Climate change andglobal policy regimes:Towards institutionallegitimacyEdited byTimothy CadmanUNU Institute for Ethics Gov...
Schedule11.00: Welcome: Professor Charles Sampford IEGL11.05: Keynote: Professor Roger Stone: Global climate and change11....
KeynoteGlobal Climate ChangeRoger StoneRoger.Stone@usq.edu.au3
IntroductionGlobal Governance and ClimateChangeTim Cadmant.cadman@griffith.edu.au4
Purpose of the book• How the various institutional arrangements,actors and agendas in the global climate ‘regimecomplex’ i...
Institutions and instruments in the governance ofclimate change management• 1991: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Chang...
Interests and issues in the governance ofclimate change management• 1992: UNCED, Agenda 21, embed non-state participation ...
Responses beyond the climate regime• Plurilateral/bilateral: Asia pacific Partnership (APP),Major Emitters Forum• Finance:...
Evaluating institutional governance legitimacy:Developments in research and analysis• Calls for reform of existing governa...
Model to determine quality of governanceFigure 1: Model of Governance Quality (Cadman 2011)StructureParticipatoryPolicy in...
How to determine quality of governance arrangements?Principle Criterion Indicator“Meaningfulparticipation”Interest represe...
Table of Contents12Introduction: Global Governance and Climate Change; Timothy Cadman1.The Discourses of Climate Change; C...
Chapter 6Evaluating the CleanDevelopment MechanismTek Marasenimaraseni@usq.edu.au13
Summary: Kyoto Protocol & CDMSummary: Kyoto Protocol & CDMDevelopingcountryAnnex BcountryAnnex BcountryClean development m...
FindingsFindingsExponential growth of CDM (e.g. $2.6 - $32.8 billion 2005-2008), butRegional imbalance (BRIC vs. other dev...
ConclusionsConclusionsContribution to sustainable development objective isquestionableAs a whole, CDM has not contributed ...
Policy and GovernancePolicy and GovernancerecommendationsrecommendationsCDM projects mustImplement much stricter criteria ...
Chapter 7Challenges for Global HealthGovernance in Responding to theImpacts of Climate Change on HumanHealthJeff GowJeffre...
Chapter Findings19• Summary of issues• Main findings• Conclusions• Policy and governance recommendations
Chapter 6Climate Change, PopulationMovements and Governance: CaseStudies in Response MechanismsRichard Hiljosephgora@hotma...
Chapter Findings21• Summary of issues• Main findings• Conclusions• Policy and governance recommendations
Chapter 14The ICLEI Cities for Climate ProtectionProgram: Local GovernmentNetworks in Urban ClimateGovernanceHeather Zeppe...
Local Government & Climate ChangeLocal authorities, municipalities, cities Agenda 21 (Sustainable Development) UN Commis...
Local Government & Climate Change Corporate mitigation of GHG emissions Citizen education on GHG reduction Land use pla...
Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) CCP Programme established by ICLEI in 1993 Over 800 municipalities in global CCP net...
CCP Programme & GovernanceInterest Representation Dominated by large cities & ‘North’ climate agenda Corporate mitigatio...
CCP & Urban Climate Governance CCP: civic environmentalism to green governance Business approach to assessing GHG emissi...
Chapter 15The Influence of Non-StateActors on Corporate ClimateChange DisclosureJulie CotterJulie.Cotter@usq.edu.au28
“You can’t manage it ifyou don’t measure it”
Influence of non-stateactorsNGO
Conclusions Average climate change disclosure score is 19,with a maximum of 51 out of 100 NGOs rather than traditional d...
Governance and policyrecommendationsNGOs Work collaboratively with state actors toincrease international consistency acro...
Conclusions and Recommendations:• Greater involvement of those impacted orthreatened by climate change is essential in sha...
Thankyouhttp://globalclimatechangepolicy.org
Climate policybooklaunch
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Climate policybooklaunch

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Since the creation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, media and public attention has been focussed on the global negotiations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Little attention has been paid to the institutions that are charged with the responsibility of developing effective responses. These are often remote from the public, and communities most threatened by global warming are often excluded from decision-making. The contributors to this volume investigate a wide range of institutions within the 'climate change regime complex'. From carbon trading, to food and water availability, energy production, human security, local government, and the intergovernmental climate talks themselves, they find much that should be of concern to policy makers, and the public at large. In doing so they provide a series of recommendations to improve governance legitimacy, and assist public participation in policy deliberations that will affect future generations.

