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Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
Introduction to Scrum
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Introduction to Scrum

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  • 1. An Introduction to Scrum<br />Tim McOwan<br />KashFlow Software<br />
  • 2. Overview<br />Case study & theory<br />Scrum principles<br />Roles, ceremonies & artifacts<br />Planning<br />Where next?<br />
  • 3. Presentation Framework from <br />Except:<br /> Motivation theory slides<br /> Salesforce.com<br /> Exercises<br /> Story Point estimating<br /> Lean software development principles<br /> Miscellaneous other slides<br />
  • 4. “The… ‘relay race’ approach to product development…may conflict with the goals of maximum speed and flexibility. Instead a holistic or ‘rugby’ approach—where a team tries to go the distance as a unit, passing the ball back and forth—may better serve today’s competitive requirements.”<br />Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka, “The New New Product Development Game”, Harvard Business Review,January 1986.<br />We’re losing the relay race<br />
  • 5. Scrum in 100 words<br /><ul><li>Scrum is an agile process that allows us to focus on delivering the highest business value in the shortest time.
  • 6. It allows us to rapidly and repeatedly inspect actual working software (every two weeks to one month).
  • 7. The business sets the priorities. Teams self-organize to determine the best way to deliver the highest priority features.
  • 8. Every two weeks to a month anyone can see real working software and decide to release it as is or continue to enhance it for another sprint.</li></li></ul><li>Scrum origins<br /><ul><li>Jeff Sutherland
  • 9. Initial scrums at Easel Corp in 1993
  • 10. IDX and 500+ people doing Scrum
  • 11. Ken Schwaber
  • 12. ADM
  • 13. Scrum presented at OOPSLA 96 with Sutherland
  • 14. Author of three books on Scrum
  • 15. Mike Beedle
  • 16. Scrum patterns in PLOPD4
  • 17. Ken Schwaber and Mike Cohn
  • 18. Co-founded Scrum Alliance in 2002, initiallywithin the Agile Alliance</li></li></ul><li>Scrum has been used by:<br /><ul><li> Microsoft
  • 19. Yahoo
  • 20. Google
  • 21. Electronic Arts
  • 22. High Moon Studios
  • 23. Lockheed Martin
  • 24. Philips
  • 25. Siemens
  • 26. Nokia
  • 27. Capital One
  • 28. BBC
  • 29. Intuit
  • 30. Nielsen Media
  • 31. First American Real Estate
  • 32. BMC Software
  • 33. Ipswitch
  • 34. John Deere
  • 35. Lexis Nexis
  • 36. Sabre
  • 37. Salesforce.com
  • 38. Time Warner
  • 39. Turner Broadcasting
  • 40. Oce
  • 41. KashFlow Software</li></li></ul><li>Case Study:Salesforce.com<br />Started 2001<br />3 people in R & D<br />4 releases per year<br />2006<br />200+ in R & D<br />1 release per year – late!<br />
  • 42. Days between Major Releases <br />Features Delivered per Team <br />2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 <br />
  • 43. Big Bang Scrum Application<br />1 late release  4 on time releases in 1 year<br />+94% feature requests delivered (+38% pro rata)<br />+ 61%reduction in mean time to release<br />91% of customers believe quality has improved / remained the same<br />
  • 44. Transformation Results<br />Days between Major Releases <br />Features Delivered per Team <br />2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007<br />
  • 45. Salesforce Tips<br />Focus on principles over mechanics<br />Focus on automation<br />Provide transparency<br />When the heat is on stick to your guns<br />Experiment, be patient and expect to make mistakes<br />
  • 46. 86<br />%<br />of respondents are having the “best time” or a “good time” at Salesforce<br />* Improved from 40% 15 months ago<br />
