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Introduction to Scrum
 

Introduction to Scrum

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    Introduction to Scrum Introduction to Scrum Presentation Transcript

    • An Introduction to Scrum
      Tim McOwan
      KashFlow Software
    • Overview
      Case study & theory
      Scrum principles
      Roles, ceremonies & artifacts
      Planning
      Where next?
    • Presentation Framework from
      Except:
      Motivation theory slides
      Salesforce.com
      Exercises
      Story Point estimating
      Lean software development principles
      Miscellaneous other slides
    • “The… ‘relay race’ approach to product development…may conflict with the goals of maximum speed and flexibility. Instead a holistic or ‘rugby’ approach—where a team tries to go the distance as a unit, passing the ball back and forth—may better serve today’s competitive requirements.”
      Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka, “The New New Product Development Game”, Harvard Business Review,January 1986.
      We’re losing the relay race
    • Scrum in 100 words
      • Scrum is an agile process that allows us to focus on delivering the highest business value in the shortest time.
      • It allows us to rapidly and repeatedly inspect actual working software (every two weeks to one month).
      • The business sets the priorities. Teams self-organize to determine the best way to deliver the highest priority features.
      • Every two weeks to a month anyone can see real working software and decide to release it as is or continue to enhance it for another sprint.
    • Scrum origins
      • Jeff Sutherland
      • Initial scrums at Easel Corp in 1993
      • IDX and 500+ people doing Scrum
      • Ken Schwaber
      • ADM
      • Scrum presented at OOPSLA 96 with Sutherland
      • Author of three books on Scrum
      • Mike Beedle
      • Scrum patterns in PLOPD4
      • Ken Schwaber and Mike Cohn
      • Co-founded Scrum Alliance in 2002, initiallywithin the Agile Alliance
    • Scrum has been used by:
      • Microsoft
      • Yahoo
      • Google
      • Electronic Arts
      • High Moon Studios
      • Lockheed Martin
      • Philips
      • Siemens
      • Nokia
      • Capital One
      • BBC
      • Intuit
      • Nielsen Media
      • First American Real Estate
      • BMC Software
      • Ipswitch
      • John Deere
      • Lexis Nexis
      • Sabre
      • Salesforce.com
      • Time Warner
      • Turner Broadcasting
      • Oce
      • KashFlow Software
    • Case Study:Salesforce.com
      Started 2001
      3 people in R & D
      4 releases per year
      2006
      200+ in R & D
      1 release per year – late!
    • Days between Major Releases
      Features Delivered per Team
      2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
    • Big Bang Scrum Application
      1 late release  4 on time releases in 1 year
      +94% feature requests delivered (+38% pro rata)
      + 61%reduction in mean time to release
      91% of customers believe quality has improved / remained the same
    • Transformation Results
      Days between Major Releases
      Features Delivered per Team
      2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
    • Salesforce Tips
      Focus on principles over mechanics
      Focus on automation
      Provide transparency
      When the heat is on stick to your guns
      Experiment, be patient and expect to make mistakes
    • 86
      %
      of respondents are having the “best time” or a “good time” at Salesforce
      * Improved from 40% 15 months ago
    • Motivation Theory – Job Design
    • Motivation Theory – Psychological Contract
    • Scrum has been used for:
      • Video game development
      • FDA-approved, life-critical systems
      • Satellite-control software
      • Websites
      • Handheld software
      • Mobile phones
      • Network switching applications
      • ISV applications
      • Some of the largest applications in use
      • Commercial software
      • In-house development
      • Contract development
      • Fixed-price projects
      • Financial applications
      • ISO 9001-certified applications
      • Embedded systems
      • 24x7 systems with 99.999% uptime requirements
      • the Joint Strike Fighter
    • Characteristics
      • Self-organizing teams
      • Product progresses in a series of month-long “sprints”
      • Requirements are captured as items in a list of “product backlog”
      • No specific engineering practices prescribed
      • One of the “agile processes”
    • Process and tools
      Individuals and interactions
      Following a plan
      Responding to change
      Comprehensive documentation
      Working software
      Contract negotiation
      Customer collaboration
      over
      over
      over
      over
      The Agile Manifesto – a statement of values
      Source: http://agilemanifesto.org
    • Project noise level
      Far from
      Agreement
      Anarchy
      Complex
      Requirements
      Complicated
      Source: Strategic Management and Organizational Dynamics by Ralph Stacey in Agile Software Development with Scrum by Ken Schwaber and Mike Beedle.