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Climate policybooklaunch

  1. 1. Climate change andglobal policy regimes:Towards institutionallegitimacyEdited byTimothy CadmanUNU Institute for Ethics Governance and LawGriffith UniversityInternational Political Economy SeriesClimate Change andGlobal Policy RegimesTowards Institutional LegitimacyEdited byTimothy CadmanClimateChangeandGlobalPolicyRegimeshttp://globalclimatechangepolicy.org
  2. 2. Schedule11.00: Welcome: Professor Charles Sampford IEGL11.05: Keynote: Professor Roger Stone: Global climate and change11.15: Climate change and global policy regimes: Tim Cadman11.30: Evaluating the Clean Development Mechanism: Tek Maraseni11.40: Climate change and global health governance: Jeff Gow11:50 Population movements and climate change: Richard Hil12.00 Local government responses to climate change: Heather Zeppel12:10 Climate change reporting and non-state actors: Julie Cotter12.20 Conclusions and recommendations: Tim CadmanQuestionsRefreshments2
  3. 3. KeynoteGlobal Climate ChangeRoger StoneRoger.Stone@usq.edu.au3
  4. 4. IntroductionGlobal Governance and ClimateChangeTim Cadmant.cadman@griffith.edu.au4
  5. 5. Purpose of the book• How the various institutional arrangements,actors and agendas in the global climate ‘regimecomplex’ impact on governance quality• Institutions can help or hinder actions taken totackle the problem of climate change• Using the approach of governance analysis, thebook explores these actions• Evaluates the legitimacy of the responses tohuman-induced climate change and• provides governance & policy recommendations.5
  6. 6. Institutions and instruments in the governance ofclimate change management• 1991: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) set the intellectual framework for global climatedeliberations• 1994: United Nations Framework Convention onClimate Change (UNFCCC) came into force• Kyoto Protocol (KP): international emissions trading(IET), joint implementation (JI) and the CleanDevelopment Mechanism (CDM).• 2006: change in Conferences of Parties (COP) frommitigating climate change to adaptation– no longer a technical environmental problem, but as asocietal problem with an environmental component• Evolving mechanisms and proposals relating to policydevelopment and implementation.6
  7. 7. Interests and issues in the governance ofclimate change management• 1992: UNCED, Agenda 21, embed non-state participation inthe normative framework of international environmentalpolicy deliberations• Global cooperation across nations, regions and networksincluding non-governmental organisations (NGOs) andcorporations• Sustainable development: bridge for integrating climatechange and development policies• Market mechanisms require cooperation between state andnon-state actors• Tension between governance practices that balancesustainable development, market efficiency andNorth/South equality7
  8. 8. Responses beyond the climate regime• Plurilateral/bilateral: Asia pacific Partnership (APP),Major Emitters Forum• Finance: Chicago Climate Exchange (CCE)• Local government: International Council for LocalEnvironment Initiatives (ICLEI)• Human services:– Health: extreme weather events, changes in distributionof infectious diseases and Pressure on public health andhealth care infrastructure– Migration: term environmental refugee first appearing inthe 1970s, further studies in 1985 and again in 1995,• studies estimated the number of refugees to be at 25 million, butit could rise to as many as 200 million by 2025• Water & food availability, quality and quantity– temperature changes between 2 C and 3 C could affect◦ ◦the water resources of as many as three billion people8
  9. 9. Evaluating institutional governance legitimacy:Developments in research and analysis• Calls for reform of existing governance arrangements:– fragmentation, lack of integration• Concerns centre upon governance legitimacy:– ‘input oriented’: means versus ends– ‘output oriented’: ends versus meansBook argues:1. Ends and means are equally important: both play a rolein legitimacy2. Institutional arrangements have a bearing on governancequality3. Greater focus on social processes that drive decision-making4. Structures and processes are fundamental tounderstanding the quality of contemporary governance9
  10. 10. Model to determine quality of governanceFigure 1: Model of Governance Quality (Cadman 2011)StructureParticipatoryPolicy instrumentGovernance systemInteractionProcessDeliberativeOutcomes(Substantive and Behavioural; i.e. policies and/orprogrammes which solve problems and change behaviour)LegitimacyInputsEvaluation ofgovernancequalityOutputs10• Legitimacy is framed quite specifically in the approach adopted in this volume, as- it is conceived as the end point of activity within an institution.- It is determined by the degree of successful interaction between thestructural and procedural components of the institution’s governancesystem:
