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Introduction to Passive House. …

Introduction to Passive House.

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  • Thanks for inviting me to talk about Passive House Design Standard.
    Thank people for coming
    Excited to be here and talk about Passive House



    Quick background on my person:
    - German, lived here 7 years, family and house, worked with local firm for 6.5 years, have always been fascinated with architecture and how things work. Architectural degree more technical in Germany (engineer’s title), have had a fascination with efficient approaches to design.



    This talk: 2 sections (1) general benefits, (2) key summary of how to do it


  • Thanks for inviting me to talk about Passive House Design Standard.
    Thank people for coming
    Excited to be here and talk about Passive House



    Quick background on my person:
    - German, lived here 7 years, family and house, worked with local firm for 6.5 years, have always been fascinated with architecture and how things work. Architectural degree more technical in Germany (engineer’s title), have had a fascination with efficient approaches to design.



    This talk: 2 sections (1) general benefits, (2) key summary of how to do it


  • Thanks for inviting me to talk about Passive House Design Standard.
    Thank people for coming
    Excited to be here and talk about Passive House



    Quick background on my person:
    - German, lived here 7 years, family and house, worked with local firm for 6.5 years, have always been fascinated with architecture and how things work. Architectural degree more technical in Germany (engineer’s title), have had a fascination with efficient approaches to design.



    This talk: 2 sections (1) general benefits, (2) key summary of how to do it


  • Definition: The term passive house (Passivhaus in German) refers to the rigorous, voluntary standard for energy use in buildings. It results in ultra-low energy buildings that require little energy for space heating or cooling.



    A similar standard, MINERGIE-P, is used in Switzerland.



    The standard is not exclusive to residential construction. Passive House design is NOT an add-on or supplement to architectural design, but an integrated design process with the architectural design.[3] Although it is mostly applied to new buildings, it has also been used for retrofits.
  • The Passive House standard originated from a conversation in May 1988 between Professors Bo Adamson of Lund University, Sweden, and Wolfgang Feist of the Institut für Wohnen und Umwelt Institute for Housing and the Environment in Germany



    Inspired by early work in the US



    Started with research projects



    Created Passive House Standard






    Inspiration: early work in the U.S.!Their concept was developed through a number of research projects [8], aided by financial assistance from the German state of Hessen. The eventual building of four row houses (terraced houses) was designed for four private clients by architects professor Bott, Ridder and Westermeyer.
    After the concept had been validated at Darmstadt, with space heating 90% less than required for a standard new building of the time, the 'Economical Passive Houses Working Group' was created in 1996. This developed the planning package and initiated the production of the novel components that had been used, notably the windows and the high-efficiency ventilation systems. Meanwhile further passive houses were built in Stuttgart (1993), Naumburg, Hesse, Wiesbaden, and Cologne (1997) [9].
    The products developed for the Passivhaus were further commercialised during and following the European Union sponsored CEPHEUS project, which proved the concept in 5 European countries over the winter of 2000-2001.
    While some techniques and technologies were specifically developed for the standard, others (such as superinsulation) were already in existence, and the concept of passive solar building design dates back to antiquity. There was also experience from other low-energy building standards, notably the German Niedrigenergiehaus (low-energy house) standard, as well as from buildings constructed to the demanding energy codes of Sweden and Denmark.
  • What does it look like?



    The first Passivhaus buildings were built in Darmstadt, Germany, in 1990, and occupied the following year.






    Who is in charge of Passive House standard?



    In September 1996 the Passivhaus-Institut was founded in Darmstadt to promote and control the standard.
    In November 2007, launch of the Passive House Institute US
  • Traditionally, add as much energy as it takes to heat or cool



    BTW, that is a very common approach in most industries today - if we need to change a state of an object or environmental parameters, we usually do that by utilizing more energy to do so.