      Simple
      Close to
      Agreement
      Technology
      Close to
      Certainty
      Far from
      Certainty
    • Sometimes
      Rarely
      16%
      19%
      Never
      Often
      45%
      13%
      Always
      7%
      Wasted Effort
      Features and Functions Used in a Typical System
      Often or Always
      Used: 20%
      Rarely or Never
      Used: 64%
      Standish Group Study Reported at XP2002 by Jim Johnson, Chairman
    • Exercise
      Possible benefits (negatives) of Scrum to Our organisation
      Post-Its, 5 minutes
    • The Sprint Cycle
      Sprint goal
      24 hours
      Cancel
      Gift wrap
      Return
      Coupons
      Gift wrap
      Coupons
      Cancel
      Sprint backlog
      Sprint
      2-4 weeks
      Return
      Potentially shippable
      product increment
      Scrum
      Product
      backlog
    • Putting it all together
    • Sprints
      • Scrum projects make progress in a series of “sprints”
      • Typical duration is 2–4 weeks or a calendar month at most
      • A constant duration leads to a better rhythm
      • Product is designed, coded, and tested during the sprint
    • And….
      Regular “of value” releases
      Does it really need to be done? What is the value?
      Knowing the context
      So, knowing the trade-offs
      Collaborative
      Communication
    • Communication (Typical Model)
      Send
    • Communication (Shannon et al)
    • Sequential vs. overlapping development
      Requirements
      Design
      Code
      Test
      Rather than doing all of one thing at a time...
      ...Scrum teams do a little of everything all the time
      Source: “The New New Product Development Game” by Takeuchi and Nonaka. Harvard Business Review, January 1986.
    • No changes during a sprint
      Change
      • Plan sprint durations around how long you can commit to keeping change out of the sprint
    • Scrum framework
      Roles
      Artifacts
      • Product owner
      • ScrumMaster
      • Team
      • Product backlog
      • Sprint backlog
      • Burndown charts
      Ceremonies
      • Sprint planning
      • Sprint review
      • Sprint retrospective
      • Daily scrum meeting
    • Scrum framework
      Roles
      • Product owner
      • ScrumMaster
      • Team
      Ceremonies
      • Sprint planning
      • Sprint review
      • Sprint retrospective
      • Daily scrum meeting
      Artifacts
      • Product backlog
      • Sprint backlog
      • Burndown charts
    • Product owner
      • Define the features of the product
      • Decide on release date and content
      • Be responsible for the profitability of the product (ROI)
      • Prioritize features according to market value
      • Adjust features and priority every iteration, as needed 
      • Accept or reject work results
    • Product Owner
      What are their responsibilities?
      Post Its, 5 minutes
    • The ScrumMaster
      • Represents management to the project
      • Responsible for enacting Scrum values and practices
      • Removes impediments
      • Ensure that the team is fully functional and productive
      • Enable close cooperation across all roles and functions
      • Shield the team from external interference
    • Scrum Master
      What are their responsibilities?
      Post Its, 5 minutes
    • The team
      • Typically 5-9 people
      • Cross-functional:
      • Programmers, testers, user experience designers, etc.