  • 47. Motivation Theory – Job Design<br />
  • 48. Motivation Theory – Psychological Contract<br />
  • 49. Scrum has been used for:<br /><ul><li>Video game development
  • 50. FDA-approved, life-critical systems
  • 51. Satellite-control software
  • 52. Websites
  • 53. Handheld software
  • 54. Mobile phones
  • 55. Network switching applications
  • 56. ISV applications
  • 57. Some of the largest applications in use
  • 58. Commercial software
  • 59. In-house development
  • 60. Contract development
  • 61. Fixed-price projects
  • 62. Financial applications
  • 63. ISO 9001-certified applications
  • 64. Embedded systems
  • 65. 24x7 systems with 99.999% uptime requirements
  • 66. the Joint Strike Fighter</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics<br /><ul><li>Self-organizing teams
  • 67. Product progresses in a series of month-long “sprints”
  • 68. Requirements are captured as items in a list of “product backlog”
  • 69. No specific engineering practices prescribed
  • 70. One of the “agile processes”</li></li></ul><li>Process and tools<br />Individuals and interactions<br />Following a plan<br />Responding to change<br />Comprehensive documentation<br />Working software<br />Contract negotiation<br />Customer collaboration<br />over<br />over<br />over<br />over<br />The Agile Manifesto – a statement of values<br />Source: http://agilemanifesto.org<br />
  • 71. Project noise level<br />Far from<br />Agreement<br />Anarchy<br />Complex<br />Requirements<br />Complicated<br />Source: Strategic Management and Organizational Dynamics by Ralph Stacey in Agile Software Development with Scrum by Ken Schwaber and Mike Beedle.<br />Simple<br />Close to<br />Agreement<br />Technology<br />Close to<br />Certainty<br />Far from<br />Certainty<br />
  • 72. Sometimes<br />Rarely<br />16%<br />19%<br />Never<br />Often<br />45%<br />13%<br />Always<br />7%<br />Wasted Effort<br />Features and Functions Used in a Typical System<br />Often or Always<br /> Used: 20%<br />Rarely or Never<br /> Used: 64%<br />Standish Group Study Reported at XP2002 by Jim Johnson, Chairman<br />
  • 73. Exercise<br />Possible benefits (negatives) of Scrum to Our organisation<br />Post-Its, 5 minutes<br />
  • 74. The Sprint Cycle<br />Sprint goal<br />24 hours<br />Cancel<br />Gift wrap<br />Return<br />Coupons<br />Gift wrap<br />Coupons<br />Cancel<br />Sprint backlog<br />Sprint<br />2-4 weeks<br />Return<br />Potentially shippable<br />product increment<br />Scrum<br />Product<br />backlog<br />
  • 75. Putting it all together<br />
  • 76. Sprints<br /><ul><li>Scrum projects make progress in a series of “sprints”
  • 77. Typical duration is 2–4 weeks or a calendar month at most
  • 78. A constant duration leads to a better rhythm
  • 79. Product is designed, coded, and tested during the sprint</li></li></ul><li>And….<br />Regular “of value” releases<br />Does it really need to be done? What is the value? <br />Knowing the context<br />So, knowing the trade-offs<br />Collaborative<br />Communication<br />
  • 80. Communication (Typical Model)<br />Send<br />
  • 81. Communication (Shannon et al)<br />
  • 82. Sequential vs. overlapping development<br />Requirements<br />Design<br />Code<br />Test<br />Rather than doing all of one thing at a time...<br />...Scrum teams do a little of everything all the time<br />Source: “The New New Product Development Game” by Takeuchi and Nonaka. Harvard Business Review, January 1986.<br />
  • 83. No changes during a sprint<br />Change<br /><ul><li>Plan sprint durations around how long you can commit to keeping change out of the sprint</li></li></ul><li>Scrum framework<br />Roles<br />Artifacts<br /><ul><li>Product owner