  11. 11. How to determine quality of governance arrangements?Principle Criterion Indicator“Meaningfulparticipation”Interest representationInclusivenessEqualityResourcesOrganisationalresponsibilityAccountabilityTransparency“Productivedeliberation”Decision makingDemocracyAgreementDispute settlementImplementationBehaviour changeProblem solvingDurabilityCadman (2011) and Lammerts van; Bueren and Blom (1997) 11Table 1: Normative framework of principles, criteria and indicators of governance quality‘Good’ governance is therefore not attributed to any single institutionalarrangement, such as accountability or transparency (though these are of courseimportant)- the approach adopted looks governance at a systemic level- Provides information about a wider range of attributes affectinggovernance quality and their impact on climate governance
  12. 12. Table of Contents12Introduction: Global Governance and Climate Change; Timothy Cadman1.The Discourses of Climate Change; Chris Taylor2.A Cooling Climate for Negotiations: Intergovernmentalism and Its Limits;Fred Gale3.Gender and Climate Change: Stakeholder Participation and Conceptual Currency in the Climate NegotiationsRegime; Lauren E. Eastwood4. Governing Adaptation Policies and Programmes; Geoff Cockfield5.Applying an Empirical Evaluation to the Governance Legitimacy of Carbon-offset Mechanisms on the Basis ofStakeholder Perceptions; Timothy Cadman6.Evaluating the Clean Development Mechanism; Tek Narayan Maraseni7.Stakeholders in Climate Policy Instruments: What Role for Financial Institutions?; Matthew Haigh8.Challenges for Global Health Governance in Responding to the Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health;Jeff Gow9.Climate Change and Sustainable Water Management; Jamie Pittock10.Food Security, Food Sovereignty, and Global Governance Regimes in the Context of Climate Change and FoodAvailability; Nick Rose11. Innovation and Global to Local Energy Governance; Guilherme B. R. Lambais & Guilherme Gonçalves12.Climate Change, Population Movements and Governance: Case Studies in Response Mechanisms;Richard Hil13.Migration and climate change: global governance regimes and the incorporation of climate changeDisplacement; Andrea C. Berringer14.The ICLEI Cities for Climate Protection Program: Local Government Networks in Urban Climate Governance;Heather Zeppel15.The Influence of Non-State Actors on Corporate Climate Change Disclosure; Julie CotterConclusion; All Contributors
  13. 13. Chapter 6Evaluating the CleanDevelopment MechanismTek Marasenimaraseni@usq.edu.au13
  14. 14. Summary: Kyoto Protocol & CDMSummary: Kyoto Protocol & CDMDevelopingcountryAnnex BcountryAnnex BcountryClean development mechanismJoint implementationEmissions tradingObjectives of CDM:Help developed (Northern) countries’ emitters (companies)meet their quantified reductions obligations at lower costHelp developing (Southern) countries with technologytransfer and in achieving sustainable development
  15. 15. FindingsFindingsExponential growth of CDM (e.g. $2.6 - $32.8 billion 2005-2008), butRegional imbalance (BRIC vs. other developing countries):China and India have captured over 70% of projectinvestmentChina’s emissions since 1990 have increased by 100%India’s emissions have increased by 95%HFC- and N2O- related projects under the CDM have underminedthe sustainable development objective of the mechanism.Unilateral CDM projectsDiscourage investment andDiscourage technology transfer
  16. 16. ConclusionsConclusionsContribution to sustainable development objective isquestionableAs a whole, CDM has not contributed to emissionsreduction
  17. 17. Policy and GovernancePolicy and GovernancerecommendationsrecommendationsCDM projects mustImplement much stricter criteria for HFC- and N2O-related projectsContribute to North/South technology transfer andEnhance capacity for defining sustainabledevelopment criteriaDeveloping countries that have high numbers of CDMprojects and CERs must genuinely reduce emissionsDeveloped countries must share their burden ofresponsibility for reducing emissions
  18. 18. Chapter 7Challenges for Global HealthGovernance in Responding to theImpacts of Climate Change on HumanHealthJeff GowJeffrey.Gow@usq.edu.au18
  19. 19. Chapter Findings19• Summary of issues• Main findings• Conclusions• Policy and governance recommendations
