Performance appraisal for teachersIntroductionEducation is sacrosanct to national development. Education and national developmentare the two sides of a coin that mutually reinforce and challenge each other. Jega affirmed, "Education is generally regarded as a necessary and essentialrequirement for national development. It is central to socioeconomic andtechnological advancement, and it is critical to self-sustaining and self-generatingprocess of positive transformation of modern society."The government appreciates the significance of education to national developmentand will marshal its resources to attain its avowed goal of a reinvigorated publicservice. Odumosu  said, "Education in Nigeria is ... a huge government venturethat has witnessed evolution of government complete and dynamic intervention andactive participation. The Federal Government has adopted education as an instrumentper excellence for effective national development."It is antithetical that service delivery in the education sector is unattractive despite itsstrategic role in effective national development. It is palpable that the sector is a not-for-profit public enterprise. There is, however, a general consensus amongstakeholders ranging from government supervisory agencies, practitioners, parentsand the press to learners that the standard of education falls far below expectations.Who is a Teacher?Achimugu  stated that Nigerian Teachers Union NUT (1994) defines a teacher"as a person who has the registrable professional qualification, which enables him tobe appointed to teach at any appropriate level of recognized education in any nationand who is of sound mind and who is mentally alert."The World Book Encyclopedia  expanded the scope to include "those of aschool counselor, school psychologist, general supervisor or supervisor of a subjectarea, reading specialist, coordinator of guidance, school principal, director ofvocational education, teacher of handicapped children, superintendent of schools,director of instruction, dean of students, college administrator, or teacher in ademonstration school."In Search of A Better Performance Management SystemThe traditionally appraisal method of evaluation that polarize the performance ofteachers between qualitative and quantitative indices is an annual or biennial ritual inthe school system today. Unfortunately, it has become a routine. It is ineffectualbecause of the prevalence of teachers suboptimal performance and poor servicedelivery. The method is subject to abuse by supervising officers who disregardmeritocracy for the Nigerian Factor variables such as nepotism, length of service and
godfather syndrome to adjudge teachers performance and promote the lucky fewdespite glaring gaps in output and absence of total quality management.The major problem policy makers and administrators face aside getting teachers withrequisite quality is that of guaranteeing quality service from these teachers. Therecommendation of Afe  that "When well-qualified people are recruited intoteaching, high standards are ensured" cannot achieve this objective. The performanceof these qualified and productive teachers will not be measured and sustained if thesystem of performance management is defective.Concept of Balanced ScorecardKaplan and Norton  developed Balanced Scorecard [BSC] in 1992 at HarvardBusiness School in United States of America. The Balanced Scorecard is a strategicmanagement system that enables institutions to spell out their vision and strategy, andtransform them in actions capable of achieving its mission. It is fundamentally used todetermine organizational performance using financial and non-financial measurementin four perspectives: financial, customer, internal process, and learning and growth.Kaplan & Norton  said,"We created the Balanced Scorecard because financial measurements had becomeinsufficient for contemporary organizations. Strategies for creating value had shiftedfrom managing tangible assets to knowledge-based strategies that created anddeployed an organizations intangible assets, including customer relationships;innovative products and services; high-quality and responsive operating processes;skills and knowledge of the workforce; the information technology that supports theworkforce and links the firm to its customers and suppliers; and the organizationalclimate that encourages innovation, problem-solving, and improvement."The Balanced Scorecard is a performance management approach that is flexible andadaptable to fit any size institution. It aligns vision and mission with stakeholdersexpectations and the day-to-day activities of the institution, manages and evaluatesstrategy and guides operation efficiency plans. It also assists to develop organizationcapacity. The scorecard allows the institution to measure financial and customerresults, operations, and organization capacity as shown in Figure 1 below:Figure 1: Balanced Scorecard Links Performance Measures [Source: Kaplan S. R. &Norton P. D.  The Balanced Scorecard - Measures that DrivePerformance, Harvard Business Review Magazine - January-February 1992 Edition,Boston, Massachusetts]Figure 2: Howard Rohms Design of Balanced Scorecard Performance System[Source: Performance Management in Action - A Balancing Act. Perform Volume 2,Issue 2]Balanced Scorecard in EducationThe Balanced Scorecard takes into cognizance that mission is the key driver of theperformance of institutions in the public sector. In application to the education sector,