      • Members should be full-time
      • May be exceptions (e.g. database administrator)
      • Teams are self-organizing
      • Ideally, no titles but rarely a possibility
      • Membership should change only between sprints
    • Scrum framework
      Roles
      Artifacts
      • Product owner
      • ScrumMaster
      • Team
      • Product backlog
      • Sprint backlog
      • Burndown charts
      Ceremonies
      • Sprint planning
      • Sprint review
      • Sprint retrospective
      • Daily scrum meeting
    • Sprint
      goal
      Sprint
      backlog
      Sprint planning meeting
      Team capacity
      Sprint prioritization
      Product backlog
      • Analyze and evaluate product backlog
      • Select sprint goal
      Business conditions
      Sprint planning
      • Decide how to achieve sprint goal (design)
      • Create sprint backlog (tasks) from product backlog items (user stories / features)
      • Estimate sprint backlog in hours
      Current product
      Technology
    • Sprint planning
      Code the middle tier (8 hours)
      Code the user interface (4)
      Write test fixtures (4)
      Code the foo class (6)
      Update performance tests (4)
      • Team selects items from the product backlog they can commit to completing
      • Sprint backlog is created
      • Tasks are identified and each is estimated (1-16 hours)
      • Collaboratively, not done alone by the ScrumMaster
      • High-level design is considered
      As a vacation planner, I want to see photos of the hotels.
    • Sprint Planning
      Who has what responsibilities?
      Post Its, 10 minutes
    • Sprint planning
      Talk : join in
      What is done?
      Ownership of estimates
      Learning opportunity of context
    • The daily scrum
      • Parameters
      • Daily
      • 15-minutes
      • Stand-up
      • Not for problem solving
      • Whole world is invited
      • Only team members, ScrumMaster, product owner, can talk
      • Helps avoid other unnecessary meetings
    • Everyone answers 3 questions
      1
      2
      3
      What did you do yesterday?
      What will you do today?
      Is anything in your way?
      • These are not status for the ScrumMaster
      • They are commitments in front of peers
    • Work the board
      Update with real estimates
      Highlight issues
      Own the estimate if task taken
      Whose board?
    • Daily Scrum
      What are your responsibilities?
      Post Its, 10 minutes
    • The sprint review
      • Team presents what it accomplished during the sprint
      • Typically takes the form of a demo of new features or underlying architecture
      • Informal
      • 2-hour prep time rule
      • No slides
      • Whole team participates
      • Invite the world
    • Sprint retrospective
      • Periodically take a look at what is and is not working
      • Typically 15–30 minutes
      • Done after every sprint
      • Whole team participates
      • ScrumMaster
      • Product owner
      • Team
      • Possibly customers and others
    • Start / Stop / Continue
      This is just one of many ways to do a sprint retrospective.
      • Whole team gathers and discusses what they’d like to:
      Start doing
      Stop doing
      Continue doing
    • Retrospectives
      What are your responsibilities?
      Post Its, 5 minutes
    • Scrum framework
      Roles
      Artifacts
      • Product owner
      • ScrumMaster
      • Team
      • Product backlog
      • Sprint backlog
      • Burndown charts
      Ceremonies
      • Sprint planning
      • Sprint review
      • Sprint retrospective
      • Daily scrum meeting
    • Product backlog
      • The requirements
      • A list of all desired work on the project
      • Ideally expressed such that each item has value to the users or customers of the product
      • Prioritized by the product owner
      • Reprioritized at the start of each sprint
      This is the product backlog
    • A sample product backlog
    • The sprint goal
      • A short statement of what the work will be focused on during the sprint
      Life Sciences
      Support features necessary for population genetics studies.
      Database Application
      Make the application run on SQL Server in addition to Oracle.
      Financial services
      Support more technical indicators than company ABC with real-time, streaming data.