  • 84. ScrumMaster
  • 85. Team
  • 86. Product backlog
  • 87. Sprint backlog
  • 88. Burndown charts</li></ul>Ceremonies<br /><ul><li>Sprint planning
  • 89. Sprint review
  • 90. Sprint retrospective
  • 91. Daily scrum meeting</li></li></ul><li>Scrum framework<br />Roles<br /><ul><li>Product owner
  • 92. ScrumMaster
  • 93. Team</li></ul>Ceremonies<br /><ul><li>Sprint planning
  • 94. Sprint review
  • 95. Sprint retrospective
  • 96. Daily scrum meeting</li></ul>Artifacts<br /><ul><li>Product backlog
  • 97. Sprint backlog
  • 98. Burndown charts</li></li></ul><li>Product owner<br /><ul><li>Define the features of the product
  • 99. Decide on release date and content
  • 100. Be responsible for the profitability of the product (ROI)
  • 101. Prioritize features according to market value
  • 102. Adjust features and priority every iteration, as needed 
  • 103. Accept or reject work results</li></li></ul><li>Product Owner<br />What are their responsibilities?<br />Post Its, 5 minutes<br />
  • 104. The ScrumMaster<br /><ul><li>Represents management to the project
  • 105. Responsible for enacting Scrum values and practices
  • 106. Removes impediments
  • 107. Ensure that the team is fully functional and productive
  • 108. Enable close cooperation across all roles and functions
  • 109. Shield the team from external interference</li></li></ul><li>Scrum Master<br />What are their responsibilities?<br />Post Its, 5 minutes<br />
  • 110. The team<br /><ul><li>Typically 5-9 people
  • 111. Cross-functional:
  • 112. Programmers, testers, user experience designers, etc.
  • 113. Members should be full-time
  • 114. May be exceptions (e.g. database administrator)
  • 115. Teams are self-organizing
  • 116. Ideally, no titles but rarely a possibility
  • 117. Membership should change only between sprints</li></li></ul><li>Scrum framework<br />Roles<br />Artifacts<br /><ul><li>Product owner
  • 118. ScrumMaster
  • 119. Team
  • 120. Product backlog
  • 121. Sprint backlog
  • 122. Burndown charts</li></ul>Ceremonies<br /><ul><li>Sprint planning
  • 123. Sprint review
  • 124. Sprint retrospective
  • 125. Daily scrum meeting</li></li></ul><li>Sprint<br />goal<br />Sprint<br />backlog<br />Sprint planning meeting<br />Team capacity<br />Sprint prioritization<br />Product backlog<br /><ul><li>Analyze and evaluate product backlog
  • 126. Select sprint goal</li></ul>Business conditions<br />Sprint planning<br /><ul><li>Decide how to achieve sprint goal (design)
  • 127. Create sprint backlog (tasks) from product backlog items (user stories / features)
  • 128. Estimate sprint backlog in hours</li></ul>Current product<br />Technology<br />
  • 129. Sprint planning<br />Code the middle tier (8 hours)<br />Code the user interface (4)<br />Write test fixtures (4)<br />Code the foo class (6)<br />Update performance tests (4)<br /><ul><li>Team selects items from the product backlog they can commit to completing
  • 130. Sprint backlog is created
  • 131. Tasks are identified and each is estimated (1-16 hours)
  • 132. Collaboratively, not done alone by the ScrumMaster
  • 133. High-level design is considered</li></ul>As a vacation planner, I want to see photos of the hotels.<br />
  • 134. Sprint Planning<br />Who has what responsibilities?<br />Post Its, 10 minutes<br />
  • 135. Sprint planning<br />Talk : join in<br />What is done?<br />Ownership of estimates<br />Learning opportunity of context<br />
  • 136. The daily scrum<br /><ul><li>Parameters
  • 137. Daily
  • 138. 15-minutes
  • 139. Stand-up
  • 140. Not for problem solving
  • 141. Whole world is invited
  • 142. Only team members, ScrumMaster, product owner, can talk
