Timeline of Major Trends<br />1400's-1700's Books of Moral and Cultural Instruction1400-1500'sDevelopment of moving type leads to widespread book publication Growing trade/wealth from Crusades & New World = rise of middle class1600's Change in social concept of childhood Puritans = concern for education & literacy as requirement for godliness Locke sees childhood as important intellectual stage1700's Rousseau emphasizes moral development for children Beginning of children's publishing as serious & lucrative industry1800's-1900's Toward the Golden Age Entertainment, fantasy & adventureEarly 1800'sResurrection/revival of folk & fairy tales (e.g. Grimm)Mid-1800'sGolden Age of pure enjoyment: fantasies, adventure stories, school stories, domestic stories, etc.Advances in printing techniques; full-color printing; respected artists begin to illustrate children's books (Caldecott, Greenaway, etc.)1900'sFirst "
in many libraries (or at least "
) Rise of high-quality picture books Children's lit becomes major & respected industry Development of "
- rejection of sentimentality; explores complex psychological, sociological, & moral issues1950's-presentModern realism - rise of multiculturalism - exploration of "
topics Mass of fiction & nonfiction, all subjects A wealth of books for entertainment and development<br />History<br />Because of the difficulty in defining children's literature, it is also difficult to trace its history to a precise starting point.<br />15th CenturySome stories popular among children were written in the 15th Century. Thomas Malory's Morte d'Arthur (1486) and the tales of Robin Hood (c. 1450) were not written with children in mind, but children have been fascinated by these stories for centuries.<br />17th CenturyIn 1658 Jan Ámos Komenský published the illustrated informational book Orbis Pictus in Bohemia. It is considered to be the first picture book published specifically for children. Also during this time, Charles Perrault (1628–1703) laid the foundations of the fairy tale in France. His stories include Little Red Riding Hood, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.<br />18th CenturyIn 1744, John Newbery published A Little Pretty Pocket-Book in England. He sold it with a ball for boys or a pincushion for girls. It is considered a landmark for the beginning of pleasure reading marketed specifically to children. Previous to Newbery, literature marketed for children was intended to instruct the young, though there was a rich oral tradition of storytelling for children and adults. By the publication of William Blake's Songs of Innocence in 1789, books written specifically for the use of children outside of school had become, according to F.J. Harvey Darton, "
a clear but subordinate branch of English literature."
 Popular examples of this growing branch included Thomas Day's The History of Sandford and Merton (1783-9) - which embodies many of the educational and philosophical tenets espoused by Jean-Jacques Rousseau - and Maria and Richard Lovell Edgeworth's Practical Education: The History of Harry and Lucy (1780), which urged children to teach themselves.<br />19th Century<br />Wilhelm (left) and Jakob Grimm (right) from an 1855 painting by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann<br />In the early 19th century, the Brothers Grimm; Jakob and Wilhem were responsible for the writing down and preserving of oral traditions In Germany such as Snow White, Rapunzel, and Hansel and Gretel (1812).<br />Between 1835 and 1848, Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875) of Denmark published his beloved fairy tales: The Little Mermaid (1836), The Emperor's New Clothes (1837), The Ugly Duckling (1844), The Snow Queen (1845) and others. During Andersen's lifetime he was feted by royalty and acclaimed for having brought joy to children across Europe. His fairy tales have been translated into over 150 languages and continue to be published in millions of copies all over the world and inspired many other works. The emperor's new clothes and the ugly duckling are phrases which have both passed into the English language as well-known expressions.<br />In 1865, Lewis Carroll (1832–1898) published Alice's Adventures in Wonderland in England. The tale plays with logic in ways that have given the story lasting popularity to adults as well as children. It is considered to be one of the most characteristic examples of the genre of literary nonsense, and its narrative course and structure has been enormously influential, mainly in the fantasy genre.<br />In 1880, Johanna Spyri (1827–1901) published Heidi (1880) in Switzerland. The subtitle declared that it is a book "