    • Managing the sprint backlog
      • Individuals sign up for work of their own choosing
      • Work is never assigned
      • Estimated work remaining is updated daily
      • Any team member can add, delete or change the sprint backlog
      • Work for the sprint emerges
      • If work is unclear, define a sprint backlog item with a larger amount of time and break it down later
      • Update work remaining as more becomes known
    • A sprint backlog
      8
      4
      8
      16
      12
      4
      10
      8
      16
      11
      8
      16
      12
      8
      8
      8
      8
      8
      4
      Add error logging
      8
      Tasks
      Mon
      Tues
      Wed
      Thur
      Fri
      Code the user interface
      Code the middle tier
      Test the middle tier
      Write online help
      Write the foo class
    • A sprint burndown chart
      Hours
    • 4
      8
      12
      7
      10
      16
      11
      16
      8
      Tasks
      Mon
      Tues
      Wed
      Thur
      Fri
      Code the user interface
      8
      Code the middle tier
      16
      Test the middle tier
      8
      Write online help
      12
      50
      40
      30
      Hours
      20
      10
      0
      Mon
      Tue
      Wed
      Thu
      Fri
    • Does Scrum do everything?
      What should we be doing in any event?
      5 minutes, Post Its.
    • Lean Software Development
      Mary and Tom Poppendieck
      Waiting
      Queuing theory, steady state of arrival
      Task switching
      Partially done or ‘stored’ completed work
      Speed of fixing defects
      Options
      Create many
      Decide at last responsible moment
      Trade offs
    • Scalability
      • Typical individual team is 7 ± 2 people
      • Scalability comes from teams of teams
      • Factors in scaling
      • Type of application
      • Team size
      • Team dispersion
      • Project duration
      • Scrum has been used on multiple 500+ person projects
    • Planning
      Estimating
      Road map!
    • User Stories
      Epics: A milestone (?) with many stories
      User Story
      Conversations
      Acceptance Criteria
    • Epics
      Think of a recent Epic…
      Good:
      5 minutes, write some stories
      Choose a Story
      Write the conversations
      Write the acceptance criteria
    • Estimating using Story Points
      Relative complexity
      How long will story x take compared to story y?
      Still an estimate
      More thorough than other methods
      Takes into account productivity / efficiency of the team
    • Relative complexity – the Bridge metaphor
      1 SP
      8 SP
      5 SP
      3 SP
      2 SP
      20 SP
      13 SP
      ?
      100 SP
      40 SP
    • Simple Velocity
      3 simple wooden bridges in 1 sprint
      Velocity = 3 story points
      Alternatively:
      1 simple wooden bridge and 1 basic concrete bridge
      1 covered wooden bridge
      Team velocity increases and decreases
      New team members, change in environment etc.
    • Scrum Estimating
      Poker cards
      Deliberately increases exponentially to take into account:
      More uncertainty with bigger tasks
      Debate and discuss
      No back log item > 20
      Sufficient estimating
    • Scrum is not Magic
      It is simple...
      ...but hard work...
      ...and sometimes painful!
    • Dilbert’s World
    • The art of the possible
      Unless you are Tom Cruise .. and we aren’t, although we are all taller than him!
      The impossible is…
      Still impossible
    • The art of the possible
      We do what we can
      Not what we cannot
      We cannot do xyz
      OK, What can we do?
    • Where to go next
      • www.mountaingoatsoftware.com/scrum
      • www.scrumalliance.org
      • www.controlchaos.com
      • scrumdevelopment@yahoogroups.com
    • A Scrum reading list
      • Agile and Iterative Development: A Manager’s Guide by Craig Larman
      • Agile Estimating and Planning by Mike Cohn
      • Agile Project Managementwith Scrum by Ken Schwaber
      • Agile Retrospectives by Esther Derby and Diana Larsen
      • Agile Software Development Ecosystems by Jim Highsmith
      • Agile Software Development with Scrum by Ken Schwaber and Mike Beedle
      • Scrum and The Enterprise by Ken Schwaber
      • User Stories Applied for Agile Software Development by Mike Cohn
      • Lean Software Development by Mary & Tom Poppendieck
      • Lots of weekly articles at www.scrumalliance.org
    • What to take away
      Inspect and adapt!
      What will I be doing differently?
      What do I plan to do in:
      Sprint planning?
      Daily scrums?
      Retrospectives?