  20. 20. Chapter 6Climate Change, PopulationMovements and Governance: CaseStudies in Response MechanismsRichard Hiljosephgora@hotmail.com20
  21. 21. Chapter Findings21• Summary of issues• Main findings• Conclusions• Policy and governance recommendations
  22. 22. Chapter 14The ICLEI Cities for Climate ProtectionProgram: Local GovernmentNetworks in Urban ClimateGovernanceHeather ZeppelHeather.Zeppel@usq.edu.au22
  23. 23. Local Government & Climate ChangeLocal authorities, municipalities, cities Agenda 21 (Sustainable Development) UN Commission on Sustainable Development UN meetings – since 2010 COP 16 climate summitLocal Government Climate Change Networks Int. Council Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI)*CCP programme, *Cities Climate Registry (2010) The Covenant of Mayors (Europe) US Mayors Climate Protection Agreement C40 Cities (Climate Leadership Group) UNEP Climate Neutral Network (19 global cities) UN Habitat ‘Cities for Climate Change Initiative’23
  24. 24. Local Government & Climate Change Corporate mitigation of GHG emissions Citizen education on GHG reduction Land use planning, building codes/standards Transportation (public/active transport) Energy infrastructure Waste services & recycling Water/wastewater utilities Sustainable/green procurement ICLEI Cities for Climate Protection Programme LG climate change policy, best practice, advocacy24
  25. 25. Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) CCP Programme established by ICLEI in 1993 Over 800 municipalities in global CCP network Measure & reduce GHG emissions, set targets 5 milestones in CCP (monitor, measure, report) Energy, water and waste reduction actions Corporate and community abatement goals CCP in Australia (1997-2009), NZ (2004-09)238 CCP councils covering 84% population CCP Partners now include 60 LGs in Aust/NZ(CCP-Adapt, CCP-Mitigate, CCP-Integrated Action)25
  26. 26. CCP Programme & GovernanceInterest Representation Dominated by large cities & ‘North’ climate agenda Corporate mitigation leads community abatement CCP resources and software (GHG calculation)Organisational Responsibility No external auditing of CCP reports, or enforcement CCP milestones/targets listed, CCP city reportsDecision-making ICLEI USA involved LG in community GHG protocol Voluntary CCP targets set by cities, no verificationImplementation CCP changed LG behaviour on GHG/climate change CCP shaped LG climate networks in USA & Europe
  27. 27. CCP & Urban Climate Governance CCP: civic environmentalism to green governance Business approach to assessing GHG emissions CCP focus on climate policy and climate actions Limited input & feedback from LG on CCP programRecommendations LG involvement in assessing reports submitted byCCP members within each country Involving LG members in ICLEI’s collaboration withother municipal/urban climate networks Supporting a diverse range of CCP members(North/South; large/small) at global climatenegotiations27
  28. 28. Chapter 15The Influence of Non-StateActors on Corporate ClimateChange DisclosureJulie CotterJulie.Cotter@usq.edu.au28
  29. 29. “You can’t manage it ifyou don’t measure it”
  30. 30. Influence of non-stateactorsNGO
  31. 31. Conclusions Average climate change disclosure score is 19,with a maximum of 51 out of 100 NGOs rather than traditional disclosureregulators and state actors have been mostinfluential in improving international climatechange disclosure Measurement protocols Disclosure frameworks GRI, CDP and CDSB have different strengthswhen evaluated against Cadman’s governanceframework
  32. 32. Governance and policyrecommendationsNGOs Work collaboratively with state actors toincrease international consistency acrossmandatory and voluntary reporting schemes Strive for continual improvement in theirstandards of governanceNational regulators Mandate a comprehensive set of climatechange disclosure requirements, preferablybased on a rigorously determined disclosureframework
  33. 33. Conclusions and Recommendations:• Greater involvement of those impacted orthreatened by climate change is essential in shapingeffective climate policy– Experience and expertise of different interests is moreimportant than their status or power• Action across the climate regime ‘complex’ remainsfragmented, and inconsistent across issue-areas– State and non-state participants should workcollaboratively across regimes– governance standards are essential to ensure consistency• The scientific consensus on the need for action in avast array of human systems (health, water, food,migration, etc.) is overwhelming– Business-as-usual is not an option.34
  34. 34. Thankyouhttp://globalclimatechangepolicy.org

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