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Lse open data construction and critiques

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    Lse   open data construction and critiques Lse open data construction and critiques Presentation Transcript

    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open data: construction and critiques Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Part 1: 5 perspectives on open data Part 2: Unpacking open government data Part 3: How did we get to here? Part 4: Claims and critiques Endnotes: Where next? Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Part 1: 5 perspectives on open data Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... 1. Open data is a set of policies and practices Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open data should be... Accessible Place data online Standardised .csv, .xml, .txt Use common formats Re-usable Use open licenses Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... 2. Open data is a response to changing technologies, and societies Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Diagram from ‘Open Data, Democracy and Public Sector Reform’, Tim Davies, 2010 - http://practicalparticipation.co.uk/odi/report/2010/2-3-data-and-information/#3 Technical change: Bandwidth and processing capacity to work with data has grown. We can share all layers, not just analysed information. This creates conditions, and demand, for open data. Social change: As authority becomes decoupled from institutions, more people outside the establishment want to check on the basis of ‘evidence based practice’. We want to create our own representations, not just accept those provided by others. Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... 3. Open data is what open data does Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Most people’s direct experience (and idea) of open data is of mash-ups, visualisations, websites and mobile appsMap of Esmee Fairbairn Grantmaking based on scraped data and OpenCharities.org datasets; Live Tube Map from http://traintimes.org.uk/map/tube/Bubble chart from http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/datablog/interactive/2011/dec/06/england-riots-crimes-arrested Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... 4. Open data is a philosophy & a movement Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... On the one hand, recent decades have seen an elaboration of ideas of Intellectual Property, and an emphasis on information as a valuable commercial asset: owned and enclosed by governments or corporations. On theother, open source ideas and a reaction to this new era of enclosure have inspiredrevitalised movements for access to knowledge (A2K) and an information commons. Openness is seen as both an ethical good, and the only way to support global collaboration on the issues that matter. Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... 5. Open data is a foundation for a collaborative web Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... World Wide Web leader, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, envisaged a web not just ofdocuments, but also of datasets - allowing people to collaborate with less friction across organisational boundaries. A web of open data is the next step of ‘weaving the web’. Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... World Wide Web leader, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, envisaged a web not just ofdocuments, but also of datasets - allowing people to collaborate with less friction across organisational boundaries. A web of open data is the next step of ‘weaving the web’. Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... World Wide Web leader, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, envisaged a web not just ofdocuments, but also of datasets - allowing people to collaborate with less friction across organisational boundaries. A web of open data is the next step of ‘weaving the web’. Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Recap: 5 perspectives on open data 1. Open data is a set of policies and practices 2. Open data is a response to changing technologies, and societies 3. Open data is what open data does 4. Open data is a philosophy and a movement 5. Open data is a foundation for a collaborative web Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Part 2: Unpacking open government data Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open government data • We make decisions based on information • Information = data + context • Data = encoded information • Data can be manipulated by computers: sorted, filtered, remixed and turned back into information in diverse ways Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open government data Data as a representation of the world... Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open government data Data as a representation of the world... Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open government data Data as a representation of the world... Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open government data Data as a representation of the world... Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open government data There are many contemporary narratives about ‘data’... Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open government data Raw data There are many contemporary narratives about ‘data’... Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open government data Big data Raw data There are many contemporary narratives about ‘data’... Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open government data Big data Raw data MiData There are many contemporary narratives about ‘data’... Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open government data Big data Raw data Linked data MiData There are many contemporary narratives about ‘data’... Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open government data Open data Big data Raw data Linked data MiData There are many contemporary narratives about ‘data’... Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open government data Open data Big data Raw data Linked data MiData ... There are many contemporary narratives about ‘data’... Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open government data • Governments have historically taken on a monopoly role as data collectors • Government data collection shapes as well as records the world • The government data that is available is the product of political decisions • Is a government monopoly on data collection still necessary? Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open government data Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open government data http://opendefinition.org/okd/ Access; Redistribution; Re-use; No DRM; Attribution; Integrity; Non-discrimination... Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open government data http://opendefinition.org/okd/ Access; Redistribution; Re-use; No DRM; Attribution; Integrity; Non-discrimination... http://web.idrc.ca/uploads/user-S/12271304441Open_ICT4D_Draft.pdf Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Part 3: How did we get to here? Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... April 2003 May 2008 February 2009 Advisory Panel on Public Sector July 2005 “Models of Public Sector Information Final Power of Information Information (APPSI) is Re-use of Public Sector Provision via Trading Report published. established to advise on and Information directive comes into Funds” (Newbury, Pollock et. al 2008) encourage “opportunities in the force. published alongside the 2008 UK information industry for greater Budget which included commitment to June 2008 re-use of public sector ensure information from Trading Show Us a Better Way competition information”. Funds “is made available as widely as announced. March 2006 possible for use in downstream Guardian Free markets” Our Data October 2008 June 2004 campaign is Apps for Democracy TheyWorkForYou.com is launched. programme run to encourage launched at NotCon 04 using re-use of data from the DC data on political decision making data catalogue. scraped from the Hansard March 2008 website. The site is later Interim Power of Information adopted by MySociety.org. report published and Power of November 2003 Information taskforce European Public Sector established Information Directive is adopted. States must implement it by July 2005. 2003 2005 2007 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O 2004 2006 2008 Key January 2007 January 2005 Power of Information Report July 2008 Government Led UK Freedom of commissioned. Co-authored by MySociety Office of Public Sector Information Act June 2006 director Tom Steinberg and Ed Mayo. Information Data Unlocking comes fully into MEPSIR (Measuring EU Public Service is launched. Community Led US force. Sector Information Resources) Study estimates mean potential October 2007 Research Europe The District of Columbia launch value from PSI re-use across Europe at €27bn. the first major government data January 2009 catalogue bringing together data President Obama issues Me Milestone Event Other Events formerly published in different on Transparency and Open areas of the DC website, and Government as one of his fir creating pressure for the release acts in Office. of further data. #opendata Timeline February 2009 March 2009 Focussing on UK Open Government Data Tim Berners-Lee talks to the Raw Data on C TED Conference about the need released throu for Raw Data Now from Innovate progr governments. mash-ups are Draft 0.1 by @timdavies for Open Data Impacts cycle data is fr an example ofresearch project: http://www.practicalparticipation.co.uk/odi/ releasing raw d Please credit and link to the URL above. Direct any enquiries to tim@practicalparticipation.co.uk Access and add to the underlying data at http://bit.ly/ak4gYx Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques...y 2008 February 2009 March 2009 September 2009 March 2010 dels of Public Sector Information Final Power of Information First Rewired State The Cabinet Office Director of Further Rewired State eventsvision via Trading Report published. Hack the Digital Engagement issues a call take place, with backing and ds” (Newbury, Pollock et. al 2008) Government Day for developers to help test the funding from UK Government ished alongside the 2008 UK held in the UK, new Data.gov.uk site launched departments. get which included commitment to June 2008 with 80 developers in developers beta. The launchure information from Trading Show Us a Better Way competition building includes a number of datasets in announced. applications - RDF. May 2010 ds “is made available as widely as many of which Prime Minister David Cameronsible for use in downstream involved scraping sends a letter to government kets” October 2008 government data. departments asking for specific Apps for Democracy December 2009 action on opening up programme run to encourage Putting the Frontline First government data and re-use of data from the DC strategy commits government to establishes a new Transparency data catalogue. greater openness in the release Board to include Tim Berners- March 2008 of data. The report also Lee, Nigel Shadbolt, Tom Interim Power of Information establishes a Local Data Panel Steinberg (Founder of report published and Power of to focus in the release of local MySociety) & Rufus Pollock Information taskforce authority data. established June 2010 COINS (UK Government Spending) dataset released. 2007 2009 2010 A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 2008 January 2007 Power of Information Report July 2008 January 2010 commissioned. Co-authored by MySociety Office of Public Sector Data.gov.uk officially launched and director Tom Steinberg and Ed Mayo. Information Data Unlocking made availble to all. London also Service is launched. launches datastore for the capital. October 2007 December 2009 The District of Columbia launch April 2010 The US Open Government Directive the first major government data January 2009 Ordnance Survey release establishes deadlines for US catalogue bringing together data President Obama issues Memo significant GeoData as open data Government Departments to get more formerly published in different on Transparency and Open following a long Free our data information online. areas of the DC website, and Government as one of his first campaign by the Guardian, and creating pressure for the release acts in Office. consistent calls from developers of further data. for better access to geodata. June 2009 Tim Berners-Lee and Nigel Shadbolt February 2009 March 2009 appointed as advisors to the UK Government Tim Berners-Lee talks to the Raw Data on Cycle Accidents on opening up access to government data. TED Conference about the need released through the Directgov for Raw Data Now from Innovate programme. A range of governments. mash-ups are created, and the cycle data is frequently cited as May 2009 an example of the potential of Data.gov launched in the US releasing raw data. with 47 datasets. Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Proliferation of open data initiatives July 2011: across the world Open Public Services white paperContinued UK Gov transparency September 2011: drive Open Government Partnership launch April 2011: Data.gov faces funding cuts August 2010: July 2011:Web foundation launch opendata.go.ke OGD programme Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Open (government) data movements • The Public Sector Information (PSI) lobby • Access to Information / Freedom of Information (FOI) • Civic hacker / digitising government / computerisation movement Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Part 4: Claims and critiques Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... “Open data will revitalise democratic engagement.” Eric Pickles, Communities Secretary Quote from Eric Pickles, quoted at http://www.edemocracyblog.com/political-blog/accountability-open-data-and-democracy/ Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... “Open data will revitalise democratic engagement.” Eric Pickles, Communities Secretary Quote from Eric Pickles, quoted at http://www.edemocracyblog.com/political-blog/accountability-open-data-and-democracy/ Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... “Open data will revitalise democratic engagement.” Eric Pickles, Communities Secretary Quote from Eric Pickles, quoted at http://www.edemocracyblog.com/political-blog/accountability-open-data-and-democracy/ Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... “Secondly, one of the common justifications for opening government data is that it obviates the need for intermediary organizations, and empowers individual citizens by providing direct access to the information government itself uses to make decisions. This basic mistrust of bureaucratic organization is reflected in the frequent claim made by technologists that governments should simply release the raw data and leave others to get on with the job of using it. Although this may be relatively successful as a model for producing socially- and economically- valuable software, this paper has suggested it has yet to prove its worth as a model for political action. “ Mcclean, T. (2011). Not with a Bang but a Whimper The Politics of Accountability and Open Data in the UK. Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... “Open government data will support economic growth.” Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... “Open government data will support economic growth.” Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... “Open government data will support accountability and efficiency”Just the dataset? Raw data has to go through a lot of steps before it’s usable. Do open data initiatives have a responsibility to support those steps? Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... “Open government data will support accountability and efficiency” Constraint: Improve Data imperfect Open Data Quality data API or Complement: Cleaned Geospatial or Cleaned Data Data Dump Structured data Interlocking S1 Human -> Materia Complement: Improve Linkable Contextual Analytics, Data Understanding Visualisation = physical artefact Interlocking S2 = material agency Material -> Human Source Code Mashups & Complement: and Apps Configurations Open source = human agency Interlocking S3 Human -> Material Shared Code Libraries Complement: Code & Configurations Existing Repository Services Service Integration Technology (c) George Kuk and Tim Davies, 2011 Adapted from draft of Assembling Open Data Complementarities for Service Innovation. Available at: http://www.practicalparticipation.co.uk/odi/2011/02/what-supports-the-sustainable-re-use-of-open-data/Just the dataset? Raw data has to go through a lot of steps before it’s usable. Do open data initiatives have a responsibility to support those steps? Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... “...for “open data” to have a meaningful and supportive impact on the poor and marginalized, direct intervention is required to ensure that elements currently absent in the local technology and social ecosystem are in fact, made available” Gurstein, M. B. (2011). Open data: Empowering the empowered or effective data use for everyone? First Monday, 16(2). Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques...So: is open government data good or bad for democracy and society? Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Recap Part 1: 5 perspectives on open data Part 2: Unpacking open government data Part 3: How did we get to here? Part 4: Claims and critiques Endnotes: Where next? Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Endnotes: Where next? Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... Endnotes: Where next? • It’s still early days for open government data. Key questions remain over the sorts of production, and reform engagement it will support in practice. • Research is getting going - but faces a research paradox. • The openness of open data can hide the trails we might use to trace it’s impacts • The ‘movement’ is going global: and encountering new ideas and challenges in the process. Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk
    • Open government data: construction and critiques... More at: http://www.opendataimpacts.net E-mail: tim.davies@soton.ac.uk Version 1 - 21st February 2012 - LSE Digital Media Futures Course Guest Lecture tim.davies@soton.ac.uk | @timdavies | http://www.timdavies.org.uk