Introduction to Scrum
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  • 1. An Introduction to Scrum
    Tim McOwan
    KashFlow Software
  • 2. Overview
    Case study & theory
    Scrum principles
    Roles, ceremonies & artifacts
    Planning
    Where next?
  • 3. Presentation Framework from
    Except:
    Motivation theory slides
    Salesforce.com
    Exercises
    Story Point estimating
    Lean software development principles
    Miscellaneous other slides
  • 4. “The… ‘relay race’ approach to product development…may conflict with the goals of maximum speed and flexibility. Instead a holistic or ‘rugby’ approach—where a team tries to go the distance as a unit, passing the ball back and forth—may better serve today’s competitive requirements.”
    Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka, “The New New Product Development Game”, Harvard Business Review,January 1986.
    We’re losing the relay race
  • 5. Scrum in 100 words
    • Scrum is an agile process that allows us to focus on delivering the highest business value in the shortest time.
    • 6. It allows us to rapidly and repeatedly inspect actual working software (every two weeks to one month).
    • 7. The business sets the priorities. Teams self-organize to determine the best way to deliver the highest priority features.
    • 8. Every two weeks to a month anyone can see real working software and decide to release it as is or continue to enhance it for another sprint.
  • Scrum origins
    • Jeff Sutherland
    • 9. Initial scrums at Easel Corp in 1993
    • 10. IDX and 500+ people doing Scrum
    • 11. Ken Schwaber
    • 12. ADM
    • 13. Scrum presented at OOPSLA 96 with Sutherland
    • 14. Author of three books on Scrum
    • 15. Mike Beedle
    • 16. Scrum patterns in PLOPD4
    • 17. Ken Schwaber and Mike Cohn
    • 18. Co-founded Scrum Alliance in 2002, initiallywithin the Agile Alliance
  • Scrum has been used by:
  • Case Study:Salesforce.com
    Started 2001
    3 people in R & D
    4 releases per year
    2006
    200+ in R & D
    1 release per year – late!
  • 42. Days between Major Releases
    Features Delivered per Team
    2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
  • 43. Big Bang Scrum Application
    1 late release  4 on time releases in 1 year
    +94% feature requests delivered (+38% pro rata)
    + 61%reduction in mean time to release
    91% of customers believe quality has improved / remained the same
  • 44. Transformation Results
    Days between Major Releases
    Features Delivered per Team
    2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
  • 45. Salesforce Tips
    Focus on principles over mechanics
    Focus on automation
    Provide transparency
    When the heat is on stick to your guns
    Experiment, be patient and expect to make mistakes
  • 46. 86
    %
    of respondents are having the “best time” or a “good time” at Salesforce
    * Improved from 40% 15 months ago
  • 47. Motivation Theory – Job Design
  • 48. Motivation Theory – Psychological Contract
  • 49. Scrum has been used for:
    • Video game development
    • 50. FDA-approved, life-critical systems
    • 51. Satellite-control software
    • 52. Websites
    • 53. Handheld software
    • 54. Mobile phones
    • 55. Network switching applications
    • 56. ISV applications
    • 57. Some of the largest applications in use
    • 58. Commercial software
    • 59. In-house development
    • 60. Contract development
    • 61. Fixed-price projects
    • 62. Financial applications
    • 63. ISO 9001-certified applications
    • 64. Embedded systems
    • 65. 24x7 systems with 99.999% uptime requirements
    • 66. the Joint Strike Fighter
  • Characteristics
    • Self-organizing teams
    • 67. Product progresses in a series of month-long “sprints”
    • 68. Requirements are captured as items in a list of “product backlog”
    • 69. No specific engineering practices prescribed
    • 70. One of the “agile processes”
  • Process and tools
    Individuals and interactions
    Following a plan
    Responding to change
    Comprehensive documentation
    Working software
    Contract negotiation
    Customer collaboration
    over
    over
    over
    over
    The Agile Manifesto – a statement of values
    Source: http://agilemanifesto.org
  • 71. Project noise level
    Far from
    Agreement
    Anarchy
    Complex
    Requirements
    Complicated
    Source: Strategic Management and Organizational Dynamics by Ralph Stacey in Agile Software Development with Scrum by Ken Schwaber and Mike Beedle.