    Example: Air Conditioning: On hottest day with most solar energy, we use a lot of electricity (from mostly coal) to cool houses (instead of shading properly, and harnessing the sun’s energy)
  • Traditionally, add as much energy as it takes to heat or cool



    BTW, that is a very common approach in most industries today - if we need to change a state of an object or environmental parameters, we usually do that by utilizing more energy to do so.



    Example: Air Conditioning: On hottest day with most solar energy, we use a lot of electricity (from mostly coal) to cool houses (instead of shading properly, and harnessing the sun’s energy)
  • Due to the dramatic reduction in space-conditioning energy needs, it is referred to as a passive house,
    as opposed to utilizing active measures to keep it conditioned.



    The difference being mainly in the energy amount that utilized and the fact, that passive house utilizes mostly solar and internal heat gains (passive energy sources).

  • Economy: Significant conservation and improved performance = cost savings to the owner





    90%+ savings on space-conditioning energy, 75%+ savings on source energy (pending household use pattern)> highly reduced utility cost


    Federal tax credits, local utility company incentives (as applicable)


    Potentially reduced homeowner’s insurance (due to reduced mechanical system and quality construction)


    Benefits of energy efficiency mortgage


    Cost asymptote occurs when a traditional heating system is eliminated









  • Energy: Significant conservation and highly efficient operation





    Significantly less energy consumption


    Can be “fueled” by virtually any power source (future proof), Easier to “fuel” with renewable energy sources, cheaper to outfit with appropriately sized renewable energy sources, Crisis proof


    Renewables are smaller, hence more affordable. Zero site, or source energy, carbon neutrality, deep energy retrofit


  • Environment: Significant conservation and improved performance = significantly reduced environmental impact





    Up to 75% savings on source energy = smaller CO
    2
    footprint


    Likely in use longer and maintained longer than average building, Less likely to need retrofit, reduction in energy used for construction and materials


  • Health: Improved indoor environmental quality = improved health





    Guaranteed mechanical air-exchange 24/7—365 days a year, Tempered air (heat recovery ventilation), Controlled humidity, Slow and steady air movement (quiet and without drafts)


    Indoor surfaces are near room temperatur, virtually no radiant heat-loss potential


    Improved daylighting and solar exposure


    Studies show less potential for asthma, allergies, sickness


    Significantly reduced exposure to CO, pollutants, VOCs. Virtually no potential for mold, no radiant heat loss, healthy humidity levels, little to no noise pollution


  • Comfort: Superinsulated building envelope = high level of comfort





    Indoor surfaces are near room-temperatur, virtually no radiant heat-loss potential


    Improved indoor environmental quality


    Extremely quiet inside due to superinsulation and high-performance windows


    very high (virtually no radiant heat loss, healthy humidity, fresh air, etc.)


  • Durability: High quality planning and construction = extremely durable building





    Energy modeling, quality-controlled construction, field testing > predictable results


    Advanced window technology, longevity


    Reduced mechanical system, less moving parts = less maintenance


    Owner training, “understand your building”, Owner’s manual, “pass on the knowledge”


    Certified building standard


  • Value: Best building energy standard available = incredible value





    Quality building, durability


    High performance building envelope


    Fully documented and certified


    Best starting point for an uncertain energy future


    sells up to 25% quicker, yields up to 10% more


  • Conscience: Most efficient building energy standard available today = clear conscience



  • How exactly does it work?



    Talk about heating-dominated climate, explain heat retention is most important (keeps heat out, too)
  • How exactly does it work?



    Talk about heating-dominated climate, explain heat retention is most important (keeps heat out, too)
  • How exactly does it work?



    Talk about heating-dominated climate, explain heat retention is most important (keeps heat out, too)
  • How exactly does it work?



    Talk about heating-dominated climate, explain heat retention is most important (keeps heat out, too)
  • How exactly does it work?



    Talk about heating-dominated climate, explain heat retention is most important (keeps heat out, too)
  • Minimize losses, maximize gains. Energy Balance!