  • 143. Helps avoid other unnecessary meetings</li></li></ul><li>Everyone answers 3 questions<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />What did you do yesterday?<br />What will you do today?<br />Is anything in your way?<br /><ul><li>These are not status for the ScrumMaster
  • 144. They are commitments in front of peers</li></li></ul><li>Work the board<br />Update with real estimates<br />Highlight issues<br />Own the estimate if task taken<br />Whose board?<br />
  • 145. Daily Scrum<br />What are your responsibilities?<br />Post Its, 10 minutes<br />
  • 146. The sprint review<br /><ul><li>Team presents what it accomplished during the sprint
  • 147. Typically takes the form of a demo of new features or underlying architecture
  • 148. Informal
  • 149. 2-hour prep time rule
  • 150. No slides
  • 151. Whole team participates
  • 152. Invite the world</li></li></ul><li>Sprint retrospective<br /><ul><li>Periodically take a look at what is and is not working
  • 153. Typically 15–30 minutes
  • 154. Done after every sprint
  • 155. Whole team participates
  • 156. ScrumMaster
  • 157. Product owner
  • 158. Team
  • 159. Possibly customers and others</li></li></ul><li>Start / Stop / Continue<br />This is just one of many ways to do a sprint retrospective.<br /><ul><li>Whole team gathers and discusses what they’d like to:</li></ul>Start doing<br />Stop doing<br />Continue doing<br />
  • 160. Retrospectives<br />What are your responsibilities?<br />Post Its, 5 minutes<br />
  • 161. Scrum framework<br />Roles<br />Artifacts<br /><ul><li>Product owner
  • 162. ScrumMaster
  • 163. Team
  • 164. Product backlog
  • 165. Sprint backlog
  • 166. Burndown charts</li></ul>Ceremonies<br /><ul><li>Sprint planning
  • 167. Sprint review
  • 168. Sprint retrospective
  • 169. Daily scrum meeting</li></li></ul><li>Product backlog<br /><ul><li>The requirements
  • 170. A list of all desired work on the project
  • 171. Ideally expressed such that each item has value to the users or customers of the product
  • 172. Prioritized by the product owner
  • 173. Reprioritized at the start of each sprint</li></ul>This is the product backlog<br />
  • 174. A sample product backlog<br />
  • 175. The sprint goal<br /><ul><li>A short statement of what the work will be focused on during the sprint</li></ul>Life Sciences<br />Support features necessary for population genetics studies.<br />Database Application<br />Make the application run on SQL Server in addition to Oracle.<br />Financial services<br />Support more technical indicators than company ABC with real-time, streaming data.<br />
  • 176. Managing the sprint backlog<br /><ul><li>Individuals sign up for work of their own choosing
  • 177. Work is never assigned
  • 178. Estimated work remaining is updated daily
  • 179. Any team member can add, delete or change the sprint backlog
  • 180. Work for the sprint emerges
  • 181. If work is unclear, define a sprint backlog item with a larger amount of time and break it down later
  • 182. Update work remaining as more becomes known</li></li></ul><li>A sprint backlog<br />8<br />4<br />8<br />16<br />12<br />4<br />10<br />8<br />16<br />11<br />8<br />16<br />12<br />8<br />8<br />8<br />8<br />8<br />4<br />Add error logging<br />8<br />Tasks<br />Mon<br />Tues<br />Wed<br />Thur<br />Fri<br />Code the user interface<br />Code the middle tier<br />Test the middle tier<br />Write online help<br />Write the foo class<br />
  • 183. A sprint burndown chart<br />Hours<br />
  • 184. 4<br />8<br />12<br />7<br />10<br />16<br />11<br />16<br />8<br />Tasks<br />Mon<br />Tues<br />Wed<br />Thur<br />Fri<br />Code the user interface<br />8<br />Code the middle tier<br />16<br />Test the middle tier<br />8<br />Write online help<br />12<br />50<br />40<br />30<br />Hours<br />20<br />10<br />0<br />Mon<br />Tue<br />Wed<br />Thu<br />Fri<br />