    Simple
    Close to
    Agreement
    Technology
    Close to
    Certainty
    Far from
    Certainty
  • 72. Sometimes
    Rarely
    16%
    19%
    Never
    Often
    45%
    13%
    Always
    7%
    Wasted Effort
    Features and Functions Used in a Typical System
    Often or Always
    Used: 20%
    Rarely or Never
    Used: 64%
    Standish Group Study Reported at XP2002 by Jim Johnson, Chairman
  • 73. Exercise
    Possible benefits (negatives) of Scrum to Our organisation
    Post-Its, 5 minutes
  • 74. The Sprint Cycle
    Sprint goal
    24 hours
    Cancel
    Gift wrap
    Return
    Coupons
    Gift wrap
    Coupons
    Cancel
    Sprint backlog
    Sprint
    2-4 weeks
    Return
    Potentially shippable
    product increment
    Scrum
    Product
    backlog
  • 75. Putting it all together
  • 76. Sprints
    • Scrum projects make progress in a series of “sprints”
    • 77. Typical duration is 2–4 weeks or a calendar month at most
    • 78. A constant duration leads to a better rhythm
    • 79. Product is designed, coded, and tested during the sprint
  • And….
    Regular “of value” releases
    Does it really need to be done? What is the value?
    Knowing the context
    So, knowing the trade-offs
    Collaborative
    Communication
  • 80. Communication (Typical Model)
    Send
  • 81. Communication (Shannon et al)
  • 82. Sequential vs. overlapping development
    Requirements
    Design
    Code
    Test
    Rather than doing all of one thing at a time...
    ...Scrum teams do a little of everything all the time
    Source: “The New New Product Development Game” by Takeuchi and Nonaka. Harvard Business Review, January 1986.
  • 83. No changes during a sprint
    Change
    • Plan sprint durations around how long you can commit to keeping change out of the sprint
  • Scrum framework
    Roles
    Artifacts
    Ceremonies
    • Sprint planning
    • 89. Sprint review
    • 90. Sprint retrospective
    • 91. Daily scrum meeting
  • Scrum framework
    Roles
    Ceremonies
    • Sprint planning
    • 94. Sprint review
    • 95. Sprint retrospective
    • 96. Daily scrum meeting
    Artifacts
    • Product backlog
    • 97. Sprint backlog
    • 98. Burndown charts
  • Product owner
    • Define the features of the product
    • 99. Decide on release date and content
    • 100. Be responsible for the profitability of the product (ROI)
    • 101. Prioritize features according to market value
    • 102. Adjust features and priority every iteration, as needed 
    • 103. Accept or reject work results
  • Product Owner
    What are their responsibilities?
    Post Its, 5 minutes
  • 104. The ScrumMaster
    • Represents management to the project
    • 105. Responsible for enacting Scrum values and practices
    • 106. Removes impediments
    • 107. Ensure that the team is fully functional and productive
    • 108. Enable close cooperation across all roles and functions
    • 109. Shield the team from external interference
  • Scrum Master
    What are their responsibilities?
    Post Its, 5 minutes
  • 110. The team
    • Typically 5-9 people
    • 111. Cross-functional:
    • 112. Programmers, testers, user experience designers, etc.