for children and those who love children"
. Joel Chandler Harris (1845–1908) wrote folk stories featuring animal characters speaking African-American dialect.<br />In 1883, Carlo Collodi wrote his puppet story, The Adventures of Pinocchio as a first Italian fantasy novel for the children of Italy.<br />In 1883, Robert Louis Stevenson wrote the classic pirate adventure novel Treasure Island. Traditionally considered a coming-of-age story, it is an adventure tale known for its atmosphere, character and action, and also a wry commentary on the ambiguity of morality—as seen in Long John Silver. It is one of the most frequently dramatised of all novels, and its influence on popular perception of pirates is vast.<br />In 1894, Rudyard Kipling published The Jungle Book, a collection of stories about a boy who lives in the jungle with animals, that has been made into a series of animated and live-action film adaptations.<br />20th CenturyIn 1900, L. Frank Baum (1856–1919) published The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in the United States. It been constantly in print since, in many versions. It was the subject of a stage play in 1902 and a film in 1939. It is one of the best-known stories in American culture and is translated into 40 languages. Its success led Baum to write thirteen sequels, and for other authors to continue the series for decades.<br />In 1902, Beatrix Potter published The Tale of Peter Rabbit, that follows Peter Rabbit, a mischievous and disobedient young rabbit, as he ventures into the garden of Mr. McGregor. The book has generated considerable merchandise over the decades since its release with toys, dishes, foods, clothing, videos and other products made available. Potter was one of the first to be responsible for such merchandise when she patented a Peter Rabbit doll in 1903.<br />In 1908, Kenneth Grahame wrote The Wind in the Willows from his retired position as secretary of the Bank of England. He moved to the country, where he spent his time in the River Thames doing much as the animal characters in his book do; namely, as one of the most famous phrases from the book says, "
simply messing about in boats"
for his son.<br />Peter and Wendy<br />In 1911, J.M Barrie (1860–1937) published Peter and Wendy where Peter Pan, one of the most famous characters in children's literature, magically refuses to grow up and spends his never-ending childhood in the small island called Neverland.<br />A. A. Milne (1882–1956) wrote children's poems and a series of stories about the bear Winnie the Pooh and his friends in the woods (later made into Disney cartoons).<br />In 1933, Laura Ingalls Wilder (1867–1957) published the first installment of the Little House on the Prairie series in the United States based on her childhood in a Western-pioneering family. The books have remained continuously in print since their initial publication and are considered classics of American children's literature. Several of them were named Newbery Honor books. They remain widely read. The books were also adapted into a long running, popular American television series, Little House on the Prairie.<br />In 1950, C. S. Lewis (1898–1963) published the first of installment of his Chronicles of Narnia series in the UK. The Chronicles of Narnia has sold over 120 million copies in 41 languages, and has been adapted several times, complete or in part, for radio, television, stage, and cinema. In addition to numerous traditional Christian themes, the series borrows characters and ideas from Greek and Roman mythology, as well as from traditional British and Irish fairy tales.<br />Dr. Seuss (1904–1991) captivated generations of children with his many books of colorful illustrated characters concocting imaginative fantasies in rhymes.<br />Roald Dahl (1916–1990) rose to prominence in the 1940s, and his children's fantasy novels are renowned for their unexpected endings, and often unsentimental, very dark humour. Many of his works, such as Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, were inspired from experiences from his boyhood.<br />In 1997, J. K. Rowling (born 1965) published the first installment of her Harry Potter series in the UK. Her books have sold more than 400 million copies worldwide; they are translated into more than 63 languages and she has become one of the wealthiest women in the world – a publishing phenomenon.<br />21st CenturyIn 2001, Eoin Colfer (born 1965) published the first installment of his Artemis Fowl series in Ireland. In 2008, titles from the series spent six weeks at number one and helped the Penguin Group post record profits in a tough economy.<br />