    A building is already warm inside going from summer into fall and winter. Passive House minimizes heat loss through insulation, windows & doors, and heat-recovery ventilation therefore retaining space-conditioning energy very effectively. Passive House utilizes passive solar heat gains through windows. Passive House utilizes internal heat gains from people and appliances. Additional heat comes from a tiny backup system for peak heat-load



    PH is an integrated system - all components work in concert. It is not a “bolt-on solution” but it can incorporate bolt-on measures. WHOLE IS GREATER THAN SUM OF PARTS.



    Traditionally, add as much energy as it takes to heat or cool. (BTW, that is a very common approach in most industries today - if we need to change a state of an object or environmental parameters, we usually do that by utilizing more energy to do so). Example: Air Conditioning: On hottest day with most solar energy, we use a lot of electricity (from mostly coal) to cool houses (instead of shading properly, and harnessing the sun’s energy)


  • R-21 to R120+ (pending location)
  • thermally broken windows, all connections designed thermal-bridge free
    2 to 4-pane windows*, high solar heat gain
    solid or thermally broken frames*




  • field tested with a sequence of three test, pressurized and depressurized
    impecable, continuous solid air-tight layer (i.e. OSB), thorough detailing, precise execution
    max. 0.6 ACH. Air-admittance valve.
  • Heart of the mechanical system, provides most of the energy (up to 10W/m2), 90%+ efficient, balanced and duct-blasted, short duct runs, insulated ducts
    Other mechanical systems: insulated pipes, central location, air admittance valves, energy and water saving appliances, potentially renewable sources
  • Proper orientation, solar exposure, proper summer and swing season shading, high solar heat gain glazing on south side.
    Near southern orientation, built-in shading
  • people, appliances, equipment


  • How do we measure the success?
    In Germany, we look at gas-mileage for homes. Instead of MPGs, we measure in kWh/m2 a or Btu/sf year
  • ≤ 15 kWh/(m2 a)
    U.S. housing stock ~175 kWh/(m2 a) or 58,580 BTU/(sf yr) up to 90% + improvement
    determined in PHPP
    Achieved with the help of: Superinsulated Building Envelope, very good windows and doors, air-tight and thermal bridge-free construction, passive solar heat gains, internal heat gains, and an very efficient backup heating system
  • ≤ 120 kWh/(m2 a)
    up to 75% + improvement
    determined in PHPP
    Achieved through conservation in both passive and active systems
  • How do we measure the success?



    In Germany, we look at gas-mileage for homes. Instead of MPGs, we measure in kWh/m2 a or Btu/sf year



    In U.S. we currently use a comparative model: HERS



    Problem: nobody really knows what the basis is and buildings are compared on a point basis. Nowhere does it directly relate back to energy.



    Limited use, but realtor associations are looking to use it for a “green” realty label, MN starting 2009. HERS is determined by HERS rater.









    HERS (Home Energy Rating System), controversial and not absolute- uses comparison not actual energy modeling or monitoring
    Ratings provides a relative energy use index called the HERS Index – a HERS Index of 100 represents the energy use of the “American Standard Building” and an Index of 0 (zero) indicates that the Proposed Building uses no net purchased energy (a Zero Energy Building). Zero Site energy, nor really a zero energy building though.