    • 113. Members should be full-time
    • 114. May be exceptions (e.g. database administrator)
    • 115. Teams are self-organizing
    • 116. Ideally, no titles but rarely a possibility
    • 117. Membership should change only between sprints
  • Scrum framework
    Roles
    Artifacts
    Ceremonies
  • Sprint
    goal
    Sprint
    backlog
    Sprint planning meeting
    Team capacity
    Sprint prioritization
    Product backlog
    • Analyze and evaluate product backlog
    • 126. Select sprint goal
    Business conditions
    Sprint planning
    • Decide how to achieve sprint goal (design)
    • 127. Create sprint backlog (tasks) from product backlog items (user stories / features)
    • 128. Estimate sprint backlog in hours
    Current product
    Technology
  • 129. Sprint planning
    Code the middle tier (8 hours)
    Code the user interface (4)
    Write test fixtures (4)
    Code the foo class (6)
    Update performance tests (4)
    • Team selects items from the product backlog they can commit to completing
    • 130. Sprint backlog is created
    • 131. Tasks are identified and each is estimated (1-16 hours)
    • 132. Collaboratively, not done alone by the ScrumMaster
    • 133. High-level design is considered
    As a vacation planner, I want to see photos of the hotels.
  • 134. Sprint Planning
    Who has what responsibilities?
    Post Its, 10 minutes
  • 135. Sprint planning
    Talk : join in
    What is done?
    Ownership of estimates
    Learning opportunity of context
  • 136. The daily scrum
    • Parameters
    • 137. Daily
    • 138. 15-minutes
    • 139. Stand-up
    • 140. Not for problem solving
    • 141. Whole world is invited
    • 142. Only team members, ScrumMaster, product owner, can talk
    • 143. Helps avoid other unnecessary meetings
  • Everyone answers 3 questions
    1
    2
    3
    What did you do yesterday?
    What will you do today?
    Is anything in your way?
    • These are not status for the ScrumMaster
    • 144. They are commitments in front of peers
  • Work the board
    Update with real estimates
    Highlight issues
    Own the estimate if task taken
    Whose board?
  • 145. Daily Scrum
    What are your responsibilities?
    Post Its, 10 minutes
  • 146. The sprint review
    • Team presents what it accomplished during the sprint
    • 147. Typically takes the form of a demo of new features or underlying architecture
    • 148. Informal
    • 149. 2-hour prep time rule
    • 150. No slides
    • 151. Whole team participates
    • 152. Invite the world
  • Sprint retrospective
    • Periodically take a look at what is and is not working
    • 153. Typically 15–30 minutes
    • 154. Done after every sprint
    • 155. Whole team participates
    • 156. ScrumMaster
    • 157. Product owner
    • 158. Team
    • 159. Possibly customers and others
  • Start / Stop / Continue
    This is just one of many ways to do a sprint retrospective.
    • Whole team gathers and discusses what they’d like to:
    Start doing
    Stop doing
    Continue doing
  • 160. Retrospectives
    What are your responsibilities?
    Post Its, 5 minutes
  • 161. Scrum framework
    Roles
    Artifacts
    Ceremonies
  • Product backlog
    • The requirements
    • 170. A list of all desired work on the project
    • 171. Ideally expressed such that each item has value to the users or customers of the product
    • 172. Prioritized by the product owner
    • 173. Reprioritized at the start of each sprint
    This is the product backlog
  • 174. A sample product backlog
  • 175. The sprint goal
    • A short statement of what the work will be focused on during the sprint
    Life Sciences
    Support features necessary for population genetics studies.
    Database Application
    Make the application run on SQL Server in addition to Oracle.
    Financial services
    Support more technical indicators than company ABC with real-time, streaming data.
  • 176. Managing the sprint backlog
    • Individuals sign up for work of their own choosing
    • 177. Work is never assigned
    • 178. Estimated work remaining is updated daily
    • 179. Any team member can add, delete or change the sprint backlog
    • 180. Work for the sprint emerges
    • 181. If work is unclear, define a sprint backlog item with a larger amount of time and break it down later
    • 182. Update work remaining as more becomes known
  • A sprint backlog
    8
    4
    8
    16
    12
    4
    10
    8
    16
    11
    8
    16
    12
    8
    8
    8
    8
    8
    4
    Add error logging
    8
    Tasks
    Mon
    Tues
    Wed
    Thur
    Fri
    Code the user interface
    Code the middle tier
    Test the middle tier
    Write online help
    Write the foo class
  • 183. A sprint burndown chart
    Hours
  • 184. 4
    8
    12
    7
    10
    16
    11
    16
    8
    Tasks
    Mon
    Tues
    Wed
    Thur
    Fri
    Code the user interface
    8
    Code the middle tier
    16
    Test the middle tier
    8
    Write online help
    12
    50
    40
    30
    Hours
    20
    10
    0
    Mon
    Tue
    Wed
    Thu
    Fri
  • 185. Does Scrum do everything?
