Whilst writing about adult learning the four characteristics identified by Brookfield are perhaps the most important in terms of reflection in working with CSA
For transformative learning to take place, experiences should be deconstructed, acted upon and then reconstructed, done via what Mezirow calls critical reflection.To enable learning from this critical reflection we must examine the underlying beliefs and assumptions that affect how we make sense of our experience, with reflection enabling us to correct distortions in our beliefs and the errors in our problem solving.Transformative learning involves becoming more reflective and critical, being more open to the perspectives of others and being less defensive against and more accepting of new ideas as they present themselves to you. It is ‘premise’ reflection which contributes to transformative learning, which is critically reflecting on the premises or deep held assumptions we have about our worlds.
• Discuss the rationale for reflection as nurses.
• Outline three theoretical frameworks for critical
• Practice the skills of reflection.
Boud, Keogh & Walker (1988)
Price A (2004) Encouraging reflection and critical thinking in practice.
Nursing Standard. 18, 47, 46-52. Date of acceptance: October 13 2003.
“The passing of the years
does not necessarily bring
gifts of understanding
within one’s own life.”
Not a new idea..
• Socrates (400BCs).
• Dewey (1930s).
Derives meaning from experience.
What skills do you need
to be a reflective
Characteristics of a reflective practitioner
• Assumption analysis
• challenging our own beliefs and values
• Contextual awareness
• recognition of social construction of beliefs and practice
• Imaginative speculation
• ability to imagine a different way
• Reflective Scepticism
• challenging or suspending existing knowledge
What do I know?
How do I know my
1. A disorientating dilemma.
2. Self-examination with feelings.
3. A critical assessment of assumptions.
4. Recognition that process of transformation is shared.
5. Exploration of options for new roles, relationships and actions.
6. Planning a course of action.
7. Acquiring knowledge and skills for implementing one’s plans.
8. Provisional trying of new roles.
9. Building self-confidence and competence in new roles and relationships.
10. Reintegration on the basis of conditions dictated by one’s new perspective.
Mezirow’s Phases of Meaning in Transformational Learning. (Mezirow, 2000: 22)