    What is a HERS Rating?
    A home energy rating involves an analysis of a home’s construction plans and onsite inspections. Based on the home’s plans, the Home Energy Rater uses an energy efficiency software package to perform an energy analysis of the home’s design. This analysis yields a projected, pre-construction HERS Index. Upon completion of the plan review, the rater will work with the builder to identify the energy efficiency improvements needed to ensure the house will meet ENERGY STAR performance guidelines. The rater then conducts onsite inspections, typically including a blower door test (to test the leakiness of the house) and a duct test (to test the leakiness of the ducts). Results of these tests, along with inputs derived from the plan review, are used to generate the HERS Index score for the home.
    The HERS Index
    The HERS Index is a scoring system established by the Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET) in which a home built to the specifications of the HERS Reference Home (based on the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code) scores a HERS Index of 100, while a net zero energy home scores a HERS Index of 0. The lower a home’s HERS Index, the more energy efficient it is in comparison to the HERS Reference Home.
    Each 1-point decrease in the HERS Index corresponds to a 1% reduction in energy consumption compared to the HERS Reference Home. Thus a home with a HERS Index of 85 is 15% more energy efficient than the HERS Reference Home and a home with a HERS Index of 80 is 20% more energy efficient.
    For more information, visit the RESNET Web site .
    Comparing the New HERS Index with the Old HERS Score
    For homes rated before July 1, 2006, the rating score is known as a “HERS Score.” The HERS Score is a system in which a home built to the specifications of the HERS Reference Home (based on the 1993 Model Energy Code) has a HERS Score of 80. Unlike the HERS Index, each 1-point increase in a HERS Score is equivalent to a 5% increase in energy efficiency. Please see the table below for a comparison of the HERS Score and the HERS Index.
  • Don’t need them, optional.



    Solar hot water is great way to go.



    Climate and site play a role. PV can help offset energy: site, source, cost, CO2 neutral
  • How do we guarantee the result?



    - Contractor training
    - Extremely detailed design drawings
  • How do we guarantee the result?



    - Contractor training
    - Extremely detailed design drawings
  • How do we guarantee the result?



    - Contractor training
    - Extremely detailed design drawings
  • How do we guarantee the result?



    - Contractor training
    - Extremely detailed design drawings
  • How do we guarantee the result?



    - Contractor training
    - Extremely detailed design drawings
  • How do we guarantee the result?



    - Contractor training
    - Extremely detailed design drawings
  • How do we guarantee the result?



    - Contractor training
    - Extremely detailed design drawings
  • Let’s talk more about details of Passive House Design.



    A house build to current energy code in Minnesota could potentially qualify as a Passive House in California.
  • Let’s talk more about details of Passive House Design.



    A house build to current energy code in Minnesota could potentially qualify as a Passive House in California.
  • Let’s talk more about details of Passive House Design.



    A house build to current energy code in Minnesota could potentially qualify as a Passive House in California.










  • First Passive House in urban setting. First in Twin Cities. Affordable Housing. 3112 6th St. N, Eco Village, Hawthorne, North Minneapolis



    PH design lends itself well to affordable housing:
    - low and predictable operating cost
    - high survivability (doesn’t cool off)
    - empowerment through design (don’t just give people anything, give them something really good)



    Thank MinneAppleseed for their support of Passive House design. Enjoying that process much of bringing hope to a community that is lacking attention, resources, opportunity.


  • Member Architecture Institute of America, Passive House Consultant, Adopter Architecture 2030 Challenge, Member USGBC (LEED),