    What should we be doing in any event?
    5 minutes, Post Its.
  • 186. Lean Software Development
    Mary and Tom Poppendieck
    Waiting
    Queuing theory, steady state of arrival
    Task switching
    Partially done or ‘stored’ completed work
    Speed of fixing defects
    Options
    Create many
    Decide at last responsible moment
    Trade offs
  • 187. Scalability
    • Typical individual team is 7 ± 2 people
    • 188. Scalability comes from teams of teams
    • 189. Factors in scaling
    • 190. Type of application
    • 191. Team size
    • 192. Team dispersion
    • 193. Project duration
    • 194. Scrum has been used on multiple 500+ person projects
  • Planning
    Estimating
    Road map!
  • 195. User Stories
    Epics: A milestone (?) with many stories
    User Story
    Conversations
    Acceptance Criteria
  • 196. Epics
    Think of a recent Epic…
    Good:
    5 minutes, write some stories
    Choose a Story
    Write the conversations
    Write the acceptance criteria
  • 197. Estimating using Story Points
    Relative complexity
    How long will story x take compared to story y?
    Still an estimate
    More thorough than other methods
    Takes into account productivity / efficiency of the team
  • 198. Relative complexity – the Bridge metaphor
    1 SP
    8 SP
    5 SP
    3 SP
    2 SP
    20 SP
    13 SP
    ?
    100 SP
    40 SP
  • 199. Simple Velocity
    3 simple wooden bridges in 1 sprint
    Velocity = 3 story points
    Alternatively:
    1 simple wooden bridge and 1 basic concrete bridge
    1 covered wooden bridge
    Team velocity increases and decreases
    New team members, change in environment etc.
  • 200. Scrum Estimating
    Poker cards
    Deliberately increases exponentially to take into account:
    More uncertainty with bigger tasks
    Debate and discuss
    No back log item > 20
    Sufficient estimating
  • 201. Scrum is not Magic
    It is simple...
    ...but hard work...
    ...and sometimes painful!
  • 202. Dilbert’s World
  • 203. The art of the possible
    Unless you are Tom Cruise .. and we aren’t, although we are all taller than him!
    The impossible is…
    Still impossible
  • 204. The art of the possible
    We do what we can
    Not what we cannot
    We cannot do xyz
    OK, What can we do?
  • 205. Where to go next
    • www.mountaingoatsoftware.com/scrum
    • 206. www.scrumalliance.org
    • 207. www.controlchaos.com
    • 208. scrumdevelopment@yahoogroups.com
  • A Scrum reading list
    • Agile and Iterative Development: A Manager’s Guide by Craig Larman
    • 209. Agile Estimating and Planning by Mike Cohn
    • 210. Agile Project Managementwith Scrum by Ken Schwaber
    • 211. Agile Retrospectives by Esther Derby and Diana Larsen
    • 212. Agile Software Development Ecosystems by Jim Highsmith
    • 213. Agile Software Development with Scrum by Ken Schwaber and Mike Beedle
    • 214. Scrum and The Enterprise by Ken Schwaber
    • 215. User Stories Applied for Agile Software Development by Mike Cohn
    • 216. Lean Software Development by Mary & Tom Poppendieck
    • 217. Lots of weekly articles at www.scrumalliance.org
  • What to take away
    Inspect and adapt!
    What will I be doing differently?
    What do I plan to do in:
    Sprint planning?
    Daily scrums?
    Retrospectives?