therefore, the scorecard framework will change from profit making in Figure 2 toreflect its mission-driven nature stated in Figure 3. The Federal College of Education[Technical] Akoka as a not-for-profit institution has a mission to train quality teachersthat would in turn educate learners in lower levels of the education sector, andempower entrepreneurs to establish micro businesses to boost the economy of thenation. Balanced Scorecard will entrench strategies to measure the performance ofteachers in the College to determine their operational efficiencies in curriculumimplementation and classroom teaching towards the actualizing of its mission.Figure 3: Design of Education Sector Balanced Scorecard [An adaptation fromHoward Rohm design of public sector balanced scorecard]There is a paradigm shift of emphasis in the focus and positions of the perspectives ofthe basic design of the public sector scorecard system in Figure 3 in contrast to thegeneric Balanced Scorecard performance system in Figure 2 because of the emphasison Mission in the former. Employees & Institutional Capacity in Figure 3 substitutesLearning & Growth in Figure 2 to underscore the relative significance of teachers as aleading element to synchronizes other components for achieving institutional mission.Again, budget in Figure 3 is preferred to financial perspective in Figure 2 because ofthe importance of budget formulation and execution processes in the management ofgovernment funds.Balanced Scorecard Benefits to Education1. The Balanced Scorecard invents the concept of continuous learning in performancemanagement system of the institutions. It aligns all the staff to strategy in a singleframework and eliminates multiplicity of strategy institution-wide implementation. Itinvolves the selection of metrics for the measurement processes, selection ofinitiatives, cohesively mould these initiatives into a single platform for strategicdeployment and Spartan allocation of resources to eliminate waste.2. It entrenches strategic planning as a way of life rather than as a convenientalternative. It helps to build a rational budgeting system in a tightly regulatedeconomy with finite national financial resources. It ties resource allocations toperformance and replaces reliance on intuition in decision making to a systematicfact-based executive decision-making. It forecasts future outcome by generatingcause-effect predictions and creating scenarios.3. It assists to improve the institutions facilities, perception and rating of teachers inthe mind of the stakeholders as well as raises visibility of teachers activities inimplementing governments reform programmes, facilities feedback and entrench aculture of public accountability.4. It enables institutions to benchmark best practices in terms of teachers performanceand output of service delivery by using performance measurement data collected as abasis of comparison with global data resources.5. It alleviates the funding burden on government. Education is not only a costlyventure but also an economic venture without immediate return. Balanced Scorecardwill clarify the budgetary goals of the institution and accelerate its budgeted economic
returns. As Colleges of Education gains funding autonomy, the scorecard willentrench a culture of budgetary prudence and fiscal discipline.Building & Implementing A Balanced ScorecardThis paper proposes a seven-step framework for the implementation of balancedscorecard for measuring teachers performance in the education sector in Nigeria.1. Select Balanced Scorecard TeamA team should be selected and charged with a responsibility to design and implementthe balance scorecard. The team will evaluate the institutions mission, core beliefs,public expectations, budgetary position, short- and long-term goals and outline valuecreation parameters for stakeholders. It should obtain resource requirements todevelop and sustain the scorecard, and develop a rollout communications plan forteachers buy-in and resultant support for the changes from stakeholders. Thiscommunications plan will involve internal and external public information activitiesto educate teachers and stakeholders about the Balanced Scorecard initiative and howit works.2. Clarify Institutional Strategy & ObjectivesThe institution will design a number of overarching themes that will be crafted intospecific institutional strategies. Examples could be to Improve Teacher Education,Upgrade Quality of Teaching Materials or Create a New Venture. Certain level ofcreative thinking from the rank and file of teachers is required in order to achieveresults at this stage. The team should collation of these themes. In the process, itshould not impose any premeditated themes on the process. This will eliminate hiddenagenda from any interest group and allow for effective selection of specific strategiesfor adoption.The next level is to split the chosen institutional strategy smaller components is calledobjectives. The objectives are the basic building blocks of strategy, that is thecomponents that make up complete strategies. In this instance, the strategy of acentral theme of Improve Teacher Education or Create a New Venture could havesuch objectives as Deploy effective teaching methodology and traditional discipline,Increased Teacher trainers expertise, skills and abilities, Improved TechnologyCapacity or Effective and Effective and Efficient Corporate Governance, ImprovedService Value, Reduce Reliance on Government Allocation among others.3. Design Strategic MapThe team, at this stage, will build a strategic map for the institutions overall businessstrategy. This map is the mechanism that shows how an objective [effect] isdependent on another objective [cause], and how, taken together, they form a strategicthread from activities to desired end outcomes. It usually will use the cause-effectlinkages [i.e. if-the logic connections]. Thereafter, the components [objectives] ofstrategy are connected and placed in appropriate scorecard perspective categories. Therelationship among strategy components is used to identify the key performance
