
  210. 210. Agile Project Managementwith Scrum by Ken Schwaber
  211. 211. Agile Retrospectives by Esther Derby and Diana Larsen
  212. 212. Agile Software Development Ecosystems by Jim Highsmith
  213. 213. Agile Software Development with Scrum by Ken Schwaber and Mike Beedle
  214. 214. Scrum and The Enterprise by Ken Schwaber
  215. 215. User Stories Applied for Agile Software Development by Mike Cohn
  216. 216. Lean Software Development by Mary & Tom Poppendieck
  217. 217. Lots of weekly articles at www.scrumalliance.org</li></li></ul><li>What to take away<br />Inspect and adapt!<br />What will I be doing differently?<br />What do I plan to do in:<br />Sprint planning?<br />Daily scrums?<br />Retrospectives?<br />
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