  • Transcript

    • 1. Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 2. Passive House An introduction by Tim Eian Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 3. “Passivhaus” Passive House Building Energy Standard A rigorous, voluntary building energy standard focusing on highest energy efficiency and quality of life at low operating cost. Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 4. Passive House Founders Prof. Bo Adamson Dr. Wolfgang Feist Sweden Germany Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 5. First Passive House & PHI 1990 1996: PHI - Passiv Haus Institut Source: Passiv Haus Institut Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 6. Basic Design Principle Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 7. Basic Design Principle First: Minimize losses Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 8. Basic Design Principle First: Minimize losses Then: Maximize gains Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 9. Active vs. Passive “Active” Heating “Passive” System with System 10 kW+ small post heater 1 kW 85 - 400 max. 15 kWh/m2 kWh/m2 Building Stock Passive House Source: Krapmeier & Drössler 2001 Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 10. Economy Capitalized costs in Euro Elimination of heating system Ultra low-energy building Low-energy building Passive House Characteristic Energy Value kWh/(m2 a) Source: Krapmeier & Drössler 2001 Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 11. Energy Source: Krapmeier & Drössler 2001 Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 12. Energy 90%+reduction in space-conditioning energy 75%+ reduction in source energy consumption Source: Krapmeier & Drössler 2001 Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 13. Environment Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 14. Health Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 15. Comfort Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 16. Durability Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 17. Value Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 18. Conscience Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 19. Quality of Life Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 20. How does it work? Source: Krapmeier & Dressler 2001 Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 21. Superinsulated Envelope Source: Waltjen 2007 Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 22. Advanced Windows & Doors Source: Waltjen 2007 Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 23. Thermal Bridge Free Details Source: Waltjen 2007 Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 24. Air-Tightness Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 25. Air-Tightness n50 ≤ 0.6 ACH Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 26. Energy Recovery Ventilation Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 27. Passive Solar Heat Gains Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 28. Internal Heat Gains Copyright Sony Pictures Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 29. Backup Heater Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 30. Backup Heater Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 31. “Gas-Mileage” for Buildings Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 32. “Gas-Mileage” for Buildings Energy per square foot and year Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 33. Space-Conditioning Energy Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 34. Space-Conditioning Energy ≤ 4,750 Btu/(sf yr) Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 35. Source Energy Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 36. Source Energy ≤ 11.1 kWh/(sf yr) Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 37. Close to Zero LEED Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 38. Below Zero Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 39. Predictable Outcome & Quality Control Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 40. Predictable Outcome & Quality Control Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 41. Predictable Outcome & Quality Control Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) • An Excel-based steady-state energy design program Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 42. Predictable Outcome & Quality Control Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) • An Excel-based steady-state energy design program • Extremely detailed Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 43. Predictable Outcome & Quality Control Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) • An Excel-based steady-state energy design program • Extremely detailed • Calculations are transparent and customizable Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 44. Predictable Outcome & Quality Control Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) • An Excel-based steady-state energy design program • Extremely detailed • Calculations are transparent and customizable • Field testing Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 45. Predictable Outcome & Quality Control Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) • An Excel-based steady-state energy design program • Extremely detailed • Calculations are transparent and customizable • Field testing • Site supervision by Passive House Consultant Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 46. Think globally, Build locally. Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 47. Think globally, Build locally. Passive House Standard performance requirements are always the same, no matter where the building is built. Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 48. Think globally, Build locally. Passive House Standard performance requirements are always the same, no matter where the building is built. Climate zone and a building’s distinctive location impact the design significantly. Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 49. Think globally, Build locally. Passive House Standard performance requirements are always the same, no matter where the building is built. Climate zone and a building’s distinctive location impact the design significantly. Therefore, Passive Houses will look differently depending on where they are located. Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 50. Retrofits Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 51. Retrofits Yes, we can! Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 52. Retrofits Yes, we can! Deep Energy Reduction Retrofits Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 53. Retrofits Yes, we can! Deep Energy Reduction Retrofits Up to 80% reduction in space-conditioning energy (heating and cooling) Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 54. Retrofits Yes, we can! Deep Energy Reduction Retrofits Up to 80% reduction in space-conditioning energy (heating and cooling) Tremendous nation-wide energy-savings potential for existing building stock Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 55. Retrofits Yes, we can! Deep Energy Reduction Retrofits Up to 80% reduction in space-conditioning energy (heating and cooling) Tremendous nation-wide energy-savings potential for existing building stock Overcome energy obsolescence Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 56. Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 57. TE Studio & Passive House Building design for new construction, remodels, additions Energy optimizations, building analysis, consulting Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 58. beautiful, resource-efficient buildings Tim Eian, assoc. AIA Passive House Consultant TE Studio, Ltd. 3429 Benjamin St. NE Minneapolis, MN 55418 www.timeian.com 612-246-4670 tim@timeian.com Blog: www.timeian.com/blog Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 59. The Book $25.00 (you save $4.95) Saturday, February 28, 2009
    • 60. Resources • www.passivehouse.us • www.passiv.de • www.timeian.com/passive.html • www.timeian.com/blog Saturday, February 28, 2009

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