  • 185. Does Scrum do everything?<br />What should we be doing in any event?<br />5 minutes, Post Its.<br />
  • 186. Lean Software Development<br />Mary and Tom Poppendieck<br />Waiting<br />Queuing theory, steady state of arrival<br />Task switching<br />Partially done or ‘stored’ completed work<br />Speed of fixing defects<br />Options<br />Create many<br />Decide at last responsible moment<br />Trade offs<br />
  • 187. Scalability<br /><ul><li>Typical individual team is 7 ± 2 people
  • 188. Scalability comes from teams of teams
  • 189. Factors in scaling
  • 190. Type of application
  • 191. Team size
  • 192. Team dispersion
  • 193. Project duration
  • 194. Scrum has been used on multiple 500+ person projects</li></li></ul><li>Planning<br />Estimating<br />Road map!<br />
  • 195. User Stories<br />Epics: A milestone (?) with many stories<br />User Story<br />Conversations<br />Acceptance Criteria<br />
  • 196. Epics<br />Think of a recent Epic…<br />Good:<br />5 minutes, write some stories<br />Choose a Story<br />Write the conversations<br />Write the acceptance criteria<br />
  • 197. Estimating using Story Points<br />Relative complexity<br />How long will story x take compared to story y?<br />Still an estimate<br />More thorough than other methods<br />Takes into account productivity / efficiency of the team<br />
  • 198. Relative complexity – the Bridge metaphor<br />1 SP<br />8 SP<br />5 SP<br />3 SP<br />2 SP<br />20 SP<br />13 SP<br />?<br />100 SP<br />40 SP<br />
  • 199. Simple Velocity<br />3 simple wooden bridges in 1 sprint<br />Velocity = 3 story points<br />Alternatively:<br />1 simple wooden bridge and 1 basic concrete bridge<br />1 covered wooden bridge<br />Team velocity increases and decreases<br />New team members, change in environment etc.<br />
  • 200. Scrum Estimating<br />Poker cards<br />Deliberately increases exponentially to take into account:<br />More uncertainty with bigger tasks<br />Debate and discuss<br />No back log item > 20<br />Sufficient estimating<br />
  • 201. Scrum is not Magic<br />It is simple...<br />...but hard work...<br />...and sometimes painful!<br />
  • 202. Dilbert’s World<br />
  • 203. The art of the possible<br />Unless you are Tom Cruise .. and we aren’t, although we are all taller than him!<br />The impossible is… <br /> Still impossible<br />
  • 204. The art of the possible<br />We do what we can<br />Not what we cannot<br />We cannot do xyz<br />OK, What can we do?<br />
  • 205. Where to go next<br /><ul><li>www.mountaingoatsoftware.com/scrum
  • 206. www.scrumalliance.org
  • 207. www.controlchaos.com
  • 208. scrumdevelopment@yahoogroups.com</li></li></ul><li>A Scrum reading list<br /><ul><li>Agile and Iterative Development: A Manager’s Guide by Craig Larman
  • 209. Agile Estimating and Planning by Mike Cohn
  • 210. Agile Project Managementwith Scrum by Ken Schwaber
  • 211. Agile Retrospectives by Esther Derby and Diana Larsen
  • 212. Agile Software Development Ecosystems by Jim Highsmith
  • 213. Agile Software Development with Scrum by Ken Schwaber and Mike Beedle
  • 214. Scrum and The Enterprise by Ken Schwaber
  • 215. User Stories Applied for Agile Software Development by Mike Cohn
  • 216. Lean Software Development by Mary & Tom Poppendieck
  • 217. Lots of weekly articles at www.scrumalliance.org</li></li></ul><li>What to take away<br />Inspect and adapt!<br />What will I be doing differently?<br />What do I plan to do in:<br />Sprint planning?<br />Daily scrums?<br />Retrospectives?<br />

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