drivers of each strategy that, taken together, chart the path to successful outcome aswill be perceived through the eyes of customers and stakeholders.4. Develop Performance MeasuresThe team will develop performance measures to track both strategic and operationalprogress. At the stage, the desired outcomes and the processes that are used toproduce these outcomes are clearly spelt out. Desired outcomes are measured fromthe perspective of internal and external outcomes, and processes are measured fromthe perspective of the process owners and the activities needed to meet customerrequirements. Relationships among the anticipated results and the process needed toget the results should be fully understood before the team can assign meaningfulperformance measures. Specifically, the Strategic Map should be used to developmeaningful performance measures for each objective.5. Champion New InitiativesThe team will now identify new initiatives that are needed for implementation toensure that the new strategies evolved are successful in the institution. The focal pointof Steps 1 to 4 is that it will lead the team to evolve new initiatives. These newinitiatives developed at the end of the scorecard building process are more strategicthan if they are developed in the abstract.6. ImplementationThis stage involves the implementation of the new initiatives developed through thebalanced scorecard by transmitting the details of implementation milestones andresponsibilities throughout the institution to the various schools and departments, andultimately to teachers, non-academic staff and students. The corporate scorecard willbe translated into the various schools and departments scorecards that are aligned withthe institutional strategy. The team should note that the most effective way of achievethis is to start with the objectives and measures from the institution-wide strategymap, and develop supporting objectives [and measures] for the various schools anddepartment, teachers, non-academic staff and students.7. Post Implementation ReviewAt this stage, the Balanced Scorecard gains advantage over other traditional methodsof appraisal because it allows of the inbuilt mechanism of post-implementation auto-evaluation. The success of the institutional strategies adopted is reviewed to determinewhether the anticipated results have been attained. The team will need to align theoverall strategy of the institution [that is, the mission] to ensure that there is nodeviation. Feedback mechanism is created to test the strategy assumptions todetermine their effectiveness. This feedback is analyzed and public expectations arefactored into the analysis for effective review.RecommendationsThe following recommendations are offered to the Federal Ministry of Education toconsider Balanced Scorecard approach for achieving better teachers performancemanagement in the education sector in Nigeria.
1. Balanced Scorecard should be adopted as a performance management system forteachers and administrators in the school system. The scorecard is not expensive toimplement because it can build on existing appraisal methods and synchronizemethods into a single platform of performance management.2. A national central working committee comprising of team of seasonedprofessionals drawn from the academia and Organized Private Sector should be set upto advance the study of Balance Scorecard beyond the precursory template of thispaper and conduct extensive research with the objective of designing a nationalstrategic map for the different levels of educational institutions in Nigeria from theUniversities, Polytechnics, Colleges of Education. Competent and resourcefulprofessionals should be appointed into the various scorecard teams at the national andlocal levels.3. A phased introduction and implementation of Balanced Scorecard over a period oftwelve to twenty-four is advocated. This will allow for effective orientation anddissemination of the communications plans to carry along all stakeholders. Changemanagement will be effective to eliminate resistance and sabotage of the scorecardwill be taken care of with this strategy.4. Government should have the national will to approve the adoption of BalancedScorecard and make adequate funds and resources like technology, and literatureavailable for its successful implementation.5. There should be knowledge exchange programme through the use of resourcecommunity at the local and international level. This activity will deepen theknowledge and competence of the local and national teams that are empowered tofacilitate the introduction and implementation of the scorecard.ReferencesAchimugu, L. , The agonies of nigerian teachers: nut - friend or foe.Kano: Baron Press LimitedAfe, J.O. (2001), Reflections on becoming a teacher and: challenges ofteacher education. University of Benin: Inaugural Lecture Series 64Aghenta, J.A. (1991) Teacher effectiveness in the nigerian educationalsystem. Edited by B.C. Emenogu, O.V.N. Okoro et al Onitsha, Orient Publishers Ltd.Berkman, Eric  How to use the balanced scorecard, CIO Magazine Issue ofMay 15, 2002. International Data Group CompanyFederal Republic of Nigeria (1998). National policy on education. Lagos,Jega, A.M. (1997): The state and education in Nigeria today, paper presented atthe "Kano Week 97, organized by the Kano State Students Association,Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, September 15.
Kaplan S. R. & Norton P. D.  The balanced scorecard - measures thatdrive performance, Harvard Business Review Magazine - January-February1992 Edition, Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School PressKaplan S. R. & Norton P. D.  The balanced scorecard: translatingstrategy into action, Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School PressKaplan S. R. & Norton P. D.  The strategy-focused organization: howbalanced scorecard companies thrive in the new businessenvironment, Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School PressKaplan S. R. & Norton P. D.  Partnering: the new face of leadership,AMACOMOdumosu, A. I. O.  Basic principles of education and methods ofteaching. Ibadan: Olu-Akin Publishershttp://performanceappraisalebooks.info/ : Over 200 ebooks, templates, forms forperformance appraisal.